Skip to main content

Full text of "The married life of Anne of Austria : queen of France, mother of Louis XIV"

See other formats














CHAPTER I. 1612-1617 



CHAPTER II. 1617-1625 








CHAPTER IV. 1626-1630 



CHAPTER V. 1630-1631 




CHAPTER VI. 1631-1637 







CHAPTER VIII. 1637-1639 












CHAPTER X. 1643 






ANNE OF AUSTRIA Frontispiece 

from a paintiny done immediately on her 
arrival in France 

From a paint iuy after Rubens 


From a paintiny by Rubens in the Prado 

Louis XIII 456 

From a paintiny by Vouet in the Loucre 


From a paintiny !>>/ dc Champaigne 

N.B. The above illustrations are reproduced by 
arrangement with Messrs. Braun and Co. of Paris 



ON the 18th of March, 1612, proclamation was 
made throughout Paris of the betrothal of Louis 
XIII., by the grace of God King of France and 
Navarre, with the Infanta Marie Anne Mauricette, 
daughter of Philip III., King of Spain, and of 
Marguerite of Austria ; also of Madame Elizabeth, 
eldest daughter of Henri Quatre and Marie de' 
Medici, sister of Louis XIII., with Don Philip 
Prince of the Asturias, eldest son of the Catholic 

The year 1612, from the splendid festivities 
which ensued, was termed L'ANNEE DES 

In celebration of the auspicious event of the 
marriages, a carousal was holden in the Place 
Royale during the first week in April, which was 
followed by a succession of brilliant fetes, balls 
and banquetings at the Louvre, at Fontainebleau 
and at St. Germain. The Spanish Ambassador, 
Duque de Pastrana, son of Ruy Gomez de Silva, 
Prince of Eboly, the famous favourite of Philip 
II., late King of Spain, arrived in state at the 
Louvre and saluted the youthful bride elect of the 
Prince of the Asturias, and throughout the 
festivities he gave her the honours due to the 

i A 

2 : : THE MARRIED LIFE OF [1612- 

consort of the heir of Spain. 1 The Duke de Mayenne, 
Charles de Lorraine Guise, was at the same time 
despatched to the court of Madrid to compliment 
the young Infanta in the name of his master Louis 
XIII., and to express the earnest desire of his 
Majesty to hasten her arrival in his realm. 

By the signature of these marriage contracts, 
which bound the realms of France and Spain by 
double matrimonial alliance, the Regent Marie 
de' Medici and her reactionary faction reversed 
the policy of Henri Quatre, and pardoned the 
Spanish cabinet the calamities inflicted on the 
realm by the wars of the Holy League, and 
the perfidious intrigues and machinations which 
had finally compassed the assassination of a hero 
so^Iear to France. 

/ In 1609 similar overtures for the marriage of the 
children of France and Spain had been summarily 
rejected by Henri IV. Indeed, Henry testified an 
invincible aversion for such alliance, " as being a 
step impolitic, and likely totally to alienate the 
crowns ; for, as the grandeur of France is the hu- 
miliation of Spain, no concord is possible. France 
can never forgive the woes and political calamities 
inflicted during the past half century by the 
government of Spain." 2 The allies towards whom 
Henry inclined were the King of England, the 
German Protestant Princes and the Dutch Re- 
public. The secret aim of his policy was to humble 
the haughty princes of Hapsburg ; to break the 
Spanish yoke from the neck of Europe ; to curtail 
the dominions of Austria, by exciting to revolt and 


freedom her tributary kingdoms of Hungary and 
Bohemia ; and by maintaining the rights of the 
Electors of the Germanic Empire to choose and 
proclaim their Imperial Chief. Marie de' Medici, 
however, brought up in abject veneration for the 
Spanish monarchy, and actuated by intense dis- 
trust of the ministers and friends of her deceased 
husband, adopted, on her accession to the regency, 
a totally different policy. The vast preparations 
and edicts of Henri IV. for the campaign which his 
death interrupted, were cancelled. The alliance of 
England was for the moment abandoned ; Sully 
was disgraced ; Concini was created Marquis 
d'Ancre, and elevated to a place in the council ; 
while the Holy See received assurances of the de- 
votion of the Queen, and of her submission to the 
counsels and interest of his Holiness. These 
measures were followed by civil disaffection ; the 
Prince de Conde, the Duke de Bouillon, the Con- 
stable de Montmorency and the Duke de Nevers 
retired from court and intrenched themselves 
within their respective governments. " France," 
said they, " is now governed in Turkish fashion 
by that scoundrel and traitor the Florentine Con- 
cini, who sells by auction the honours of the 
realm, and dares to set his plebeian foot on the 
necks of the chivalrous captains of Henri Quatre." 
Duplessis Mornay, " the pope of the Calvinists," 
deemed this an opportunity not to be neglected : 
the Huguenot fortresses therefore soon bristled 
with arms, and Mornay, exulting already in 
the hope of success, defied the menaces of the 


Regent, and the more conciliatory overtures of his 
old adversary the secretary of state, Villeroy. The 
government of Queen Marie thus became isolated, 
and found support only from the Duke d'Epernon, 3 
from Soissons, and other antagonists of the late 
minister Sully, who, for power at court, were 
content to connive at the assumptions of Concini. 
At issue with the princes of the blood and the 
more potent of the great vassals of the crown, 
with the Huguenots of the realm, and with the 
Protestant princes of Europe the only policy 
which the Regent and her clique could oppose to 
combinations so hostile, was alliance offensive and 
defensive with Spain. The Grand-Duke of Tus- 
cany, 4 uncle of the Queen, undertook to make the 
first overtures to obtain the renewal of the ancient 
alliance of the crowns. The Duke of Lerma, 5 
prime minister of Philip III., graciously responded 
to the advance, and a few months later the 
double alliance between the children of France 
and Spain was proposed and accepted. 

The Infanta Marie Anne Ma uricette was born in 
the Escorial on the 22nd of September, 1601, five 
days before her future consort, Louis XIII. The 
Condesa de Altamira was her governess, and had 
trained her in habits of piety and in courtly de- 
voirs. Anne was a fair and bonny child, the darling 
of the ceremonioas court of Madrid, and of her 
father and her gentle mother, Marguerite. 6 She 
seems never to have been consigned to the dreary 
monotony of a royal nursery establishment, but 
appears to have always followed the queen her 


mother. At the masques and court revels, the 
dainty little Infanta often appeared en scene, 
drawn by two diminutive ponies in a golden car ; 
or upborne, by tiny nymphs of her own age, in a 
mimic conch-shell. Anne early lost her virtuous 
mother, who died at Valladolid, after giving birth 
to a third daughter, the infanta Marguerite 
a fatal event, preceded, as it was said, by the 
booming of the mystic Bell of Villela, 7 which was 
heard throughout the peninsula. Anne was eleven 
years old when she was betrothed to Louis XIII., 
and thus became the heroine of the splendid am- 
bassage of the Duke de Mayenne. The Duke was 
received with enthusiasm by the Spanish court, 
which, perhaps, remembered that his father and 
his uncle Henri, Duke de Guise, had proved them- 
selves to be better subjects of Spain than loyal 
to their own princes. On the 17th of July, 1612, 
Mayenne was presented to Philip III. by the Duke 
d'Uzeda. His Majesty, by a great stretch of con- 
descension, embraced the ambassador cordially, 
and presented to him the Prince of the Asturias, 
who stood at his right, as the future husband of 
Madame Isabel of France. The marriage contract, 
which had been negotiated in Paris, was signed on 
the 22nd day of August, after final revision by the 
Spanish privy council. Philip gave his daughter 
a dowry of 500,000 gold crowns, with many sumpt- 
uous jewels. The money was to be paid to the 
representative of his Christian Majesty, on the day 
previous to the celebration of the marriage. In 
case the most serene Infanta became a widow, it 


was stipulated that she was to return to Spain in 
possession of her dowry, jewels and wardrobe. 
The dower given by Louis XIII. was similar to 
that assigned from time immemorial to the queens- 
consort of France, and consisted of rich lands in 
Touraine and Le Pays Chartrain ; the King also 
made gift absolutely to his future consort of all the 
jewels and precious gauds and furniture which 
she might accumulate during their union. 8 The 
pecuniary settlements being thus made to the 
satisfaction of King Philip, the Infanta was 
saluted and treated as Queen of France, " a dig- 
nity which her Highness accepts with marvellous 
dignity and gravity." When Mayenne took leave 
of her little Majesty, he requested that she would 
send some message to the King, her consort. 
" Give his Majesty assurance," promptly replied 
Dona Ana, " that I am very impatient to be with 
him." " Oh, Madame ! " interposed the Condesa 
de Altamira, " what will the King of France think 
when he is informed by M. le Due that you are in 
such a hurry to be married ? Madame, I entreat 
you show more maidenly reserve ! ' ! " Have you 
not always taught me to speak the truth, Ma- 
dame ? I have spoken, and shall not retract," 
retorted the young Queen, pettishly. 9 She then 
gave the ambassador her hand to kiss, slowly 
tendering it, as the Duke believed, that he might 
observe and report its symmetry and delicate hue. 
Three months previously, on the same day of 
the month, Pastrana had saluted Elizabeth, the 
child-bride of the Prince of the Asturias, in the 


Louvre. Madame Elizabeth wore a surcoat and 
robe of carnation-coloured satin, a cross of dia- 
monds and a chain of pearls. " M. PAmbassa- 
deur," said she, as Pastrana bowed before her, " I 
thank the King your master for the honour which 
he has conferred upon me in giving me his favour, 
and I receive gladly from M. le Prince assurances 
of his affection. I trust to render myself worthy 
of both the one and the other, as I ought." 10 

The bridegroom elect of Dona Ana, meantime, 
Louis, son of the great Henry, spent a wearisome 
youth in the Louvre, with few diversions and joys. 
The unhappy and premature death of Henri IV. 
not only exercised a fatal influence over the 
political destinies of France, but deprived his 
young son of judicious and princely training. 
The miserable jealousies of the favourites and ad- 
visers of Marie de' Medici, likewise, had debarred 
the boy-king of the example and the counsels of 
his father's tried and wise friends. Instead of 
being inured to arms, and trained in gallant ac- 
complishments, and taught the self-denial and 
magnanimity becoming his kingly station, the 
unfortunate Louis was confined to a corner of the 
Louvre, the object at one time of his mother's in- 
dulgent weakness, at others the victim of her 
caprice and passion. The young king was of a 
reserved and suspicious temper, sensitive to the 
slightest ridicule or neglect, having a memory re- 
tentive of petty affronts. His household was not 
selected with a view to correct the nervous shy- 
ness and overbearing pride of his character. The 


fears of the Queen, and the ignoble precaution of 
her servants the Marquis d'Ancre and his wife, in- 
duced her Majesty to choose young companions 
for her son of a class inferior to the usual entourage 
of princes. Such noble names as Rohan, Guise, 
Montmorency, Bouillon and La Rochefoucault 
were never heard amongst the playmates of Louis 
XIII. His chief friends were the three brothers 
de Luynes, 11 sons of a gentleman of Provence, of 
the town of Mornas, whose future marvellous 
fortunes rank amongst the most notable instances 
on record of dignities conferred by royal caprice. 
Louis, nevertheless, showed aptitude for many 
boyish pastimes : he played well at tennis, showed 
keen relish for the pleasures of the chase, which, 
unfortunately, he was allowed only to indulge by 
hunting rabbits in the garden of the Tuileries. He 
passionately loved music, and learned to play on 
the spinet and guitar. He also amused himself 
by turning ivory, by drawing and colouring little 
pictures, and by snaring singing-birds. His 
Majesty's physician, Jean Herouard, who was con- 
stantly in waiting in the royal apartment, kept a 
curious diary of the doings and sayings and em- 
ployments of his royal master, so minute as to 
become ludicrous when the learned doctor con- 
descended to chronicle the names of the viands 
served daily on the royal table, and the number 
of times his Majesty coughed and sneezed during 
the twenty-four hours ! The boyhood of Louis 
XIII., however, is unveiled by these daily jot- 
tings, and the mystery solved why the son of 


Henri IV. grew up to become the most timid, 
miserable, suspicious and self-distrusting mon- 
arch who ever filled a throne, though possessing 
capacity and some appreciation for things good, 
noble and true. Herouard writes : 12 

" Monday, March 10, 1614. His Majesty this 
morning amused himself by composing doggrel 
verses, and gave some to make out to MM. de 
Termes, de Courtenvault, and de Montglat. A 
young wild sow was fed in the royal kitchen by 
Bonnet, a water-carrier, who was killed by a fall. 
The little sow lamented and fretted for her master, 
and at length refused to eat and died of grief. 
The King thereupon composed the following 
verse : 

"II y avait en ma cuisine 
Une petite marcassine 
Laquelle est morte de douleur 
D'avoir perdu son gouverneur ! " 

" Thursday, 20th. The King played at tennis, 
and then went to the room of Sieur de la Chapelle, 
his spinet-player. 

" March 28th, Good Friday. Heard a sermon at 
two o'clock ; after dinner his Majesty entere'd his 
coach, and visited the Franciscan and Feuillan- 
tine monasteries. He then went to the Tuileries, 
where he tasted a bunch of white grapes. He 
returned to the Louvre at a quarter to seven 
and supped upon almond milk and milk gruel, 
eating the backs of two large soles. His Majesty 
said, ' I eat this fish because there is nothing 

" June 4th. His Majesty dined at Ruel. At 


midday the King rode on horseback, and shot, 
with an arquebuse, a quantity of little birds. He 
then went to a joiner's, and made two little shrines 
of his own design, in which he suspended all the 
little birds. 

" November I4*th, Friday. His Majesty com- 
menced the day by study. As his lesson appeared 
to him long and difficult, he asked his preceptor, 
M. Fleurance, 4 If I were to promise you a 
bishopric, pray would you shorten my lesson ? ' 
4 No, Sire,' Soon after M. de Bellegarde arrived. 
His Majesty gave him cordial welcome and 
conducted him to the Queen. 

44 November 20th. After supper his Majesty 
went to bed at nine o'clock. At eleven he sud- 
denly rose on his knees, with eyes wide open, and, 
though asleep, called out loudly, ' He ! jouez ! 
jouez ! ' The day preceding he had been playing 
at billiards in the gallery of the Louvre, and 
afterwards at tennis. 

44 December 22nd. His Majesty went to hunt 13 
on the plain of St. Denis ; he was suffering from 
toothache, but would not confess it for fear of 
losing his hunt. On his return his Majesty com- 
plained of ear-ache, and a plaster of ashes of 
palm-leaves and vinegar was applied behind the 
ear. The inside of the mouth was fomented with 
a decoction of vinegar and rose-leaves, after which 
the pain subsided. 

44 December 31s/, Wednesday. The King con- 
fessed in the evening to le P. Cotton, his confessor 
and preacher in ordinary, in order to touch, on the 


Feast of the Circumcision, 330 sick in the great 
gallery of the Louvre." 

The greater part of this Journal is still in manu- 
script. The zealous Herouard continues, in 
similar fashion, to recite the smallest trivialities 
of the life of his royal master, with a minuteness 
which defies transcription. The extract given 
records some of the incidents of the daily life of 
Anne's royal bridegroom the year before the 
solemnization of their nuptials. 

This event took place in August of the following 
year, 1615. The courts of France and Spain put 
forth their utmost splendour to do honour to an 
occasion so august. The Duchess de Nevers, 
Catherine de Lorraine, and the Duke de Guise, es- 
corted Madame to Bordeaux and from thence to 
St. Jean de Luz, where, on the banks of the Bi- 
dassoa, the brides were to meet the ambassadors 
appointed to attend and present them to their 
future consorts. The King and the Queen Regent 
arrived at Bordeaux, and entered the city in a 
splendid barge, surrounded by a brilliant court, 
amidst the plaudits of the populace. 14 Their pro- 
gress, however, had been dreary and perilous ; the 
devastation of civil warfare had ruined the fertile 
south-western provinces, and the sight of the 
poverty-stricken inhabitants and of their burned 
villages was a sad and ominous spectacle for the 
eyes of the royal bridegroom. The King's progress 
was protected by the Marshal de Brissac and a 
division of artillery, for many strongholds of 
the Huguenots lay on the route between Paris and 


Bordeaux, and the joyous and brilliant cavaliers 
of Marie's court shrank from conflict with the 
rough bands of Saumur and La Rochelle, likely to 
oppose their advance. In the royal train were 
the Princesses de Conde 16 and Conty, 18 the 
Duchesses de Guise, 17 de Vendome 18 and de Mont- 
bazon. Madame entered Bordeaux on the 17th 
of November, and their Majesties three days later, 
where they eagerly awaited the arrival of King 
Philip III. and his court at Fuentarabia. 

About the beginning of November, 1615, King 
Philip, accompanied by his daughter and by a 
swarm of courtiers, leisurely journeyed from Val- 
ladolid to Burgos, and took up his abode in the 
famed nunnery of Las Huelgas de Burgos. The 
marriage by proxy of King Louis and the Infanta 
was celebrated in the splendid cathedral of Burgos 
on the 18th of the same month, the representa- 
tive of his Christian Majesty being the Duke of 
Lerma. Two days before this solemnity, Anne 
made formal renunciation of her right of succes- 
sion to the Spanish crown and of the rich per- 
sonality and money of her deceased mother, Queen 
Marguerite of Austria. " I, Dona Ana, Infanta 
of Spain, and, by the grace of God, Queen elect of 
France, being above the age of fifteen and there- 
fore of competent years to understand the tenor 
and significance of the above articles declare, 
that I hold myself content with the dowry as- 
signed to me, which is larger than any other before 
given to an Infanta of Spain. To give greater 
weight to this my renunciation, I swear, with my 


right hand resting on the Holy Gospels contained 
in this missal by my side, to abide by the said re- 
nunciation, which I sign in the presence of my 
lord and father and of my brothers who have 
been pleased to assist at this solemnity." 19 

King Louis, meantime, despatched his favourite, 
Luynes, from Bordeaux to Burgos, to greet his 
consort and to convey to her a letter. 20 The 
mission of this young cavalier first aroused the 
courtiers to the extraordinary favour with which 
he was regarded by the King. Luynes and his 
brothers Cadenet and Brantes were remarkable 
for their good looks and upright carriage, but 
they owed much of their prestige at court to their 
cool assurance and their insensibility to the scorn- 
ful contempt with which they were often treated 
by the great lords of the court and to the gibes 
current respecting their origin. Luynes bowed at 
the feet of Marie de' Medici and of Concini, and 
humbly received their 'constant objurgations, 
while the King felt a grateful relief from restraint 
and shyness in the society of his parvenu favour- 
ite. It was said at court that at this period 
Luynes, Cadenet and Brantes had only one 
court-habit amongst them and that the Auver- 
gnat brothers owed their favour to their skill in 
snaring magpies ! 21 M. de Luynes nevertheless 
was welcomed at the proud Spanish court ; he 
was caressed by King Philip, patronised by Lerma 
and graciously received by his future royal mis- 
tress. Luynes presented the royal letter to her 
youthful Majesty enclosed in a portfolio of rose- 


coloured silk, embroidered in pearls with the 
ciphers L. and A. " Madame," wrote King Louis 
XIIL, " it is not in my power, though my inclina- 
tion prompts me, to receive you on your entry into 
my kingdom, to place in your hands my royal 
power, as I am inspired to do by the sincere affec- 
tion which I bear you. I send to you, therefore, 
Luynes, one of my most trusted servants, to salute 
you in my name, and to assure you how eagerly 
you are here expected and that I earnestly desire 
to tell you so myself. I beg you, therefore, to 
receive with favour this said Luynes, and to 
believe all that he may say on behalf of your 
dearest friend and servant Louis." 

The young Queen smiled while perusing this 
note ; destiny then doubtless appeared to her 
brilliant as fancy could suggest, and with child- 
like eagerness she dwelt on the pomps, the festi- 
vals and the magnificences over which she had 
been selected to preside. Had the dark shadows 
which marred these splendours been even outlined 
in imagination, sad foreboding must have 
quenched her delight. The future, however, now 
appeared serene and halcyon. Anne therefore 
responded thus, in her own musical language, to 
the greeting so gallantly conveyed : 


" MONSEIGNEUR, I have rejoiced much with 
Luynes on the good news which he has brought to 
me concerning the health of your Majesty, and 
the desire which you express to see me. I also 


wish myself there, where I can serve the Queen 
my mother and yourself. Luynes has made me 
anxious to set out on my journey from the com- 
forting assurances which he gives me. I kiss the 
hand of your Majesty, whom may God preserve 
as I pray. ANA." 22 

The Queen sent her lord a present of a superb 
rosary, also what doubtless would be less wel- 
come a list of the ladies of her Spanish house- 
hold whom she wished might be permitted to 
continue their services in the Louvre. The Con- 
desa de las Torres, Dona Luisa de Osorio and 
Dona Marguerita de Cordova were the chief per- 
sonages named on this list. Her confessor, Padre 
Francisco de Ribeyra, and her chaplain, Pedro de 
Castro, were likewise to form part of her Majesty's 
suite. Marie de' Medici acquiesced in these im- 
politic appointments. The King was thoughtless 
and enjoyed his temporary emancipation from the 
monotony of the Louvre. Luynes and Concini 
were parvenu favourites men who, at this period, 
being both uncertain of their position at court 
would have retreated aghast at a proposal to 
thwart the wishes of the Catholic King. 

Magnificent pavilions had been erected on the 
islet in the midst of the stream Bidassoa for the 
repose of the two Princesses, and to enable them 
to receive a last finish to their elaborate toilettes 
before entering the state-barge which was to con- 
vey each to her newly adopted country. The 
banks of the river were kept by squadrons of light 


horse and by the royal body-guard, consisting of 
more than 500 men, under the command of the 
Marshal de Brissac. Companies of the King's 
gentlemen-at-arms, bearing their battle-axes, were 
stationed at intervals, while thousands of specta- 
tors gathered to witness the meeting of the courts. 
The scene was imposing and magnificent, and 
was surpassed only by the pompous reception 
given on the banks of the Bidassoa to Elizabeth 
de Valois by her mother, Catherine de' Medici, 
and by her brother Charles IX. Along the banks 
of the river, below the place of embarkation, mag- 
nificent pavilions and platforms rose, draped with 
white and yellow silk hangings, for the ladies of 
the courts of France and Spain not officially 
present at the ceremony. Anne quitted Burgos 
November the 20th, and after taking sorrowful 
leave of her father, commenced her journey to- 
wards Irun. She was attended by the Duquesa 
de Sessa, who had been especially appointed to 
present her to the ambassador of her royal 
husband Louis XIII., and to conduct the young 
Princess of France to Guadalaxara. In the suite 
of the young Queen were the Duque de Uzeda, son 
of the cardinal minister Lerma, the Dukes de 
Sessa, Maqueda, Infantado, the Count de Olivarez 
and the Marquis de Monteleone, the newly ap- 
pointed Spanish ambassador in Paris, besides a 
numerous suite of ladies, including those who were 
to follow her Majesty into France. Anne's journey 
was tedious and fatiguing ; the roads were broken 
by heavy rains, and horses could with difficulty 


be found for the transport of the prodigious caval- 
cade of baggage waggons containing her Majesty's 
bridal outfit and rich effects. The baggage filled 
a hundred chariots, each drawn by three horses ; 
there were, moreover, two hundred sumpter mules 
laden with velvet coffers richly emblazoned with 
the arms of Spain. The passage of this convoy 
through the streets of Bordeaux occupied nine 
hours, to the wonderment and amusement of the 
loyal Bordelais. 

Anne passed the night of the 23rd of Novem- 
ber in the citadel of Irun. At dawn on the 
morrow the baggage crossed the Bidassoa, and 
at mid- day a muster of the Spanish court was 
made, and the cavaliers and ladies descended 
from the rocky heights of Irun to the bank of 
the river. At one o'clock the young Princess- 
elect of the Asturias arrived, attended by the 
Duchess de Nevers and the Dukes de Guise, 
d'Elbreuf and de Grammont, and the Prince de 
Joinville. Amid loud acclamations and dis- 
charges of artillery the Princess stepped into the 
barge, and was rowed to the landing-place on File 
des Faisans and immediately entered a pavilion 
surmounted by the white flag of Bourbon. Queen 
Anne simultaneously stepped into her barge from 
the opposite bank of the river and likewise landed 
and entered a pavilion crowned by the yellow flag 
of Spain. The French nobles presently craved 
audience of her Majesty, while the Spanish 
courtiers paid the same devoirs to Madame Eliza- 
beth. The Duchess de Nevers and the Duke de 


Guise presented the French nobles of the suite to 
the Queen, f Her youthful Majesty sat on a chair 
of state, attired in a robe of green satin em- 
broidered with gold, having wide and pendent 
sleeves looped up with bouquets of diamonds. A 
small ruff of fine Flemish lace encircled Anne's 
delicate neck. Her fair hair fell in ringlets, and 
she wore a small coquettish hat of green satin, 
looped with strings of pearls and adorned by a 
heron's plume. A fresh and blooming face 
greeted the eyes of the fastidious courtiers, and 
a complexion of dazzling brilliancy said to be un- 
rivalled in Europe. The Queen's eyes were blue 
and piercing, her brows were arched, her figure 
was petite and graceful though somewhat spoiled 
by an enormous pannier. Behind the Queen stood 
the Duchess de Sessa, the Condesa de las Torres 
and the chief hidalgos of her suite. The maidens 
and women of the bedchamber formed a half 
circle on each side of the royal chair, sitting in 
Moorish fashion on velvet cushions and flirting 
their fans. The ceremony of salutation per- 
formed, her Majesty rose and quitted the pavilion. 
Madame Elizabeth did the same, and the Prin- 
cesses exchanging a cordial kiss, moved slightly 
apart and conversed, while their attendants de- 
livered to each other the long speeches prepared 
for the occasion. These over, the Duque de Uzeda 
approached Queen Anne, and kneeling, kissed her 
hand, which he placed in that of the Duke de 
Guise, who led her to the boat adorned by the 
French flag. Guise then repeated this ceremonial, 


and delivered Madame Elizabeth to the Duque de 
Uzeda. The Duchess de Nevers then took her 
place behind Queen Anne, and the Duchess de 
Sessa behind the young Princess of the Asturias, 
who could not refrain from weeping bitterly, in 
defiance of etiquette, on taking leave of her 
French suite. The barges then pushed ofl amid 
a discharge of artillery and the cheers of the 
spectators. 23 

Her Majesty reposed that night in the citadel 
of Bayonne, and early the following morning she 
departed for Bordeaux, where Louis anxiously 
awaited her. The royal residence in Bordeaux was 
the archiepiscopal palace. Anne was received in 
the great hall of the palace by the Queen Regent, 
attended by a numerous court. Marie embraced 
her daughter-in-law, and after conversing for a 
few seconds led Anne into an inner apartment, 
where Louis XIII. waited attended by de Luynes. 
Louis wore the mantle of his Order; his sword 
was girt at his side and the rich collar of St. 
Esprit glittered on his breast. The King eagerly 
stepped forward and, taking the hand of his bride, 
saluted her on the forehead. " Every one was 
amazed at the striking likeness subsisting between 
the royal pair. His Majesty frequently looked at 
his bride smiling, while her Majesty, notwith- 
standing that she seemed much oppressed with 
the weight and amplitude of her attire, could not 
help smiling very lovingly also." 24 Louis con- 
tinued to stand awkwardly gazing on the fair face 
of his bride, until, at a sign from Queen Marie, he 


timidly took her hand and led her into the 
sheltering recess of a deep window, where the 
youthful pair conversed for upwards of half an 
hour, being presently joined by de Luynes. Anne 
next went through the ceremony of receiving the 
ladies of the French court, who were presented by 
the Duchess de Nevers ; her Majesty then intro- 
duced her Spanish ladies to the King, and 
earnestly commended them to his favour. Louis, 
however, received their homage with frowning 
reserve, and turning to M. de Luynes whispered 
some sneering observation on the stately salutation 
of the Condesa de las Torres, which appeared to 
convulse the favourite with suppressed laughter. 

The ceremony of the marriage was performed in 
the cathedral of Bordeaux on the Feast of St. 
Catherine. The Princess de Conty and the 
Duchesses de Guise and de Vendome bore the train 
of Anne's bridal robe of cloth of silver. The 
Queen wore a rich diadem of diamonds, the gift of 
her royal father ; her hair was dressed a la Fran- 
gaise, and the spectators applauded her girlish 
grace as she daintily rested on the arm of the 
Duke de Guise, who, with the Duke d'Elbreuf, 
escorted her to the altar. The Regent was 
present at the ceremony, arrayed in mourning 
robes. The nuptial benediction was given by the 
Bishop of Saintes, as eldest suffragan bishop of the 
diocese, in the absence of the Cardinal Archbishop 
of Bordeaux. The royal pair left the cathedral 
at six in the evening^ and were escorted to their 
abode by torchlight. 



The court quitted Bordeaux about the 29th of 
November and travelled to Tours, where their 
Majesties spent the winter months in seclusion. 
During this interval the treaty of Loudun was 
signed by the Regent an act which was im- 
portant in every aspect, as it outwardly recon- 
ciled the de facto government with the ministers 
and adherents of the policy of Henri Quatre. The 
treaty checked the almost boundless power of the 
Marquis d'Ancre by bringing back to the Louvre 
the great peers of the realm ; it conciliated the 
Huguenot faction, and allayed the frantic ap- 
prehensions raised by the matrimonial alliances 
with Spain. The treaty was warmly promoted 
by M. de Luynes, who from thenceforth ventured 
to wrestle against the hitherto omnipotent in- 
fluence of the Marquis d'Ancre and his wife. To 
Marie de' Medici the pacification was also wel- 
come, although Conde became installed thereby 
as President of the Council of State. She trusted 
by this compact to find an antidote to Spanish 
ascendency in her domestic circle, and to the in- 
fluence exercised over her royal son by the charms 
of his bride. The King on the whole was satisfied, 
as his favourite declared himself content, though 
piqued that peace had been negotiated and signed 
without his own intervention. By the articles of 
Loudun the Huguenot faith once more received 
distinct recognition from government, and Hu- 
guenot members were declared eligible to sit in the 
Parliament of Paris. No foreigner was from 
thenceforth to be naturalised in France with a 


view to his instalment in offices of state ; Conde 
was to preside over and to countersign the Privy 
Council edicts ; and all fiefs and properties con- 
fiscated for past rebellion were to be restored to 
their former possessors. The Marquis d'Ancre 
relinquished his government of Normandy to M. 
de Longueville, and ceded the citadel of Amiens. 
Measures so popular were nevertheless distasteful 
to the young Queen, who was injudiciously 
exhorted by the Spanish ambassador, the Marquis 
de Monteleone, to exert her influence in opposition 
to Queen Marie and to M. de Luynes to procure 
their withdrawal. The position of the Infanta- 
queen, as Anne at this period was called, required 
prudence, the nicest counsel and exquisite tact. 
A child still in age, mind and manner, the young 
Queen ought to have been exhorted to avoid 
politics, and to shrink from participation in that 
wild and complex struggle of parties which be- 
wildered the strongest intellects. It was, how- 
ever, the unhappy persuasion of the Queen that 
her mission was to revolutionise the policy of her 
adopted country ; to introduce by force or by 
persuasion Spanish maxims, Spanish habits and 
Spanish policy emphatically to serve her country 
by upholding the policy, the religion and the dy- 
nasty of Spain against all assailants. Thoroughly 
imbued with the maxims and the instructions 
showered upon her by her father, King Philip, and 
by her brothers before leaving Spain, Anne de- 
voted herself, as far as her ability permitted, to 
carry out the advice secretly tendered to her 


by Monteleone, who had at this period free 
access to the palace. 25 Anne had been advised 
to flatter the Queen- mother ; to conciliate the 
Marquis d'Ancre and his wife ; to despise M. de 
Luynes ; to win her husband the King by tender 
submission and grace ; but yet to show herself 
of inflexible resolve in all matters wherein the 
honour and interest of Spain were concerned. 
Thus, although she was exhorted to fidelity and 
secrecy whenever state matters were imparted to 
her ear, her Majesty was desired to make excep- 
tion to this rule in favour of Monteleone, 26 to whom 
she was to confide all matters, even of the most 
private and domestic nature. Anne, therefore, 
soon became a puppet in the hands of Monteleone, 
while she fancied that she was fulfilling her duties 
as Queen consort and asserting her indepen- 
dence, by her submission to counsels sanctioned 
by her royal father. The withering glance of 
Marie de' Medici, however, rested on her young 
daughter-in-law, whose girlish presumption she 
resolved to chastise. More fatal, however, for the 
happiness of Anne of Austria, was the enmity of 
de Luynes ; the favourite angrily resented the 
contempt of his young mistress and loathed her 
condescensions. The mind of Louis XIII. must 
therefore be fortified against Anne's fascinations ; 
the more especially as the assiduous court paid by 
the Spanish ambassador to the Marquis d'Ancre 
appeared to indicate the willingness of his 
Catholic Majesty to favour the usurping rule of 
Concini. The King spent his days in listless 


discontent, lounging about the apartments of his 
consort, and associating her in many of his boyish 
pastimes. Sometimes in petulant disgust at her 
Spanish entourage, Louis suddenly left her apart- 
ments and took refuge within his own, vowing 
never again to visit the Queen until her grim 
duennas were banished from the palace. 

Early in the year following her marriage, Anne 
had taken possession of apartments at the 
Louvre, while the Regent retired to the Luxem- 
bourg, a palace which owed its noble embellish- 
ments to her taste and munificence. " The 
household of our young Queen," wrote Montele- 
one, " is not yet named. Her apartments at the 
Louvre are suitable to her Majesty's dignity. The 
Countesses de Castro and de Torres (the latter is 
an angel, whose merits defy laudation), are lodged 
near to their mistress. The Infanta-queen is daily 
received with cordial delight by her subjects." 27 
Notwithstanding the splendour of her outward 
position, Anne's affection reverted to Spain, to its 
peaceful palaces, reverent court, sunny climate, 
but, above all, she pined for the lively sympathy 
which there surrounded her. " Tell my father," 
writes she at this period, " that nothing but 
my beloved Spain can solace me." Amongst 
the grievances complained of by Anne to her 
father was the diversity of counsel given by 
her French and Spanish advisers. Marie de' 
Medici, through Madame d'Ancre, sent word to 
her daughter commanding her to conform to 
French fashions in her dress, to sprinkle her fair 


hair with powder, and to lay aside her enormous 
hoop ; also her Majesty intimated that the 
French loved gay and sprightly women, apt of 
speech, and agile in the dance, and that no de- 
meanour so offended them as solemn hauteur and 
distant formality. Anne, therefore, only too 
readily arrayed herself in the most bewitching 
modes a la Francaise ; and, yielding to the vi- 
vacity of her character, charmed the courtiers by 
her sallies and by her eager participation in the 
pastimes of the court. The next mail that left for 
Madrid carried out a joint despatch from Madame 
de las Torres and from the ambassador, Montele- 
one, deploring the volatile disposition of their 
child-mistress, who revelled in her French 
fripperies and appeared to love that costume 
better than the decorous robes patronised in the 
land of her birth. The ambassador next com- 
ments on the quarrels of the royal pair, " who 
often disputed, like froward children, over their 
pastimes." He then proceeds to censure the un- 
due influence exercised by Marie de' Medici over 
the King, especially complaining that the Queen- 
mother and M. de Luynes prevented his Majesty 
from demonstrating proper conjugal devotion to- 
wards his consort, by inspiring chimerical fears of 
the danger which might be apprehended from the 
birth of offspring at a period when his Majesty 
himself had scarcely attained to manhood. " It is 
a grievous fact that their Majesties live together 
as brother and sister," continues Monteleone. 
He then querulously continues to complain of 


" Cette Anne si belle, 
Qu'on vante si fort." 

" The Infanta-queen continues in good health ; 
it is very much to be desired, to render this 
Majesty all perfection, that we could correct 
certain irregularities of character, though every 
one ascribes her Majesty's unfortunate flightiness 
of manner to her youth. Her Majesty never 
speaks without jesting like a child ; we cannot in- 
duce her to apply herself to serious matters ; she 
forgets all counsels and instruction with incredible 
facility ; and her petulance is such that we have 
neither leisure nor courage to interfere. I must 
add that although we give continual attention to 
correct these defects, and to induce this young 
Queen to adopt manners more worthy of her 
descent and position, we are very careful not to 
disgust or alienate her. We have now arranged 
that her Majesty's confessor shall visit and con- 
verse with her daily on matters private and 
domestic, but I dread the weariness and im- 
patience which these interviews will finally, but 
too surely, inspire." 28 A fete occasionally en- 
livened the dull monotony of the court. The 
King gave a superb masked ball at the Louvre 
in the year 1616, during which their Majesties 
danced together. Anne performed a saraband 
with her royal consort, and was arrayed in great 

The burdened spirit of Marie de' Medici, how- 
ever, found little pleasure in the pageantries which 
charmed her daughter-in-law. Marie beheld her 


precious but much abused power passing away ; 
and deep dejection oppressed her. The Pacifica- 
tion of Loudun had brought little intermission to 
her anxieties. Before the signature of that com- 
pact she had wrestled with the malcontents in 
distant provinces ; now, all the old ministers of 
Henri Quatre, the Huguenot chieftains, the great 
lords of the realm who had abandoned Paris 
rather than bow before the parvenu Concini, 29 
swarmed in the saloons of the Louvre and 
clamoured that every privilege granted at Loudun 
should be conceded. Conde tyrannised over the 
council, defied the commands of their Majesties, 
and had compelled Concini, after despoiling him 
of his most prized governments, to retire from 
Paris, to the grief and consternation of Queen 
Marie and the downfall of her authority. Louis 
apparently beheld these discords with composure, 
though in reality he was profoundly displeased. 
The Spanish ambassador, M. de Luynes and the 
Papal Nuncio, directed the King's attention to the 
league forming between MM. de Guise, de Buillon, 
de Vendome and de Mayenne, under the banner 
of Conde to curtail the royal power, the which 
conspiracy had its origin alone in their jealousy of 
Concini. Marie, goaded to extremity, sought to 
extricate herself by commanding the arrest of 
Conde ; which great event was effected by M. de 
Themines in the Louvre, as the Prince quitted her 
Majesty's presence. 30 Orders were then issued for 
the arrest of the colleagues of M. le Prince ; but 
MM. de Vendome and de Mayenne, on the first 


symptoms of agitation, fled from Paris ; while 
Bouillon received timely warning of the event at 
Charenton and escaped to Soissons. Riots ensued 
in Paris on the arrest of Conde ; the windows 
of the Hotel Concini were smashed, and a tur- 
bulent rabble assaulted the Queen's palace of the 
Luxembourg, and forcing an entrance therein, 
burned and destroyed rich furniture to the value 
of 200,000 crowns. A council of war was hastily 
formed, and measures adopted to subdue the re- 
bellion of the fugitive princes, and to arrest their 
persons. Conde was transferred to the Bastille by 
Themines and Bassompierre, 31 the former of whom 
received the baton of Marshal for his services on 
this occasion. 

The young Queen, meantime, applauded the 
resolution of the Regent, and during the tumult 
following the arrest of Conde, remained calm and 
composed and joyous, " as if, Sire, she had been 
seated within your palace of Madrid ! J: By the 
overthrow of Conde Anne fancied that she des- 
cried redemption for her Spanish ladies from 
heretic threats, and the repression of the insolent 
assumptions of de Luynes. Marie herself was not, 
however, deceived by the success of her hazardous 
experiment. The sombre silence of her son, and 
the half-satirical earnestness of his refusals to 
assume the conduct of affairs, which she had on 
more than one occasion proposed to relinquish, 
filled her mind with foreboding. France trembled 
on the verge of a civil war ; names potent in the 
provinces, such as Longueville, Nevers, Guise, 


Mayenne, Vendome, Bouillon, La Rochefoucault, 
Soissons, had raised the standard of revolt against 
a government guided by Concini, the Florentine 
gambler. 32 The Huguenots flew to arms for the 
rescue of Conde; Sully, Villeroy, Bellievre, Du- 
plessis-Mornay, Rohan, Lesdiguieres, inscribed 
their honoured names at the foot of manifestoes 
calling upon the people to save the monarchy and 
the King. Paris had risen to avenge the " per- 
fidious " arrest of Conde, the hero of the hour ; 
and the Chamber beheld many of its members 
dissolve in tears, as eloquent orators descanted on 
the woes which afflicted the realm under the ad- 
ministration of the widow of Henri Quatre. Never 
had an ambitious and artful favourite a more 
plausible and popular ground for the overthrow 
of an adversary. 

The King, meantime, on his return from St. 
Germain, was seized with a fit of epilepsy on All 
Saints' Day, 1616. The Regent was performing 
her devotions in the chapel of Feuillantine monas- 
tery, when summoned in haste back to the Louvre. 
Concini and his wife, during the panic, got posses- 
sion of the little Duke of Orleans, heir presumptive 
to the throne, and ordered the Queen's guards to 
take possession of the principal avenues of the 
palace and to dislodge therefrom the soldiers of 
Vi try's tried body-guard. In a few hours Louis 
recovered his senses and in three days became 
convalescent. Queen Marie, in conversing with 
Du Vair, keeper of the seals, imprudently asked 
him what he thought of his Majesty's sudden 


seizure ? Du Vair said that he feared the fit 
might return during the forthcoming spring ; 
which opinion, Marie, with her usual want of 
caution, repeated to Herouard, first physician to 
Louis, who confided her Majesty's observation 
to de Luynes. 33 The latter immediately sought 
his royal master in feigned consternation, and 
avowed his belief that a plot was in agitation to 
deprive his Majesty of life by slow poison at a 
banquet about to be offered to the King by the 
Duke de Vendome at the instigation of M. 
d'Ancre : 34 " Sire," said the artful favourite, 
" MM. the Princes in alleged revolt are loyal to 
your Majesty, but the Queen your mother perse- 
cutes them out of regard for M. le Marechal 
d'Ancre. Sire, one unanimous wail of sorrow was 
heard throughout the provinces during your late 
illness ! " The murmur of coming disaster, mean- 
while, overwhelmed the unhappy Concini and his 
wife at times he besought the latter to fly from 
the realm for the safety of their lives, their son, 
and their enormous wealth. 35 His late temporary 
exile on the demand of the Princes had filled his 
mind with dismay, while the premature death at 
this season of his only daughter he regarded as a 
fatal omen. At times Concini seemed to brave 
adversity, and proudly declared that he would 
not abandon the Queen, but would test " how far 
the luck of an adventurer could go." The wily de 
Luynes did not fail to report to his royal master 
every alternation of his enemy's mood, whether of 
humility or arrogance. In a moment of despair 


the Marquis confessed to Bassompierre that he 
possessed the enormous sum of six millions of gold 
crowns, " sans parler de la bourse de ma femme." 
Moreover, that he had recently offered to the Pope 
the sum of 600,000 livres for a life interest in the 
revenue of the duchy of Ferrara. " Sire," there- 
upon said de Luynes, " Concini is king of this 
realm ; he exercises absolute sway over this king- 
dom ; he defies your authority and wishes the 
ruin of the Princes. He has possessed himself of 
the mind of the Queen your mother, whom he 
bends to his will, besides influencing her heart 
towards Monsieur your brother more than to- 
wards yourself. He is daily in the habit of con- 
sulting astrologers and wise men on the probable 
duration of your life. Your council is devoted to 
him, and when we ask for money for your 
Majesty's privy purse none is forthcoming. His 
return from Normandy without your permission 
was, Sire, an unwarrantable audacity. As for her 
Majesty the Queen-mother, you, Sire, may imagine 
how potent may become her power when the 
loyal rebellion of MM. les Princes is subdued. Will 
not her servants participate in this increased 
authority to the detriment, nay, to the probable 
subversion, of your prerogative ? ' These words 
festered on the irritated mind of the King al- 
ready that jealousy of his only brother Gaston, 
from which such lamentable after-results flowed, 
rankled in the heart of Louis. " The three 
brothers de Luynes," wrote the ambassador 
Monteleone to Madrid, "are well intentioned 


cavaliers, but with little talent or genius; neverthe- 
less, the King is greatly attached to them. It is, 
however, well that your Majesty should be aware 
that there is now a deadly feud between the 
Marquis d'Ancre and this de Luynes ; it is 
necessary for the Infanta-queen to exercise the 
greatest circumspection in her demeanour, but, 
as yet, she has not committed any error." Orders 
thereupon arrived from Madrid to treat " the 
brothers "' with distinction. Monteleone, when 
communicating to the ambitious favourite a flat- 
tering assurance of the good- will of the Catholic 
King, received in reply from de Luynes the 
words, accompanied by an expressive gesture : "I 
understand your Excellency, and at a suitable 
period you will perceive that I have accepted and 
profited by your message." 36 With subtle perfidy 
de Luynes, having thus encompassed his rival, 
brought the dark anger of the King to a climax by 
becoming the medium of communications between 
his Majesty and some of the revolted lords, who 
offered to return to court on the exile of Concini ; 
protesting that, that personage alone, by his 
tyranny and exactions, had been the cause of 
their temporary defection. Vitry, captain of the 
body-guard, at length received commands to 
arrest the Marquis d'Ancre and convey him to 
the Bastille. These orders were given second- 
hand to M. de Vitry, who himself graphically 
records his amazement on receiving such an 
important mandate from the lips of two inferior 
gentlemen of the wardrobe, and of one of the 


gardeners of the Tuileries, high in the good 
graces of Louis for his skill in trapping little 
birds. 37 Hatred of the Unfortunate Marquis, 
fear of the powerful favourite, and the bribe 
of a promise of the vacant baton of Marshal of 
France, induced Vitry to swear to keep the 
design secret from Queen Marie and to accept 
the office indeed, the future tenure of his post 
as chief captain of the guard compelled his 

The measures of the conspirators were hastened 
by an act of sudden and ill-timed energy on the 
part of the Queen. Suspecting the machinations 
of Luynes, Marie, though she had several times 
affected to abdicate her authority, determined 
upon the exile of the favourite, and actually gave 
a mandate, without previously consulting the 
King, forbidding the brothers to present them- 
selves at the Louvre, on the plea, " that they had 
concocted a plot to send the King from Paris," by 
which assertion her Majesty hoped to incite a 
soulevement of the Parisian populace. 38 This fresh 
tracasserie completed the exasperation of the King. 
Hitherto his Majesty had resisted the sanguinary 
malevolence of his favourite, but now Louis gave 
permission that weapons might be used in case 
Concini opposed the mandate of arrest. Luynes 
therefore shaped his instructions to compass the 
end which he had long meditated. The guet-d- 
pens planned by one infamous man to compass the 
destruction of another equally infamous, met with 
a successful result on the morning of the 24th of 


April, 1617. The Marquis d'Ancre was passing 
from the drawbridge of the Louvre towards the 
wicket leading into the grand court, when Vitry, 
followed by twenty archers, arrested him in the 
King's name. The marquis turned sharply, and 
placing his hand on the hilt of his sword, ex- 
claimed, " Moi ? prisonnier ! ?: The words were 
scarcely uttered when three pistols, fired by Vitry, 
Duhallier and De Perrans, were discharged at the 
unfortunate man, who fell dead on the pavement, 
at the feet of Vitry. Awful silence prevailed for a 
few seconds. At length, Louis showed himself at 
a window attended by De Luynes, who raised the 
sash ; shouts arose of " Vive le Roy ! A bas le 
tyran ! " The young King raised his hat, and ad- 
vancing, exclaimed, addressing the conspirators : 
" Grand' merci a vous ! A present je suis Roi ! ' 
Luynes then ordered the gates of the Louvre to be 
closed, and the guards to be drawn out. 39 The body 
of the unfortunate Concini was dragged by the 
hair of the head to a porter's lodge at hand and 
ignominiously cast upon a heap of straw. Vitry 
then entered the palace and publicly received the 
royal thanks, having first excused himself on the 
execution done, on the plea, " that M. d'Ancre 
offered such resistance as to render his arrest 
impossible." The grand gallery of the Louvre, 
meantime, became crowded with courtiers, aghast 
at the catastrophe. Presently appeared Richelieu, 
bishop of Luon, who stealthily approached to 
gather tidings for his mistress, Queen Marie. The 
King, Richelieu relates, was standing on a 


billiard-table, talking excitedly, and receiving the 
congratulations of his court. 40 A few hours after, 
Vitry was sent on a mission to arrest the Marquise 
d'Ancre. The unfortunate woman was ill in bed; 
she was roughly aroused and conveyed to a 
prison-chamber in the Louvre, and a few days 
subsequently transported to the Bastille, after 
undergoing a severe interrogatory, and from 
thence to that prison, in all ages of fatal omen, the 
Conciergerie. Marie de' Medici was next forbidden 
to leave her apartments ; her regiment of guards 
was broken ; and the Louvre committed to the 
safe keeping of the Marshal de Vitry. The body 
of the deceased marquis was wrapped in a cere- 
cloth, and buried at midnight in an obscure grave 
under the organ gallery of the church of St. Ger- 
main 1'Auxerrois. The populace, however, on the 
morrow violated the grave, and tearing the body 
therefrom dragged it through the streets of Paris, 
and after frightful mutilations, hung it by the feet 
from a gibbet. Three days after this assassina- 
tion, an edict emanated from the royal pen be- 
stowing the immense confiscation of the property 
of the Marquis d'Ancre on M. de Luynes, to- 
gether with the diamonds and parures of his wife 
a collection so magnificent as to equal, if not 
surpass, the contents of the jewel-caskets of the 
Queen-mother. 41 

M. de Luynes 42 had now scaled the perilous 
eminence of royal favour : he had attained to 
princely wealth, and needed only a suitable 
matrimonial alliance to confirm his fortunes and 


to win, as he hoped, the favour of Queen Anne of 


1 MS. Bibl. Imp. Colbert 500, vol. 140, p. 32. Mem. de Wicquefort, 
t. 1, p. 4. 

2 Histoire de la Mere et du Fils, t. 1. This history was written by 
the Cardinal de Richelieu, and published during the cardinal's lifetime, 
under the name of Eudes de Mezeray, who was historiographer to the 

3 Jean Louis Nogaret de la Valette, Due d'Epernon, born in 1554. 
The Duke, a cadet of La Valette, was raised to his dignities by King 
Henri III., whose favourite he became. He married Marguerite de Foix 
Candale, a princess allied to the blood royal. The Duke d'Epernon 
died in 1646, at the age of 88. " Tout chez lui etait splendeur et faste. " 

4 Ferdinand 1st, Cardinal, Grand-Duke of Tuscany. His consort was 
Christine de Lorraine, daughter of Duke Charles III. of Lorraine, and of 
Claude de France, daughter of Henri II. and Catherine de' Medici. 

6 Don Francisco Bojos de Sandoval, Duke of Lerma, minister and 
favourite of Philip III., King of Spain. 

6 Marguerite of Austria, daughter of Charles, Archduke of Gratzen, 
and niece of the Emperor Maximilian II. 

7 See History of Don Sebastian, King of Portugal, chap. 3. 

8 Leonard, Contrats et Traites de Paix, etc. MS. Archives de Siman- 
cas, K. 22, quoted by Capefigue, Vie d'Anne d'Autriche. 

9 Dreux du Radier, Vie d'Anne d'Autriche. 

10 Godefroy, L'Ordre et Ceremonies observers au Mariage de Philip 
IV. (then Prince of the Asturias) avec Madame Elizabeth, fille de 
Henri le Grand Grand Ceremonial de France, pp. 70, et seq. 

11 The three brothers bore the names of Luynes, Brantes, and Cade- 
net. The eldest, Charles d'Albert de Luynes, was born in 1578. His 
godfather was Henri Quatre (Mercure de France, t. v.), which fact at 
once contradicts the stories current at court of the plebeian origin of the 
brothers. He was created Duke de Luynes and Constable of France ; 
Brantes was created Duke de Luxembourg, on his marriage with the 
daughter of the Prince de Tingry ; Cadenet was created Duke de 
Chaulnes, on his marriage with the daughter and heiress of the Vidame 
d'Amiens, M. de Pequigny. 

12 Journal du Roy Louis XIII., par M. Jehan Herouard, son Premier 
Medecin. MS. Bibl. Imp. Colbert, 2601, 6 vols. in fol. 

13 ** Le 8, Mercredi, 1614, le Roy pour la premiere fois va a la chasse. 
M. de Souvre aussi luy fait prendre une jupe de chasse f ourree de martes ; 
la prend avec regret, disant que tout ceux qui le verront se moqueront de 
luy, qu'il est habille en paysan. II conteste jusqu'a une heure et demie ; 


cnfin, il s'y resout et va voler le milan a la plaine de Grenelle, ou il 
monte a cheval et prend le milan. Estant de retour, fait Jeter le milan 
par la fenestre et luy donne la vie." . . . " Le 19, Dimanche, nourrit 
deux petits coqs, et pour les rendre courageux, leur donne du vin de 

14 Godefroy, Grand Cerem., t. 2, pp. 60-80. 

15 Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency, daughter of Henri Constable 
de Montmorency. 

16 Louise Marguerite de Lorraine Guise, daughter of Henri Due de 
Guise, slain at Blois, 1588. 

17 Henriette de Joyeuse, who had first espoused the Duke de Mont- 

18 Fransoise de Lorraine Mer'cceur. Her husband was the son of 
Henri IV. and Gabrielle d'Estrees. 

9 MS. Archives de Simancas, A. No. 65, quoted by M. Capefigue. 

20 Tallemant, that cruel satirist, writes, " Le roi commen9a par son 
cocher Saint-Amour a temoigner de 1'affection pour quelqu'un. II 
voulut envoyer quelqu'un qui lui put bien rapporter comme la princesse 
d'Espagne etait faite. II se servit pour cela du pere de son cocher, 
comme si c'eut ete pour voir des chevaux." Hist. 79. 

21 Capefigue, Vie d'Anne d'Autriche. MS. Simancas, B. 5. 

22 Ibid. 

23 Godefroy, Grand Cerem. de France, t. 2, p. 70, et seq. 

24 Godefroy, Grand Cerem. de France, t. 2, p. 84. Brief Narre de ce 
qui s'est pass6 a Bordeaux depuis le 21 de Novembre jusqu'au 29 du 
meme mois. 

25 The instructions given to Anne of Austria, before she quitted Spain, 
still exist in their original draught at Simancas. The young Queen was 
exhorted to court the Queen-mother. It appears that Anne, young as 
she was, had already given tokens of ability for intrigue and dissimula- 
tion. The instructions contain this phrase : " Avienterla que aunque 
no paresce sabe mucho, este muger sabe mucho ! " It is there also 
laid down as an injunction by the Spanish Government, that informa- 
tion of the opinions and intended measures of the French Government 
were to be obtained by the Queen at any cost or risk whatever. 

26 Don Hettore Pignatello, Duke of Montel6one, and Viceroy over 

27 Capefigue, Vie d'Anne d'Autriche. Archives de Simancas, A. 74. 

28 Ibid. 

29 Concini had purchased in 1610, a few months after the death of 
Henri Quatre, the marquisate d'Ancre, for the sum of 130,000 livres. 

30 Histoire de la Mere et du Fils, annee 1617. 
J1 Journal de ma Vie. 

32 All kinds of evil suspicions were engendered by the Queen's 
familiarity with Concini. The Count de Lude one day being present 
when one of Marie's ladies was sent to bring her Majesty's veil, 


exclaimed, sotto voce, " Un vaisseau qui est a Vancre n'a pas besoin de 
voile." Which piece of wit flew throughout Paris. Tallemant ; Dreux 
du Radier. 

33 Bassompierre, Hist, de ma Vie. Histoire de la Mere et du Fils. 

34 Mem. Anecdotes, ou Galerie des Personnages de la Cour de France, 
sous les Regnes de Henri IV. et Louis XIII. 

35 Bassompierre, Journal de ma Vie. 

36 Capefigue, Anne d'Autriche, p. 44. MS. de Simancas, A. 74. 

37 The name of this person was du Buisson. 

38 Journal de ma Vie, Bassompierre. 

39 Hist, des plus Illustres Favoris, Dupuy, Elzevir, in 8vo. Journal 
de ma Vie, Bassompierre. Le Vassor, Hist, de Louis XIII. 

40 " Ah, M. de Lu9on," exclaimed the King, slyly, " me voila enfin 
Roi ! " 

41 Immense possessions in valuables fell also to the lot of the lucky 
favourite. In a cabinet in the apartment of the marquis a casket was 
found containing jewels to the amount of 200,000 francs. M. d'Ancre 
had had the precaution to invest large sums of money in foreign 
securities : these sums some of the sovereigns refused to pay over to 
M. de Luynes ; others obeyed the wish of King Louis. The son of 
the marquis, however, eventually came into the possession of about 
16,000 livres of annual revenue. 

42 A popular song of the period, sung about all the streets of the 
capital, spoke thus of de Luynes and his brothers 

D'Enfer le chien a trois tetes 
Garde l'huis avec effroi ; 
En France trois grosses betes 
Gardent d'approcher le Roy ! 



THE catastrophe which had overthrown the 
reigning powers of the court did not at first affect 
the daily life of the young Queen. The King and 
de Luynes being both secretly uneasy at the 
success of their plot, sought solace by appealing 
to Anne's sympathy and co-operation. On the 
day of the death of the Marquis, Louis dined with 
his consort, and affected an ease and merriment 
which he was far from feeling. Numerous arrests 
followed the coup d'etat : all the chief adherents of 
the Queen-mother were exiled or lost office. As 
for Marie herself, she remained under guard in her 
apartments. 1 Louis sent a message to his mother, 
stating his intention to assume the conduct of 
affairs and praying her Majesty to absent her- 
self for a period from Paris, by doing which she 
would enable him to prove himself, as always, her 
dutiful and devoted son. The greatest fear was 
manifested by de Luynes lest the Queen should 
obtain an interview with her son, and to keep 
the two apart was the anxious aim of this subtle 
plotter. Louis displayed unnatural indifference 
to the position of his mother, and suffered various 
plans for her safe custody to be discussed in his 
presence, the speakers permitting themselves the 



utmost latitude in censuring her demerits. At 
length it was resolved to send the Queen to Blois 
in a condition of semi-captivity. Marie sullenly 
acquiesced, but asked permission before her de- 
parture to see the King, and to take leave of the 
princesses and ladies of the court. The interview 
was reluctantly granted by the King, or permitted 
by de Luynes. It was then resolved that the 
Queen's farewell should be made in the presence 
of the newly-appointed ministers, and that Marie 
should bind herself to say nothing to her son but 
the words contained on a paper forwarded to 
her through the Bishop of Lugon. The conditions 
were hard on the fallen Queen ; the new ministers 
were men whom she had mortally offended, and 
whom she had dismissed soon after her accession to 
power. The majority were the old ministers of 
Henri Quatre, who were cordially greeted by the 
people on their resumption of office. The King 
entered his mother's apartment hand in hand 
with M. de Luynes, and preceded by the two 
brothers of the latter, Cadenet and Brantes ; his 
Majesty was also attended by Villeroy, Jeannin, 
Gesvres, Sillery du Vair and others. 

The Queen approached and made the speech 
which she had promised to utter ; it merely 
stated her anxious desire for his Majesty's pros- 
perity, and her sorrow at having incurred his dis- 
pleasure. Marie then lowered her voice, and said 
some beseeching words. The King, however, 
hastily assured his mother of his affectionate 
care, but that he was now King and would suffer 


no colleague in the government. His Majesty, 
making a low bow, then took his leave. De 
Luynes next approached and kissed the Queen's 
robe ; Marie spoke a few words in a whisper ; she 
then requested his intercession for the steward of 
her household, M. Barbin. Before Luynes could 
reply, the voice of the King was heard calling 
from the bottom of the staircase, " Luynes ! 
Luynes ! ?: The latter then withdrew in silence 
and rejoined his royal master. The doors of the 
Queen's apartments were then thrown open, and 
during the whole afternoon she received the fare- 
well visits of the court. 2 Marie's self-command 
was amazing, and it is asserted that throughout 
her bitter ordeal she never shed a tear. This firm- 
ness disquieted the coward heart of M. de Luynes, 
as he attributed her Majesty's composure to the 
fierceness of her wrath and her craving for re- 
venge, which swallowed up every minor feeling. 
This opinion, it is averred, induced him to sanction 
the persecution of Marie's servants which ensued, 
as he hoped to render a reconciliation impossible. 
Some of the ladies of the court wept at this part- 
ing interview. Marie coldly remarked : " Mes- 
dames, weep not for me ; it is long ago since I 
requested the King to relieve me from the burden 
of his affairs. If my actions have displeased the 
King, I feel also displeased with myself ; never- 
theless, I know that some day his Majesty will 
acknowledge that all that I have done has been 
just and politic. As for the Marquis d'Ancre, I 
pray for his soul ; I pray also that the King may 


be pardoned for the crime by which he was per- 
suaded to remove him ! " Marie shed a few tears 
on parting with her little son, Gaston Duke of 
Orleans, then in his ninth year ; she also very 
affectionately kissed her daughters, Mesdames 
Christine and Marie Henriette. The young 
Queen does not seem to have paid her mother-in- 
law any visit of farewell ; but as Queen Marie 
entered her coach to leave Paris in the evening? 
the King and Queen surveyed the cortege from a 
window of the palace, and both bowed their fare- 
wells. The streets of Paris were thronged with 
spectators, by whom the demeanour of the depart- 
ing Queen was scanned with curious eye. No 
enthusiasm, no words of sympathy diminished the 
humiliation of Marie's exit from the capital over 
which she had so long and imperiously reigned. 
Marie was attended by the officers of her house- 
hold, including the Bishop of Luon, who then 
filled the post of her Majesty's secretaire des 

The King and Queen left Paris immediately 
after the Queen-mother and repaired to Vin- 
cennes. From thence edicts were issued which 
displaced most of the public officers nominated 
during the regency. Barbin, the trusted servant 
of the Queen-mother, was consigned to the 
Bastille, and the trial of the unfortunate Mar- 
quise d'Ancre was commenced, and brought to a 
termination by a sentence of decapitation. This 
decree was executed on the 8th of July, 1617, the 
miserable and half -insane woman being condemned 


as a witch and guilty of high treason in the sight 
of God and man. 3 

The " poor little Cadet of Albert " was now 
the grandest gentleman of the realm, and the 
owners of the most illustrious names in France 
bowed before the resplendency of his power. 
Endowed with the wealth of Concini, adored by 
the King, and the partner of his Majesty's weekly 
raids on the " pies grieches " of the royal domains, 
de Luynes prospered. Grand alliances, however, 
were necessary to give permanent lustre to this 
splendour. While the miserable little son of the 
Marshal d'Ancre, who once bore the name of 
Conte de Pena, had become a beggar, charitably 
sheltered in the hotel of the Count de Fiesque 
and who, a few hours after the cruel execution of 
his mother, had been compelled to execute a sara- 
band with one of Anne's Spanish maidens for the 
diversion of her Majesty 4 de Luynes availed 
himself of the wealth of which Concini had been 
despoiled to purchase a wife whose rank might 
accord with the altitude of his fortune. Hercule 
de Rohan, Duke de Montbazon, Governor of Paris 
and 1'Ile de France, had at this period an only 
daughter, Marie de Rohan, by his deceased wife, 
Madelaine de Laval Lenoncourt. Mademoiselle de 
Montbazon, who had just completed seventeen 
years, was a charming and beautiful girl, gifted 
with extraordinary powers of intellect, but wilful, 
wayward, daring, proud of her princely lineage, 
and disposed to dispute the pas with any dame 
of the court. Marie possessed a witty and an 


audacious tongue ; she loved splendour, and the 
gorgeous attire which set off her noble figure. She 
belonged to the band of the Queen's maids of 
honour ; but hitherto the freedom of Mademoi- 
selle de Montbazon's humour had debarred her 
from the favour of her royal mistress, whose rigid 
Spanish etiquette was severely shocked by the 
abandon, only however of manner, in which Marie 
indulged. This future famous favourite of Anne 
of Austria had been attached to the court for 
about eighteen months, without eliciting a single 
mark of regard from the young Queen, when M. de 
Luynes demanded her hand. The courtiers heard 
with incredulous bewilderment that the son of 
" ce petit capitaine de Luynes" the once indigent 
protege of the Count de Lude, aspired to alliance 
with the princely Rohans, kinsmen of his Majesty 
Louis XIII. The Duke de Montbazon was a 
good-natured nobleman, benevolent in his con- 
descensions, but renowned at court for his ludi- 
crous and ignorant blunders and for his total 
want of discrimination. The Duke's bevues were 
so common that he was declared to be the hero 
of every laughable misadventure which diverted 
the court. M. de Montbazon was completely 
ruled by his high-spirited daughter, and as he 
revered few things not present to his visual com- 
prehension, and finding that the parvenu de 
Luynes had attained to a rank and splendour 
hitherto denied to the blood of Rohan, he 
graciously consented to the alliance when pro- 
posed to him by his Sovereign. The handsome 


person of the young favourite 5 had favourably 
impressed Mademoiselle de Montbazon : " To 
hate M. de Luynes," says a contemporary, " it was 
necessary not to have seen him, for he had so 
pleasant and affable an expression of countenance 
that many foes were thereby after an interview 
converted into friends." The fortunate favourite, 
moreover, was all-powerful to flatter and pro- 
pitiate the foibles of the haughty Marie. The 
King promised to erect the estate of Maille near to 
Tours, purchased by de Luynes, into a duche 
pairie if this marriage was accomplished. Most 
of the high offices filled by the Marquis d'Ancre 
were transferred to de Luynes. Louis, moreover, 
promised to nominate the Duchess de Luynes 
surintendente de la maison de la Reine, an office 
which conferred almost absolute power over the 
Queen's household, and to possess which, it is 
thought, greatly influenced the decision of Made- 
moiselle de Montbazon. De Luynes, in addition, 
bribed the good graces of his lady-love by magni- 
ficent gifts ; and, as crowning tokens of his devo- 
tion, he obtained for her, previous to her marriage, 
the much-coveted tabouret or a folding-seat in the 
presence of the Queen a privilege which no prin- 
cess of the house of Rohan, either married or 
single, had before enjoyed ; and lastly, he laid at 
the feet of his mistress the magnificent diamonds 
of the unfortunate Marquise d'Ancre a casket of 
which a queen might have been proud. The mar- 
riage took place in the month of August, 1617, 
and the King created his favourite, according 


to his promise, Duke de Luynes, and installed 
him as first minister of the crown. Louis also 
fulfilled his promise relative to the new Duchess 
de Luynes, who was appointed grandmistress of 
the palace and chief lady of her Majesty's house- 
hold. 6 A feminine revolt followed this appoint- 
ment. Anne absolutely refused to accept the 
services of a princess who, she said, was personally 
disagreeable to her. The Condesa de las Torres 
protested against the assumption by Madame de 
Luynes of power over the camarera mayor ; the 
good and virtuous Duchesse de Montmorency, 
first dame du palais, gave in her resignation, " as, 
being the widow of the late Constable de Mont- 
morency, she could not retain a subordinate office 
in the royal household." The result of these 
squabbles was that the King never visited his 
consort for six weeks. The Spanish Ambassador, 
moved by the distress of the Queen, thereupon 
sought audience of the Duke de Luynes to be 
officially informed of the source of the fracas. 
Luynes replied that the King hated the Spanish 
ladies of his consort's household, especially Ma- 
dame de las Torres and the old Duchess of Ville- 
quieras, her Majesty's former governess ; but 
that this latter lady was so repugnant to the King 
that Louis had resolved never again to share her 
Majesty's apartment until after the departure of 
the said Duchess. 7 Monteleone faithfully re- 
ported the matter to Philip III., who, without 
further parley, recalled all the Spanish ladies, 
much to the distress and indignation of the Queen. 


Anne, meantime, had been so excited by the 
vexatious events of the year that about the 
month of November she fell dangerously ill of low 
fever. The King showed much solicitude during 
the dangerous crisis of the malady and frequently 
visited her sick-chamber. On learning the danger 
of her young mistress, the Duchess de Mont- 
morency returned to the Louvre and generously 
helped Madame de Luynes to discharge her func- 
tions at her Majesty's bedside, for etiquette 
required that a duchess should replace the surin- 
tendente during those intervals when leave of 
absence was requisite for repose and refreshment. 
Anne's recovery was tedious. The Ambassador 
Monteleone despatched weekly expresses to 
Madrid with news of her health. He prays Philip 
to send his daughter a quantity of oranges 
" similar to those your Majesty sent last year, 
which arrived as fresh as if just gathered from the 
tree." Monteleone proceeds to congratulate King 
Philip on the improved relations subsisting be- 
tween the royal pair, and states that the King 
evidently greatly admired his consort, who was 
growing up a beautiful and graceful woman ; also, 
that the King often proudly alluded to the incom- 
parable complexion of his wife and remarked her 
abundant fair hair, " in which attractions she had 
not a rival in France." 

Louis, about whom all these anxious specu- 
lations flowed, had now completed his eighteenth 
year ; but the monarch who had just exiled his 
mother, who held the first prince of the blood 


a captive in the Bastille, and who had raised 
an obscure favourite to the altitude of a duke and 
minister in chief, is described by Bassompierre 
as " amusing himself by little games and devices, 
such as painting little pictures, singing, making 
little models with quills of the fountains at St. 
Germain, and by drumming for his Majesty was 
a skilful drummer." 8 " Bassompierre," said his 
Majesty one day, " I must now begin to practise 
on the horn ; some day I will waken the echoes 
in my forests ! " " Sire," replied the skilful cour- 
tier, " I do not advise such exercise. Charles IX., 
it is said, ruptured a blood-vessel by blowing the 
horn ! " " You are mistaken," promptly replied 
his Majesty ; " the King only quarrelled with his 
mother, Catherine de' Medici, and kept her at 
Monceaux. Now, if the King had followed the 
good advice of M. de Retz, and had not returned 
to her, he would not have died at the early age 
which he did ! " " From that period," remarks 
Bassompierre, 9 " I took heed never to mention the 
Queen-mother in the presence of the King, finding 
that his fears had been excited respecting her." 

Marie de' Medici during this interval, wearied 
of the insults daily inflicted, fled from Blois, with 
the aid of her old friend Epernon, and had re- 
tired under his escort to Loches, where she 
threatened the realm with civil war. On the 21st 
of February, 1619, the Queen escaped from the 
castle by a window 120 feet from the ground, by 
means of a rope-ladder sent to her by Epernon. 10 
Her two women followed and her chevalier 


d'honneur, the Count de Brennes. A coach was in 
waiting, in which her Majesty entered and took 
the road towards Montrichard. She was met out- 
side the town of Blois by the Cardinal de la 
Valette, then Archbishop of Toulouse, with 300 
gentlemen, who accompanied her to the fortress 
of Loches, where Marie was rapturously wel- 
comed by Epernon and afterwards received an 
oath of fidelity from the soldiers of the garrison. 
The utmost panic seized the King and his mini- 
sters when they heard of this event. Louis re- 
turned to Paris from St. Germain to hold council, 
at which it was determined to send le P. Berulle 
to negotiate, whose brain was thought to be 
a match for that of the subtle Richelieu, whom 
her Majesty, on arriving at Loches, had sum- 
moned. Bentivoglio, who then filled the post of 
Nuncio at the court of France, caused this sugges- 
tion to be conveyed to the privy council. Although 
most of the great peers of France had returned to 
their duty on the downfall of Concini, yet the ele- 
ments of revolt were not extinct in France. More- 
over, the courts of Parliament throughout the 
realm had interceded for the Queen-mother, la 
veuve de Henri IV. , and had exhorted the King to 
be reconciled with her. At court she had many 
ardent partisans, such as Bassompierre, Guise, 
Bellegarde and others. It was, therefore, now 
deemed by Luynes to be a politic and popular 
course to disarm her Majesty by negotiation, and 
to propose an interview of reconciliation with the 
King. The Cardinal de la Rochefoucault was 


despatched to offer to the Queen the government 
of Anjou, with the fortresses of Angers, Pont de 
Ce, and Chinon, provided that she consented to 
relinquish the government of Normandy. The 
Prince of Piedmont, whose recent marriage with 
the Princess Christine without the consent or par- 
ticipation of the Queen-mother had filled the 
measure of Marie's grievances, 11 now made repara- 
tion by visiting her Majesty at Angouleme. The 
Duke de Montbazon also made the same pilgrim- 
age on behalf of his son-in-law de Luynes, to ex- 
press the earnest desire of the latter for reconcilia- 
tion. Marie, by the counsel of Richelieu, accepted 
the proposals and overtures of her son, and pro- 
mised to join the court at Tours. 12 The young 
Queen, therefore, journeyed from Paris to Tours, 
where she made a sojourn of three months. After 
the meeting and reconciliation between Louis and 
his mother, the King set out for the south of 
France, attended by his favourite, to restore the 
Catholic faith throughout Beam, while Anne re- 
turned to Paris, having received a promise from 
Queen Marie to join her there after she had 
visited her new government of Anjou and the 
fortresses ceded in that province. 

During the next two years the history of the 
young Queen presents few incidents worthy of re- 
cord. Her great grief, and the chief topic of the 
Spanish Ambassador, the Marquis de Mirabel, who 
had succeeded Monteleone in the Paris embassage, 
was the devotion manifested by the King for the 
young and brilliant Duchess de Luynes, who 


first moved the heart of Louis Treize, and taught 
his Majesty some of the tender refinements of la 
belle passion. " The King," writes the Ambassa- 
dor, " abounds in courtesies and attentions for the 
Duchess de Luynes : I have, nevertheless, good 
hope that the worst suspicions take rise only in 
the excited fancy of the Infanta-queen and in the 
malicious tattlings of her women. The King, I 
believe, is too wise and virtuous to merit the impu- 
tation of criminal intrigue. Your Majesty should 
exhort the Queen to propitiate her husband, and 
to render herself agreeable and necessary to him 
by the thousand little coquetteries proper to en- 
chain and entice volatile hearts." Anne was too 
haughty and resentful to profit by such counsel ; 
she adopted with the Duchess de Luynes a distant 
and condescending demeanour, but towards the 
King her manner was grave, serious, and respect- 
ful. Louis, at this period, showed great considera- 
tion for his consort in public ; nor was it until he 
fell again under the baneful influence of the Queen- 
mother that those miserable domestic tracasseries 
commenced which poisoned his existence. The 
Nuncio Bentivoglio mentions even that, during 
the absence of the King from Paris in 1620 to 
subdue the menaced insurrection excited by the 
distrust of Marie de' Medici in the provinces re- 
cently confided to her the young Queen, " to the 
joy of everybody," daily presided at the council 
of state. These days were the brightest and most 
prosperous of Anne's married life. 

A shadow at this period was, nevertheless, cast 


over the content of the Queen by the anger which 
Louis displayed at the assiduities manifested to- 
wards her by the Dukes de Montmorency and de 
Bellegarde. M. de Luynes was even one day com- 
pelled to leave the circle, at the peremptory com- 
mand of his royal master, for having presumed to 
press to his lips a flower which had fallen from a 
bouquet worn by her Majesty. This boyish petu- 
lance, and his own neglect of her in private, 
angered the Queen, who now having attained to 
woman's estate, and being conscious of her charms, 
resented the querulous tyranny to which she was 
often subjected. The Duchess de Luynes mean- 
time lived in the greatest harmony with her par- 
venu lord, spite of the prevalent rumours respect- 
ing her intimacy with her liege. 13 She espoused 
the interests of the Duke with that energy for 
which she was renowned ; the palace under her 
sway was a model of order and discipline, never- 
theless, she never at this period succeeded in gain- 
ing even the coldest approval from her royal 
mistress. Anne had a pungent tongue and her 
memory was seldom at fault ; the Queen, there- 
fore, in her circle often in the most naive manner 
alluded to reminiscences which the superb minister 
would fain have forgotten. His four years of rule, 
however, had weakened his influence with the 
King, who could not endure the brightness of the 
light which he himself had kindled. The lips of 
Louis often turned white with passion as he beheld 
the homage exacted by de Luynes, " Le Roy 
Luynes," as he bitterly murmured. 14 Neverthe- 


less, with strange inconsistency, in the year 1621, 
Louis conferred the sword of Constable of France 
on de Luynes, with the greatest pomp. The sword 
of the new Constable presented by his Majesty was 
valued at 30,000 crowns. The court was after- 
wards sumptuously entertained by the Constable 
at his Hotel, the former abode of the Marquis 
d'Ancre, which was at this time known by the 
familiar sobriquet of Hotel des Trois Hois, as at the 
commencement of de Luynes' career his brothers 
lived with him. For each of these personages, 
Louis, with the most amazing recklessness, had 
created a duche pairie. Cadenet espoused the 
heiress of Pequigny, and was made Duke de 
Chaulnes ; Brantes made a still more illustrious 
alliance, and married the heiress of Luxembourg, 
Charlotte Marguerite, only daughter of the Duke de 
Piney Luxembourg, whose title he eventually bore. 
The new Constable meantime followed his royal 
master to the siege of Montauban, one of the 
strongholds of the Huguenots, a place defended 
by the Marquis de la Force with incredible valour. 
The siege lasted three months, and terminated by 
the retreat of the royal army. The displeasure 
and distaste of the King for de Luynes increased 
during the progress of the siege operations ; his 
arrogant independence sometimes excited his 
Majesty to frenzy. Bassompierre was made the 
confidant of Louis's dissatisfaction, very much to 
the dismay of that astute personage. " I will 
compel him, the base-born ingrate, to restore all 
that he has rifled ; he desires to make himself 


King, but I shall counteract his plots ! The poor 
adventurer ! ?: sneered the petulant boy-King, 
' why, his relations once arrived by boat-loads, 
and not one of them had a silk robe to appear in 
my presence ! " The disgust indulged by Louis 
at length attained such fervour, that he one day 
told the Constable in public that the Duke de 
Chevreuse was madly enamoured of Madame de 
Luynes ; and therefore that he warned him to be 
on the watch. " But, sire," remonstrated the 
good-natured Bassompierre, " I have heard that 
it ranks as heinous sin to sow dissension between 
husband and wife." " May God please to grant 
me pardon," responded his Majesty, " but I have 
now such joy in spiting M. le Connetable and in 
giving him annoyance ! " Such being the senti- 
ments of the King, expressed in semi-confidence 
to the most privileged amongst his courtiers, pre- 
dictions abounded on the approaching overthrow 
of the Constable. The royal aversion was not 
lessened by the comments of Queen Marie ; who 
now, having made peace with her son, had taken 
up her abode at the Luxembourg. On the raising 
of the siege of Montauban, fever raged in the 
camp ; Luynes retired to Longuetille, and there 
encamped, feeling indisposed. In the course of a 
few hours the dreaded pestilence seized him ; his 
comfortless quarters and his perturbation of mind 
increased the severity of the attack, and death 
soon delivered the King from the man he now so 
utterly loathed. De Luynes died on the 21st of 
December, 1621, after an illness of a few hours' 


duration. His favour lasted five years. Few 
crimes mar his career : Luynes was weak and 
ostentatious ; his greatest merit, perhaps, was 
that he had discerned the extraordinary genius of 
the Bishop of Luon, and at the time of his death 
was negotiating with Richelieu to quit the service 
of Marie de' Medici for his own, offering, as a bribe, 
a seat in the privy council. Luynes left a son and 
one daughter 15 by his consort. The King suffered 
the young Duke to inherit his father's enormous 
wealth, under the guardianship of his mother. 
During the following year, 1622, Madame de 
Luynes married Claude de Lorraine, Duke de 
Chevreuse, son of Henri, Duke de Guise, killed at 
the States of Blois. The alliance was an illustrious 
one. M. de Chevreuse, however, was weak and 
incapable, and totally unable to guide or rule his 
witty and able wife. He was luxurious and in- 
dolent, and while enjoying the ease of the Hotel 
Chevreuse, cared little for the intrigues of his con- 
sort or for the success of her political enterprises. 
Before her second marriage, the Duchess de 
Luynes incurred a temporary disgrace. The 
Queen, to the great joy of the nation, had been 
declared enceinte. Prayers were offered throughout 
the realms of France and Spain for a safe and pros- 
perous term, and Anne was committed to the 
care of the Queen-mother, and ordered by her 
royal husband not to act in defiance of such 
authority. It happened that the Princess de 
Conde 16 suffered from temporary indisposition, 
and was compelled to keep her bed in her apart- 


ments at the Louvre. Anne and a gay party of 
courtiers, including her widowed surintendente and 
Mademoiselle de Verneuil, went to visit the invalid. 
The evening was spent merrily, being enlivened by 
the wit and the amusing adventures of the Mar- 
shal de Bassompierre and the Duke de Bellegarde. 
At ten o'clock the Queen took leave of Madame de 
Conde. To arrive at her apartment, it was neces- 
sary to traverse the great gallery of the Louvre, at 
the end of which a magnificent canopy and throne 
stood, which on this evening was partly draped 
for a state reception on the morrow. On entering 
this apartment Madame de Luynes and Made- 
moiselle de Verneuil took the Queen each by an 
arm, and proposed, in the exuberance of their 
mirth, that her Majesty should run with them a 
race down its length. Anne suffered herself to be 
persuaded by their importunity ; unfortunately, 
her ladies suddenly releasing their hold as they 
approached the throne, the Queen fell on her face 
over a footstool. A few hours subsequently, a 
catastrophe occurred which dismayed the cour- 
tiers, and moved the king to one of those bursts of 
passion to which he was subject. With his own 
hand Louis wrote to the Duchess de Luynes, and 
to Mademoiselle de Verneuil, exiling them from 
the Louvre, and forbidding them to see the Queen 
to say farewell. The letters were delivered to the 
delinquents by the Queen-mother, who admini- 
stered to each an angry reprimand, and dismissed 
the ladies, weeping bitterly. 17 The Duchess de 
Montmorency 18 was thereupon promoted to the 


office of surintendente, which she retained for many 
years, conciliating every one by her gentle and 
winning deportment. 

The return of the Queen-mother to Paris had 
been attended with many annoyances to the 
Queen, her daughter-in-law. After the death of 
the Constable de Luynes, Marie again beheld her- 
self supreme over the court, ruling almost as im- 
periously as before the overthrow of the Marquis 
d'Ancre and her subsequent exile. Distrustful of 
his own powers and judgment, Louis again sought 
refuge in his mother's more enterprising and reso- 
lute character, while Marie relied on the hidden 
support and sage counsels of her chancellor, 
Richelieu, Bishop of Lu9on. The power and dis- 
affection of the great nobles still menaced the 
royal authority. Conde had been released from 
the Bastille by de Luynes, to counterbalance, as 
he hoped, the renewed influence of the Queen- 
mother, after her reconciliation with her son at 
Tours. The prince was esteemed to be one of the 
wisest and most prudent of men ; his military 
talents were not great, but his name, his alliances, 
and his relationship with many of the great Hu- 
guenot nobles, added to the guileful cunning of his 
character, had gained him reputation. For the 
first six months after the death of de Luynes,, 
Conde* filled the vacant place of royal mentor, 
and during this interval Marie lived in intimate 
union with Queen Anne, their majesties usually 
appearing in public together, and amiably patro- 
nising the Princess de Conde. The young Duke 


of Orleans at this period became a daily visitor at 
the lever of the Queen his sister-in-law. Gaston 
was a beautiful, forward boy of fourteen, idolised 
by his mother for his sprightly wit and for his 
apparent devotion to herself. The brothers, in 
character, were entirely opposite. Louis XIII. 
resembled his father, Henri IV., in his contempt of 
soft luxury, and in his readiness to submit to 
temporary privation. Monsieur, on the contrary, 
was fastidious, luxury-loving, and pleasure-seek- 
ing. His raiment was perfumed, and made of the 
most costly fabrics, rings glittered on his white 
fingers, and his fair long hair was adjusted to 
perfection. The dancing of the young prince was 
pronounced to be exquisite, his voice was melo- 
dious, he excelled in the composition of charades 
andjeux d' esprit, and he aimed at a lisping pre- 
cision of speech, which ere long became a fashion 
at court. Beneath this effeminate exterior, never- 
theless, the heroic spirit of his ancestors of Albret 
slumbered. Monsieur showed an early predilec- 
tion for arms, his fencing was admirable, he was 
an expert archer, and rode on horseback with an 
ease and grace which always excited the envy of 
the King. 19 Monsieur's inclination for magnifi- 
cence and costly ornamentation pervaded all his 
pursuits. While his brother contented himself 
with snaring magpies and small birds, Gaston, at 
this period, having just attained his majority and 
therefore becoming master of his patrimony, set 
up a hunting establishment on a grand scale at his 
chateau of Montargis, where he built kennels and 


stables, which a few years subsequently were 
razed to the ground, when the Duke capriciously 
transferred his stud to Villers Coterets, a hunting- 
lodge in the forest of Soissons. The Duke at this 
period divided his leisure, when in Paris, between 
the Louvre and the Luxembourg ; spending hours 
at the latter place with his royal mother in the 
studio of the maestro, Rubens, whom Marie de' 
Medici had lured from Antwerp to embellish her 
palace by his immortal pencil. When at the 
Louvre, Gaston entertained his fair sister-in-law 
and her ladies, and once more made the saloons 
echo, as in olden times, with merry laughter and 
witty repartee. Soon the greatest solace of the 
fair young Queen was the society of so fascinating 
a cavalier as her brother-in-law, who, moreover, 
with lazy good nature, adjusted many a little dis- 
pute arising between Anne and the Queen-mother 
which might have acquired unsought-for impor- 
tance if submitted to the arbitration of Louis 
Treize. Prominent amongst the grievances be- 
tween Anne and her imperious mother-in-law, was 
the fact that Marie proposed that the state re- 
ceptions of the Louvre should be transferred to 
her saloons ; and, through Richelieu, she even 
succeeded in convincing her royal son that such 
arrangement would obviate many evils to be anti- 
cipated from the youth and inexperience of his 
consort. Anne replied, that such tutelage was un- 
becoming her proud position as reigning Queen of 
France and Infanta of the Spains. Her Majesty, 
therefore, firmly declined to be present at the 


Luxembourg whenever the court paid its homage 
to the " august Marie de' Medici." This resolution 
was supported by the counsel of the Duchess de 
Chevreuse, 20 who, after her marriage, had again 
appeared at court as chief lady of honour in wait- 
ing, and wiser perchance for her brief eclipse. 
Marie also complained that Anne, when address- 
ing her by letter, terminated with the words 
" votre affectionee file" instead of by the formula, 
in imitation of that adopted by the King, of " noire 
ires humble et obeissante fille" The Queen bore 
with meekness the coldness of the Queen-mother 
and the anger of the King, who was again en- 
slaved by his mother, for at this period Riche- 
lieu still acted in subordination to the directions 
of Marie de' Medici. Marie and her chancellor 
continually depreciated the intellect and savoir 
vivre of Queen Anne, so apprehensive were they 
of a rival in Louis' confidence. " Nevertheless," 
says an enthusiastic contemporary, " Anne is truly 
pious ; her heart is noble, her constancy great, 
her self-control eminent ; she unhappily remem- 
bers injuries, but she is easily persuaded by com- 
mendation and by affectionate appeal." The in- 
tercourse between Anne and Monsieur was not 
over-pleasing to Louis XIII. : that sombre nature 
ever construed friendship for another into de- 
preciation of himself. Anne, unhappily for her 
future peace, had adopted the maxims of the 
famous Marquise de Sable at this period in the 
meridian of her celebrity, but who, nevertheless, 
was one of the most selfish and heartless of the 


" brilliant women," the glory of the Parisian 
saloons of the 17th and 18th centuries. " I am 
persuaded," said Madame de Sable, " that men 
without criminality may feel and demonstrate the 
tenderest sentiments for the lady of their heart 
and fancy. I maintain that the desire of pleasing 
women inspires the grandest and noblest actions, 
and that it imparts wit, liberality and countless 
virtues. Women, being the gems and ornaments 
of the world, are created to become the recipients 
of such homage ; they may therefore accept, and 
ought to encourage, adoration and service, which, 
however, they need repay only by innocent con- 
descensions." Such a code was repugnant to the 
jealous temper of the King ; isolated, and living 
at the Louvre, as her sister-in-law the Queen 
of Spain, lived in the seclusion of El Escorial, 
Anne might have ruled Louis XIII. and France, 
but the frolics of the court, and the etourderies 
of the Queen offended the King's susceptibilities, 
which became further aggrieved by the ironical 
expostulations with which Anne met his remon- 
strances. ' The admiration shown for me by MM. 
les Dues de Montmorency and de Bellegarde, is 
only a just tribute to the attractions of their 
Queen ! " 21 exclaimed Anne, proudly. Louis also 
tartly reprimanded his consort for permitting the 
assiduities of Monsieur, inasmuch as her coquet- 
ting and ridicule, he said, rendered the Duke more 
averse than ever to offer suitable devoirs to his 
betrothed wife, Marie de Bourbon Montpensier, 
an alliance approved and desired by the Queen- 


mother and by himself. Mademoiselle de Mont- 
pensier being the richest heiress in France, it had 
been deemed imperative by Henri IV. that the 
succession to so many duchies should neither 
lapse to a subject, nor be possessed by a foreign 
prince. Henriette, Duchess de Joyeuse in her 
own right, and dowager of Montpensier, had taken 
for her second husband the Duke de Guise ; her 
daughter, therefore, was receiving her education 
with her half-brothers and sisters of Lorraine. The 
little heiress was plain, pale and insipid, triste 
in humour, small, slightly deformed in person, 
totally unable to comprehend, and even feeling 
frightened at the brilliant sallies of her affianced 
lord. The Queen disparaged her future sister-in- 
law, and did all she could to render Monsieur in- 
different ; " because " argued her Majesty, " if 
the future Madame brings her husband children, I 
shall fall in public esteem and suffer deeper 
political insignificance." Nevertheless, on the 
hint of her royal consort, whose wrath subdued 
even Anne's assurance, her Majesty attempted to 
persuade the young Duke to seek the society of 
his affianced. 

The Queen-mother and her policy, meantime, 
continued to be in the ascendant. The death of 
the Cardinal de Retz and of the Keeper of the 
seals Du Vic, creatures of the late Constable de 
Luynes, enabled Marie to extend her patronage. 
The sword of Constable was given to Lesdiguieres 
on his abjuration of the Calvinist faith, and the 
Marquis de Vieuville, an old adherent of the 


Queen's, received the seals. The Chancellor de 
Sillery was banished from the court ; and, at the 
urgent demand of the Queen-mother, Richelieu 
was admitted a member of the privy council. Marie 
had demanded a Cardinal's hat for her protege 
after the signature of the peace of Angers. De 
Luynes promised the interest of the French 
government with the Holy See, but as the King 
manifested displeasure at the elevation of Riche- 
lieu, whom he was wont to designate " an officious 
meddler," a private letter was addressed to his 
Holiness to neutralise the effect of the public de- 
mand. Richelieu discovered the intrigue through 
the celebrated Capuchin, Father Joseph de Trem- 
blay, 22 and meekly informed his patroness. Upon 
this Marie promptly proposed a marriage between 
M. Combalet, nephew of de Luynes, with Mademoi- 
selle de Pont de Courlay, 23 the niece of Richelieu, 
and thus won the true support of de Luynes. All 
persons, therefore, being as the Queen hoped, pro- 
pitiated, a second application had been made to 
his Holiness. During the interval the Constable 
de Luynes died. Louis, therefore, advised by 
Conde of this fresh application, again dispatched 
a message through Corsini, the Papal Nuncio, to 
the effect " that he should not feel aggrieved if his 
Holiness deemed it advisable, and found excuses, 
to refuse this request." Again the royal duplicity 
was discovered by Richelieu and confided to the 
Queen-mother. Marie entered her son's cabinet 
in a passion of resentment ; she drew the most 
disastrous picture of the condition of France, and 


her eulogy of " the humble prelate whose wisdom 
and learning were to avert ruin from the realm " 
bewildered the King. Louis confessed his want of 
appreciation of Richelieu's merit, but consented 
to dispatch an express to Rome to contradict 
' 6 the error of the Nuncio," who had misunder- 
stood the royal observation, and to ask for the 
prompt elevation of M. de Luon. The much- 
coveted hat was bestowed upon Richelieu by Pope 
Gregory XV., September 1622. The astute 
Richelieu had no sooner received the insignia of 
his cardinalate from the hand of his sovereign, at 
Lyons, than he prostrated himself at the feet of 
Marie de' Medici : " Gracious Majesty ! this 
purple, which I owe to your Majesty, will be ever 
before my eyes as a symbol of the solemn vow 
which I have made, and now renew, to shed every 
drop of my blood, if necessary, in your service ! ' : 
The joy of Marie was intense : the mother of the 
King mother and trusted ally of Monsieur heir- 
presumptive the mistress of Richelieu and able 
to command at will that glorious intellect and un- 
rivalled daring Marie might well consider her 
newly-recovered power steadfast and immov- 
able ! 

The rule of the Cardinal de Richelieu com- 
menced. His first process of government was to 
exhibit to the timid and suspicious Louis the 
volcano beneath his throne, and to direct his 
startled gaze on the swarm of malcontents which 
stung and ravaged his fair heritage and prero- 
gatives. Richelieu displayed terrible pictures : 


the revolt and arrogance of the great peers, whose 
ambition shook the throne ; the treason of the 
Huguenots of the realm their tenure of fortified 
places by treaty, their alliances with foreign 
powers and their insolent demand for separate 
political and synodical action. He then changed 
the scene to the domestic disquietudes of the 
court the towering ambition of Marie de' Medici, 
the Cardinal observed, no faithful minister of 
Louis XIII. might ignore ; the levity and Spanish 
inclinations of the reigning Queen ; the ambition 
and frivolity of the heir-presumptive, whose 
vanity might betray him into the toils of unprin- 
cipled men ! Every one of these bristling thorns 
pierced the heart of the King. The Cardinal's 
system with Marie de' Medici was, to bemoan the 
suspicions and illiberality of the King his royal 
master, his headstrong will and lack of filial de- 
ference, the cunning of Conde, the insecurity of 
her Majesty's position, and the high promise of 
Monsieur. For a season this course of tactics 
succeeded with Marie de' Medici ; but the Queen 
required the Cardinal's deeds to accord with his 
words, and his actions to follow, or at any rate to 
assimilate with his predictions a consequence 
overlooked, in his astuteness, by Richelieu. The 
court was divided by the new law-giver into two 
camps his friends and his enemies. For the 
former no caresses and privileges were deemed too 
high a boon ; for the latter, mendacity could not 
sufficiently blacken their motives and character, 
or persecution and ruin too thoroughly overthrow 


their prospects. The meek humility of Richelieu's 
manner towards his household dependants ; the 
deferential homage which, at the commencing of 
his power, he paid to the high personages of the 
court ; and the triple velvet with which he en- 
cased the potent hand so terrible in its blows, 
enabled the first years of his ministry his initia- 
tion in office to glide away with but little notice, 
and no opposition. 

The method which Richelieu is recorded to have 
taken in order to propitiate and to gain the favour 
of Anne of Austria is so extraordinary, and 
opposed to his intercourse with his royal patron 
during the following decade of years, that it is 
difficult to believe a fact, which is related and 
affirmed by trustworthy historians and chroni- 
clers of the period. It is asserted that Richelieu 
attempted to strengthen his position by com- 
mencing an intrigue with the wife of his sovereign. 
There is no doubt that the isolated position of the 
young and fascinating Queen, estranged from her 
royal husband partly through his strange caprices 
and exactions, and badly counselled by her friend 
and confidents Madame de Chevreuse, offered a 
tempting lure to the vicious and unscrupulous. 
Richelieu hated Monsieur the heir-presumptive 
with bitter hatred at first, for some rude words 
of sarcasm, the more galling as falling from boyish 
lips, and because he descried in the disposition of 
the Duke a fretfulness which convinced him that 
so restless and volatile a spirit never would retain 
its subjection to the will of any minister. Riche- 


lieu's admiration was calmly accepted, it is said, 
by Anne, as a homage rendered to her charms, 
and as incense offered by the first minister to the 
political personage which she never ceased from 
aspiring to become. " The Queen," says Anne's 
ardent friend and apologist, Madame de Motte- 
ville, " confessed to me that in her youth she 
never could comprehend that what is called 
rhonnete galanterie could be blamable, any more 
than the liberty enjoyed by Spanish ladies of the 
court of Madrid, who, living like nuns in the 
palace and never speaking of men but in the 
presence of the King or Queen of Spain, yet boast 
of their conquests, and discourse upon them as 
facts calculated rather to enhance their reputation 
than to defame it." Anne related to Madame de 
Motteville, in days when the memory of the sore 
trials of her youth had almost faded from the 
mind of the mother of Louis XIV., that one day 
Richelieu was craving her friendship and assis- 
tance with an air too gallant and animated, and 
with words of passionate admiration, and that 
she, who detested him, was preparing to answer in 
contemptuous anger, when the door opened and 
the King appeared. Anne added, that she never 
after reverted to the subject, fearing to do the 
Cardinal too much honour by appearing to remem- 
ber his presumption ; " but I did myself infinite 
injury with the King my consort, for the bad 
offices of M. le Cardinal increased our misunder- 
standings." 24 Richelieu, it might be imagined, 
would have been the last man to involve himself 


in the meshes of a perilous intrigue : but it is 
asserted that the Cardinal, at this period, was 
consumed with a frantic admiration for his young 
mistress ; and that Anne, whose heart remained 
untouched, amused herself by ridiculing and 
spurning this foible. But for certain suspicious 
incidents which occurred between the pair, years 
after this event, and when the Cardinal's passion 
was supposed to be extinct, the episode would 
seem too improbable to challenge belief. The 
evil influences of Madame de Chevreuse were fast 
dissipating the decorous reserve of Anne's 
manners and vitiating her mind. Anne had 
learned to love her and to trust her, as the forlorn 
cling to the one bright and genial object which 
cheers their existence. Marie de Rohan was now 
devoted to the Queen. Anne's enemies were her 
foes, and the beautiful, strong-minded woman 
would have given her life, as she eventually 
sacrificed fortune, for the sake of her royal mis- 
tress. Intrigue, unhappily, occupied the mind of 
the Duchess, and, incorrigible in her vanity, 
Marie succeeded too well in diverting the melan- 
choly of the Queen by the recital of her forbidden 
diversions. When condoled with by her intimates 
on the indolence and pompous emptiness of the 
Duke her husband, Madame de Chevreuse replied 
promptly, " Je m'en endommage ! ' : Subsequent 
to this period Madame de Chevreuse engaged in a 
correspondence with the handsome Earl of 
Holland, then Lord Rich, who had visited France 
in 1622 to negotiate for the Rochellois, and who 


returned in 1624 as one of the ambassadors sent 
to confer on the marriage of Henriette Marie de 
France with Charles, Prince of Wales. In their 
correspondence these persons naturally wrote 
much concerning the leading personages of their 
respective courts ; and Anne of Austria and 
George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, the favour- 
ite of James I. of England, often afforded a 
theme for the writers. The magnificence of 
Villiers, his beauty of person and chivalrous 
character, is believed, even at this period, to have 
made a deep impression on the fancy of the 
Queen. Buckingham, also, she was told, was 
joined to a partner uncongenial and incapable of 
appreciating his rare powers. Anne believed this 
hero-worship to be blameless the great ocean 
separated her from Buckingham besides, it 
invested the correspondence of Madame de Chev- 
reuse with a personal interest. The Queen, there- 
fore, imagined that she might fearlessly accept 
the messages of her admirer, and reciprocate la 
belle galanterie, without dread of the spies and 
the reprimands of the Louvre. 

While Anne was thus indulging in soft blandish- 
ments, she, with her imprudent confidente, ven- 
tured upon all kinds of malicious minauderies to- 
wards the Cardinal. They dared to jest with and 
ridicule his professions, and to devise des puits 
d* amour, into which they devoutly hoped he might 
fall. One day the flippant Duchess told his Emi- 
nence that her Majesty would be charmed, she 
thought, to see a churchman arrayed in cloth of 


silver gris de lin ! Still further, these thought- 
less women are said to have indulged their mirth. 
The Count de Brienne is the relater of the anec- 
dote, which he thus retails : 25 " The Queen and 
her confidente were at this time mad with fun and 
frolic. One day, when they were conversing to- 
gether, and could talk and laugh at nothing save 
at the expense of the amorous Cardinal, Madame 
de Qievreuse said, c He is, I assure you, passion- 
ately smitten, and I know of nothing which he 
would not do to please your Majesty. Shall I 
send him here some evening, dressed en baladin, 
to dance a saraband ? Shall I ? Would your 
Majesty like it ? ' ' What folly ! ' replied the 
Queen ; nevertheless, Anne was young, she was a 
woman, she was full of spirit and fun and the idea 
diverted her. The great minister, although he had 
in hand all the politics of Europe, could not defend 
his heart from the assaults of love. He accepted 
the singular rendezvous proposed by the Duchess 
for already he believed himself secure of conquest. 
Boccan, who played admirably on the violin, was 
summoned. Secrecy was impressed upon him, 
but when are such secrets kept ? Richelieu ap- 
peared clad in pantaloons of green velvet, at his 
garters hung silver bells, on his hands were cas- 
tanets, and he danced the saraband, which Boccan 
played. The Queen and her favourite, attended 
by Vautier and by Beringhen, remained concealed 
behind a screen through which the gestures and 
movements of the dancer were seen ! ' : 

The Cardinal speedily detected the escapades 


of which he had become the victim, and resented 
the insult ; at any rate, his project of capti- 
vating the mind of the giddy young Queen had 
failed. " She rejected," he complained, " his 
friendship, his paternal care ; and in the haughti- 
ness of her Austrian blood despised his counsels." 
If Richelieu failed, as recorded by de Brienne and 
other chroniclers, to obtain power over the mind 
of Anne of Austria, it is certain that the minister 
discerned a waywardness in her character, which 
convinced him of the necessity of compassing 
her subjugation by rougher and more arbitrary 
measures. Fate did not long withhold from 
the unscrupulous minister the power which he 

The treaty with England, by which a daughter 
of Henri IV. was given to Charles I., was finally 
signed in Paris, March 13, 1625, after the death of 
James I., who had previously subscribed the 
marriage contract of his heir with Henriette 
Marie. The Earls of Carlisle and Holland were 
the ambassadors sent by Charles to sign, on his 
behalf, the articles and the private arrangements 
agreed to between the courts and to be present 
at the marriage ceremony, which took place, May 
llth, 1625, on a platform of state raised before 
the portal of Notre Dame. Madame de Chev- 
reuse had been the great promoter of the alliance, 
being won over to English interests by Lord 
Holland, " who had," says Bishop Racket, " an 
amorous temper and a wise head, and could 
court it as smoothly as any man with the French 


ladies." Marie de' Medici also sanctioned her 
daughter's marriage with a heretic prince, and 
entered into the views of Richelieu, who desired, 
with politic foresight, to wrest from the Hugue- 
nots of the realm their great ally, by uniting the 
crowns in matrimonial alliance. The young 
Queen at first declared herself inimical to the alli- 
ance, on account of her sister the Infanta Mar- 
guerite, whom she held to have been betrayed 
and deserted by King Charles. Persuaded by 
Madame de Chevreuse, Anne, swayed by a multi- 
tude of motives, at length cordially congratulated 
her sister-in-law, whose society, nevertheless, she 
seems to have seldom sought, and declared her- 
self " so truly French as to prefer the alliance of 
Charles with Henriette rather than that with her 
own sister Madame 1' Infante, 26 for whom she had 
other views ! ' : King James, before his decease, 
had issued a command to the Duke of Bucking- 
ham " to get the English fleet in order, to bring 
over our dearly beloved daughter, the Princess 
Henrietta " : a mandate confirmed by the new 
sovereign, who was even more infatuated than 
his father with the superb favourite. Great was 
the sensation at the French court when it was 
announced that the Duke, the dispenser of the 
revenues of three potent realms, was about to 
shine in Paris. Many a heart throbbed in expec- 
tation of the visit, and amongst those whose 
anticipations were perhaps the keenest, was the 
fair Queen of France and her companion Madame 
de Chevreuse. 


At this period Anne possessed as little influence 
in the state as her friend perhaps, indeed, a less 
degree of power because Madame de Chevreuse 
lavished wit, beauty and wealth to win adher- 
ents, and was fettered by no scruples. 

The King seldom saw his consort in private. He 
was often absent from Paris on short military 
campaigns, and when resident at the Louvre 
Anne was too petulant and resentful to submit to 
his brusquerie, or too impatient to devote herself 
to the task of soothing his melancholy, or of shar- 
ing the dreary conversation and still more dreary 
musical entertainment of two guitars and a violin, 
which often whiled away the evenings in his 
Majesty's apartments. Louis had nothing to say 
to a young and beautiful woman ; he loved to sit 
in silent abstraction and disliked the presence 
of ladies. His praises of Richelieu incensed the 
Queen, as did also his habitual abuse of Spain 
and the dynasty of Hapsburg, whose overthrow, 
he was wont to declare, it was the high mission of 
France to accomplish. This indifference between 
the royal couple enabled Richelieu to insert the 
wedge of a still more entire disunion ; the minister 
and the Queen-mother inspired the mind of Louis 
with distrust of his wife, and Anne did nothing 
to kindle love or to command respect. 

The Duke de Chevreuse had been appointed as 
the proxy of King Charles to wed Henrietta ; he 
was also, with the Duchess his wife, chosen to con- 
duct Queen Henrietta to Dover, to meet her newly 
espoused lord. The Duke's wealth and splendid 


jewels was the public reason assigned for the dis- 
tinction conferred upon him ; for Madame de 
Chevreuse possessed, by the bequest of her first 
husband, the diamonds of the unfortunate Mar- 
quise d'Ancre. One evening Lord Holland visited 
the Duke de Chevreuse unexpectedly and found 
him, with his consort, dressed for a masque at the 
Louvre ; " but never did I before behold such 
jewels, and never again expect to see such pro- 
fusion adorning the persons of subjects ! " 27 The 
duchess coveted the ambassage to the court of 
England, not so much to display her diamonds, as 
the lustre of her eyes before the admiring gaze of 
Lord Holland, a fact which she scrupled not to 
confess. The marriage ceremony of the Princess 
Maria Henrietta remained a memorable pageant 
to Queen Anne of Austria ; as on this occasion 
only, during the reign of her consort, did she 
publicly enjoy the magnificence and appareil of 
her position as Queen-consort. At this ceremony, 
nevertheless, she was compelled to yield prece- 
dence to Marie de' Medici. 28 The charming bride, 
Princess Henrietta, won, by her grace and amia- 
bility, the praise of the English ambassadors. 
" My lord," wrote Lord Holland to the Duke of 
Buckingham, " I protest that she is a lovely and 
sweet young creature. Her growth is not great, 
but they all swear that her sister, the Princess of 
Piedmont (Madame Christine), was not taller than 
she is at her age." 29 In most of his despatches 
Holland mentions Anne of Austria, so that the 
imagination of Buckingham, by the time he 


arrived in France, fired by dwelling on the beauty, 
the wrongs and the isolation of the Queen, was 
ready to assign evil significance to every kindly 
overture tendered by her Majesty. Rumours 04 
the superb retinue appointed to attend the Duke 
of Buckingham excited curiosity and interest in 
Paris. It was ironically said " that King Louis 
must vacate his Louvre to afford space for the 
Duke and his suite ! " On the 24th of May, 
Buckingham entered Paris ; his suite consisted 
of seven hundred persons ! He was accompanied 
by the Marquis of Hamilton, by his brother-in- 
law the Earl of Denbigh, and by six gentlemen, 
sons of noble families. His equipages consisted 
of three coaches lavishly gilt and adorned, drawn 
each by eight horses. Buckingham was also at- 
tended by a band of musicians ; and by his staff 
of Thames watermen twenty-two in number 
clad in rich liveries. For his personal attire 
Buckingham made elaborate preparation, " for, 
my lord, they are here so fine, so curious, and so 
magnificent, that your Excellency will be much 
pleased," had been the report of Gerbier, steward 
of the Duke's household, sent by his master to 
purchase paintings and goldsmiths' work in 
France. " For his body, my lord had twenty- 
seven suits embroidered and laced with silk and 
silver plushes, besides one satten uncut velvet 
suit, set all over, both suit and cloak, with dia- 
monds, the value whereof is thought to be about 
10,000 pounds. He has, moreover, a feather made 
with great diamonds, a sword-girdle, hat-band, 


and spurs, all studded with diamonds, and an- 
other rich suit of purple satten embroidered with 
fine pearls." 30 The noble and handsome face of 
Buckingham beamed with delight, when, after 
making his obeisance to the King and the Queen- 
mother in the great hall of the Louvre, he inclined 
before the fair young sovereign, whose attractions 
had so stimulated his vanity and presumption. 
The jealous and carping spirit of the French cava- 
liers found no rallying point as they beheld the 
personal gifts of Villiers and the kingly carriage 
" of the handsomest-bodied man of England." 
The polish of his address, which Clarendon lauds 
as " sweet and accostable," and his generosity and 
magnificence were noted with admiration. Never- 
theless, the pomp affected by the Duke kindled 
the ire of his entertainers ; 31 and his gifts, which 
were at first accepted with gratitude, offended by 
their prodigality. 

The impression made on the Duke by the charms 
of Anne of Austria increased his infatuation, while 
Anne herself imprudently gave him every oppor- 
tunity of access to her presence. Madame de 
Chevreuse continued to be the arch-temptress, and 
persuaded her royal mistress, at the suggestion, it 
is said, of Lord Holland, that to flatter and en- 
courage the passion of the Duke would tend to the 
glory of France ; inasmuch as the Queen, reigning 
over the heart of Buckingham, would govern the 
counsels of King Charles. Nevertheless, the Queen 
admitted the reality of Buckingham's attentions 
with reluctance. Madame de Motteville asserts 


that no treason to her husband and King entered 
the imagination of Anne of Austria. The Duke was 
handsome and the pearl of European chivalry, 
and by the extraordinary familiarity in which he 
lived with King Charles was admitted by other 
monarchs to intimate freedoms. Proud, therefore, 
of her conquest and glad, perhaps, to exhibit 
before her husband's eyes the homage which her 
charms excited in the bosom of the most fastidious 
of cavaliers Anne acted on the evil counsel of 
Madame de Chevreuse, forgetting her queenly 
rank. " The Duke of Buckingham," relates Ma- 
dame de Motteville, 32 whose mother, at this period, 
held the office of bed-chamber woman to Anne of 
Austria, " had the audacity to attack her Majesty's 
heart. He was tall, well-made, handsome, noble, 
spirited, magnificent, liberal and the favourite of 
a great king. He had the spending of all his 
master's treasure, with the loan of all the crown 
jewels of England to adorn his person. Is it 
marvellous, therefore, that, possessed of so many 
amiable qualities, his aim was high ? or that he 
indulged in noble, but dangerous and blamable, 
desires ? If the happiness was his of persuading 
those around that his homage was not impor- 
tunate, we must presume that his aspirations were 
received, as the Divinities of old were said to 
accept the offering of mortals that is to say, that 
their devotees remained in ignorance whether their 
homage was acceptable or the reverse. The Queen 
made no secret of these events, but has without 
reserve confessed to me that in her youth (though 


the illusion is now dissipated) she did not compre- 
hend that what is termed Fhonnete galanterie could 
be wrong, when no pledges were given or accepted." 
The experiment was a dangerous one, as Anne was 
not long in discovering ; for the penetrating eye 
of Richelieu comprehended the insolence of the 
aspirations cherished by Buckingham. He beheld 
with mingled satisfaction, and perhaps jealousy, 
the condescensions of the Queen ; for he per- 
ceived that no artifice could more certainly serve 
him to neutralise Anne's enmity, and to annul her 
influence, than to arouse the jealous ire of Louis 
XIII. as to his consort's inclination for the Duke 
personally, and her relations with him as the am- 
bassador of the English king. Moreover, a scene of 
levity in the gardens of the Louvre, most disgrace- 
ful in Anne's position as Queen of France, came 
to the ears of the minister ; and which, years 
afterwards, was related in detail by Madame de 
Chevreuse to the famous coadjutor, Cardinal 
de Retz, and is recorded by him, doubtless with 
much profligate exaggeration, in the original 
edition of his Memoirs. 

The homage and adulations of all the ladies 
of the capital seem well-nigh to have turned 
the ill-poised mind of the Duke of Buckingham. 
The beautiful Madame de Chevreuse divided her 
condescensions between himself and her old lover 
Lord Holland ; the Duchess de Guise regaled him 
by sumptuous banquets and masques ; the Queen- 
mother did the honours of her Luxembourg to so 
privileged a guest ; Madame de Sable held recep- 


tions in his honour, in which the wit and learning 
of the capital were arrayed for his delectation ; 
and the brothers de Luynes, Dukes de Chaulnes 
and de Luxembourg, placed their establishments 
at his disposal. Conde held festivals at Chantilly 
in his honour ; the new constable Duke de Lesdi- 
guieres, and his plebeian but hearty consort Marie 
Mignot, welcomed the splendid ambassador and 
his suite. Anne of Austria was gracious ; his 
Majesty King Louis smiled grimly on the genial 
representative of his brother-in-law ; and Queen 
Henriette Marie left nothing to be desired in her 
anxiety to propitiate the favourite who ruled the 
court of England. No wonder that Buckingham, 
amid these fair and witty dames, forgot his " silly 
Kate ; " 33 and was in no haste to exchange the 
revels of the Louvre for those of Whitehall. His so- 
journ in Paris, however, did not exceed eight days. 
The royal bride then left the Louvre, en route for 
Calais, where she was to embark for England. The 
Queens Marie and Anne were to accompany Hen- 
riette and to say farewell at Calais. Richelieu re- 
mained in Paris, while the King, after taking leave 
of his sister, repaired to Fontainebleau, where the 
court was to assemble on returning from Calais. 

On the second day of June 1625, a magnificent 
cavalcade quitted the Louvre and defiled through 
the gates of Paris, on the high road towards 
Amiens. The royal suite comprised the Duke and 
Duchess de Chevreuse, Mesdames de Launay, de 
Boissiere, de Guercheville and de St. George ; the 
Dukes de Bellegarde, de la Force and d'Elbceuf, 


and the Duke of Buckingham and his colleagues, 
Lords Carlisle and Holland. At Amiens the royal 
progress was arrested by the sudden indisposition 
of Marie de' Medici. The court, therefore, halted 
for the space of a few days, that the Queen-mother 
might be able to resume her journey to Calais. 
Marie lodged in the episcopal palace, Anne of 
Austria in a house with a large garden attached, 
on the banks of the Somme. Buckingham, mean- 
time, acted the despairing and distracted lover, at 
the prospect of his approaching separation from 
the young Queen, " that fairest and sweetest of 
sovereigns " ; and to put the mildest construction 
on Anne's conduct, it must have been volatile and 
giddy to a degree, which might warrant most in- 
jurious inferences. There seems to be little doubt 
but that her heart and fancy were touched by the 
devotion of Buckingham, who talked in exalted 
strains of the political wonders which he would 
achieve for France as a tribute to her charms. 
The life of the Queen had been hitherto so joyless 
and uncongenial, that probably the very glow of 
her gratitude at the Duke's homage may have in- 
cited him to bolder enterprise. Festivals, mean- 
time, diversified the sojourn of the court at 
Amiens. The baptism of the eldest son of the 
Duke de Chaulnes 34 was celebrated by a fete given 
at the citadel. The sponsors of the young heir were 
the three queens, Marie, Anne and Henrietta, and 
Monsieur. Buckingham on this occasion appeared 
in magnificence truly regal, " portant le plus bel 
habillement, et mieux assort! qui se verra jamais ! " 


He wore the collars and badges of four Orders 
the Garter, the St. Esprit, the Golden Fleece and 
the Order of St. George. His hat was adorned 
with a heron's plume blazing with diamonds, and 
fastened by a cluster of five of the largest dia- 
monds belonging to the British crown. A ball 
followed the banquet, which was opened by Buck- 
ingham and the Queen, Monsieur dancing with his 
sister, Queen Henriette. Madame de Chevreuse 
followed, led by Lord Holland, and the Duke de 
Chaulnes danced with the young Duchess d'El- 
bceuf , 35 The next day Monsieur gave a sumptuous 
entertainment. At the conclusion of the banquet, 
Buckingham and the English ambassadors es- 
corted Queen Anne to her abode. In the garden 
on the banks of the Somme, in the soft June moon- 
light, another suspicious interview between the 
Queen and the Duke of Buckingham ensued, 
which produced a disastrous impression even on 
her Majesty's truest friends, who felt how un- 
generously the Duke had compromised their royal 
mistress. It appears that the Queen, attended by 
the Duchess de Chevreuse, by her lady-in-waiting, 
Madame du Vernet, and by her equerry, M. de 
Putange, and accompanied by the Duke of Buck- 
ingham, and by Lord Holland, strolled into the 
garden at dusk hour. The Duke led the Queen, 
Madame de Chevreuse was escorted by Holland, 
and Madame du Vernet by M. de Putange. It was 
the duty of this last-named person never to lose 
sight of his royal mistress, but to be always ready 
to perform any slight service which she might 


require. Nothing at first occurred to disturb the 
serenity of the promenaders ; the Queen and her 
cavalier, with the other personages of the suite, 
reposed for some time on chairs by the river side, 
enjoying the refreshing breeze. Anne at length 
rose, and was led by the Duke into an alley shaded 
on one side by lofty elms, and on the other closed 
by a tall trellis covered with creeping plants. In- 
stead of following the Queen, Madame de Chev- 
reuse and her cavalier turned into another sombre 
walk, while M. de Putange and his companion 
discreetly remained seated where they were, not 
wishing to intrude on the conversation of such 
illustrious personages the more so, as Putange 
declared that he supposed M. de Buckingham had 
some message to impart to her Majesty before his 
departure, which was fixed for the following day. 
In a few minutes the voice of the Queen was heard 
summoning her equerry. Madame du Vernet and 
Putange hastened to join their royal mistress, 
whom they found agitated and discomposed, 
while Buckingham, with his hand grasping the 
hilt of his sword, leaned defiantly against the 
trellis. Anne began to reprimand her lady and 
her equerry for having quitted her ; but when re- 
spectfully asked the cause of her alarm, her 
Majesty replied in confusion, " that its cause was, 
surprise at finding herself alone with M. PAm- 
bassadeur." " The Duke of Buckingham," relates 
la Porte, 88 an equerry who was in attendance on 
the Queen at Amiens, " finding himself alone with 
her Majesty, and favoured by the gathering ob- 


scurity, took the insolent liberty of attempting to 
kiss the Queen, who immediately cried out, so that 
aid quickly arrived. Putange, equerry in waiting, 
was not far away ; and doubtless the consequences 
might have been perilous had not Putange per- 
mitted the said Duke to retire. Everybody in the 
garden soon gathered on the spot ; then every- 
body fled, and it was resolved to suppress all 
mention of the matter." 37 

" Chance," says the methodical Madame de 
Motteville, the confidente of Anne's more sober 
years, " having led her Majesty with the Duke of 
Buckingham into a walk concealed by a tall trellis 
or palisade, the Queen, surprised at finding herself 
alone, and doubtless importuned and frightened 
by some too passionate expressions from the Duke, 
cried out aloud, and calling her equerry blamed 
him for having neglected to follow her. By this 
cry her Majesty demonstrated her wisdom and 
virtue, preferring unsullied innocence and self- 
respect, rather than to yield to the prompting of 
fear which possessed her, lest her cry of distress, 
coming to the ears of the King, might cost her 
much sorrow. If on this occasion," continues 
Anne's warm apologist, " her Majesty betrayed 
that her heart was susceptible of some tenderness 
for the man who adored her, it must be owned that 
her love for virtuous purity and propriety pre- 
vailed." 38 The following day, Buckingham'quitted 
Amiens with Queen Henrietta. Marie and Anne 
escorted the bride for a distance of one league on 
her road, for the Queen-mother continued too 


unwell to make the entire journey to Calais, and 
King Charles was beginning to be impatient and 
to wonder at the delay of his bride. " The Queen 
did me the honour to confide to me," says Madame 
de Motteville, " that when the Duke of Bucking- 
ham presented himself to say a last farewell and 
to kiss her robe, she was sitting on the front seat of 
her coach with the Princess de Conty by her side, 
and that the said Duke hid his face behind the 
curtain as if to speak a few words in private, but 
in reality to conceal his tears, which were falling 
plentifully. The Princess de Conty then said that 
she could answer to the King for the virtue of the 
Queen, though she could not speak so positively 
of the hardness of her heart, as the tears of the 
Duke evidently affected her spirits." Enough had, 
however, been done and said to render very 
bitter the future life of Anne of Austria, and to 
fill the mind of Louis XIII. with suspicion. From 
the period of the advent of Richelieu to power the 
young Queen was always attended by his shadow, 
in the person of a household spy and informer, but 
who the person then was thus employed by his 
Eminence does not clearly appear, though pro- 
bably it was Madame du Vernet. 39 

The Duke of Orleans, and all the chief noblemen 
in attendance at Amiens, accompanied Queen 
Henrietta to Boulogne, leaving their Majesties 
with a very limited suite. Tempestuous winds, 
however, unfortunately prevented the embarka- 
tion of the Queen of England. The English fleet 
lay at anchor in Boulogne roads, having landed 


the Duchess of Buckingham, the Countess of Den- 
bigh and the Marchioness of Hamilton, who had 
been despatched by King Charles to pay homage 
to their royal mistress. The delay lasted for more 
than a week, during which Anne frequently cor- 
responded with Madame de Chevreuse and sent 
her letters by La Porte. " I came and I returned," 
says the latter ; "I carried letters to Madame de 
Chevreuse and returned with her replies, which 
appeared to be of the utmost consequence, be- 
cause Queen Anne ordered M. le Due Chaulnes to 
take care that the gates of Amiens were never 
closed, so that I might not be delayed at any hour, 
even in the night." 40 Anne at the time when she 
issued so unusual an order little dreamed of the 
construction likely to be attached thereto. A prey 
to the wildest grief at quitting France, Bucking- 
ham determined to bid one more distracted adieu 
" to the fairest vision which had ever gladdened 
his sight." An express from his master King 
Charles served as an excuse for his sudden return 
to Amiens with La Porte accompanied by Lord 
Holland, under pretext that he was ordered to 
consult the Queen- mother on some matter, as he 
said, relative to the reception in London of Car- 
dinal de Berulle and of Henrietta's unwelcome 
suite of ecclesiastics. Madame de Chevreuse, 
meantime despatched private letters to Anne of 
Austria, warning her of Buckingham's audacious 
intentions and counselling her not to admit him 
to her presence. Buckingham's consort also sent 
a humble missive to Anne, accompanied by an 


elegant fan of feathers adorned with the portraits 
of Charles I. and of her husband. While the Duke 
proceeded to audience of Queen Marie, La Porte 
sought the abode of the young Queen and was 
admitted to her ante-room. Anne was in bed, 
having recently been bled ; she took the letters from 
La Porte with an indifferent air, and exclaimed 
after perusing them, hearing of the arrival of the 
Duke, " They are indeed come back, these cava- 
liers ; I thought that we were delivered finally from 
the society of c ces Messieurs ' ! " Anne, therefore, 
being forewarned, had leisure to deny admittance 
to the Duke had she been wisely inclined. Having 
rapidly despatched his business with the Queen- 
mother, Buckingham hurried to Anne's abode. 

The Queen was jesting with Madame de la 
Boissiere on the Duke's return, when he abruptly 
entered the apartment. Without observing the 
preliminary salutations prescribed by royal eti- 
quette to those persons admitted to such audience, 
the Duke rushed forward, and dropped on his 
knees by the Queen's pillow. So great apparently 
was Anne's surprise, that she remained silent for 
some moments, and then turned an appealing 
look, half laughing, half weeping, at the grim 
matron her lady of honour, who stood in the ruelle 
of the bed. " ' Monseigneur,' said Madame de 
Launay, indignantly, ' it is not our custom to act 
as you are now doing ! ' 'Madame, I am not a 
Frenchman, neither am I bound by your laws ! ' 
So saying," relates Madame de Motteville, " he 
addressed the Queen, uttering aloud tender decla- 


rations. Her Majesty replied by complaining 
of his audacity, but without perhaps showing as 
much anger as she ought ; but still, commanding 
the said Duke, in severe tones, to rise and retire 
from her presence." 41 " When I returned to her 
Majesty to receive her orders for the morrow," 
nevertheless, relates La Porte, " I found both my 
English lords, who were staying much later than 
etiquette admitted. Madame de Launay, the 
lady in waiting, never left her Majesty's side, 
neither would she permit any of the attendant 
women and officers of the chamber to depart, 
until these gentlemen had taken their leave." 42 
Buckingham again obtained audience of Anne on 
the following day, and then took his final de- 
parture for Boulogne. 

The young Queen of England sailed on the 22nd 
of June, 43 much to the delight of King Charles and 
of his goodly company of lords and ladies, who had 
been waiting the arrival of the beautiful bride 
since the beginning of the month. " Queen Henri- 
etta so it is alleged was detained by her 
mother's illness ; but if all be true that is re- 
ported, they can have made no great haste, having 
to march to Boulogne instead of Calais, with a 
little army of 4000 at least, whereof the Duke de 
Chevreuse and his followers make up 300, besides 
60 that belong to his kitchen." 

On the same day the French court set out for 
Fontainebleau, where Louis XIII. waited. Anne 
trembled, as she anticipated the effect which the 
report of the festivities at Amiens might have 


produced on the mind of her stern consort. " The 
King," relates La Porte, the most faithful of all 
Anne's adherents, " testified the strongest jealousy 
at all these proceedings, and believed the 
malignant interpretation put upon them by her 
Majesty's enemies. The Queen- mother, however, 
tried to disabuse her son's mind, and told him 
that it was nothing, for that if the Queen had 
desired to do evil it was impossible, she having had 
so many around her. This reason, though incon- 
testable, did not extinguish the jealousy of the 
King, as he proceeded to demonstrate." On the 
20th of July, just five days after the arrival of 
Anne of Austria at Fontainebleau, Louis sent his 
confessor, le P. Segueran, to intimate to Madame 
du Vernet his will that she should resign her 
office of dame d'atours to the Queen his consort 
and retire from court. The same dismissal was 
given to M. de Putange and to the Queen's first 
physician, Ribera, 44 who both departed from the 
palace on the same day. The Chevalier du Jars, 
another officer of the Queen's household, whom 
her Majesty had just sent to England with letters 
for Madame de Chevreuse, and one whom she 
especially favoured, was likewise dismissed. La 
Porte was also included in the sentence, his zeal 
for the Queen's service being well known. On the 
21st of July, therefore, Segueran again made his 
ominous appearance at her Majesty's lever. " The 
King, Madame, desires that you will still dismiss 
another servant of your household of the name of 
La Porte." " The Queen looked at me very 


sorrowfully, and then desired the reverend 
father to say to his Majesty, that she begged him 
to name at once all those persons whom he would 
not permit her to retain, that the affair might be 
ended." These proceedings greatly increased the 
discord between the royal pair. 45 Louis addressed 
the sharpest of written rebukes to his thoughtless 
consort, and even threatened her with divorce. 
" Teatino ! so early a visit as this to my lady 
Queen bodes no good. Alas ! the signs are evil ! ' : 
had been the exclamation of Dona Estephania, 
Anne's Spanish tirewoman and nurse, when she 
had admitted Father Segueran to the presence of 
her royal mistress. 

Anne remained at Fontainebleau in a condition 
of great depression and solitude for upwards of 
two months. She seems to have offered no excuses 
to her royal husband, while her resentment 
against Richelieu glowed fiercely. Anne, in her 
wrath, accused the Cardinal of seeking to sow 
dissension between the King and herself to pro- 
cure her divorce, so that Louis might marry 
Richelieu's niece, la Veuve Combalet a pretty but 
shrewish woman, who, during her uncle's despotic 
reign, shared his influence, and became the di- 
vinity of the politic Parisians. Richelieu made 
several attempts to conciliate her Majesty and to 
intercede for her restoration to the good graces of 
her husband. Anne repulsed every overture, 
but drew forth her weapons of retaliation, and 
" offered the astute Cardinal war to the death." 
It might have been supposed that the chagrin and 


anxiety which Anne had endured would have 
taught her prudence, instead of which her cor- 
respondence multiplied with Madame de Chev- 
reuse, who still remained in England, and with 
the newly-arrived Spanish ambassador, the Mar- 
quis de Mirabel. She manifested interest in all 
the proceedings of the Duke of Buckingham, and 
once, when some alleged act of the Duke's was 
accidentally discussed in her presence, she coolly 
contradicted the report, saying, " je viens de re- 
cevoir de ses lettres ! ' In England, also, the 
Duke's enthusiasm for Anne of Austria was not 
tempered by prudential considerations, or by 
delicacy for the feelings and honour of a great 
monarch, the brother of his own royal mistress, 
Queen Henrietta. He wore Anne's portrait, 
toasted her at the Whitehall banquets, displayed 
her likeness in most of the chambers of his princely 
mansions, disregardful of the feelings of his own 
" silly Kate " ; all which aberrations were duly 
chronicled by the French ambassador in London, 
and transmitted for the perusal of the Cardinal 
minister, and to become the source of endless 
gloomy ponderings in the mind of King Louis. 


1 When she was informed of the assassination of Concini, Marie de' 
Medici exclaimed, " J'ai regne sept ans ; je n'attends plus qu'une 
couronne au Ciel ! " Some one present uttered an ejaculation of pity 
for the fate of the marquis and his wife. Marie wrathfully replied, 
" Qu'on ne me parle plus de ces gens-la ; je les ai avertis du malheur 
ou ils se sont precipites ! Que ne suivoient-ils mes avis ? " 

2 Recit veritable de tout ce qui s'est passe au Louvre, &c., Archives 
Curieuses, t. 2, 2eme serie. Hist, de la Mere et du Fils, Richelieu. 
Le Vassor, Hist, du Regne de Louis XIII. Vie de Marie de' Medici, 
Dreux du Radier. 


3 Histoire Tragique du Marquis d'Ancre et de sa Femme, Archives 
Curieuses, t. 2, 2eme serie. Bibl. Imp. MS. Dupuy, vol. 661, fol. 127. 

4 Dreux du Radier, Vie de la Heine Anne d'Autriche. Cayet, Chron. 
Septenaire. Tallemant des Reaux. Concini's son eventually became 
possessed of the foreign investments made by his parents, and inherited 
a patrimony of 2000 pounds of annual revenue. He died without 
posterity, at Florence. 

5 " La douceur complaisante de son visage luy est comme une lettre 
generale de creance pour toute sorte d'affaires ; et vers toutes sortes 
de personnes." 

6 " La femme de Luynes est une escervelee, qui n'a que dix-neuf ans, 
a laquelle son mari bailie une governante pour la conduire ; et cepen- 
dant M. de Luynes veut qui la maison de la reine passe sous sa dis- 
position," &c. Le Contadin Provenal, Pamphlet centre M. le Due 
de Luynes, Connetable de France. 

7 MS. Simancas, A. 75. Capefigue, Vie d'Anne d'Autriche ; the words of 
the despatch are " y que por no veria, dixava no dormir con la Reyna." 

8 " Le Roy etait bon confiturier, bon jardinier ; il fit murir des pois verts, 
qu'il envoy a vendre au marche. On dit que Montauron les acheta bien 
cher, car c'etaient les premiers venus." Tallemant, Vie de Louis XIII. 

9 Bassompierre, Journal de ma Vie. 

10 Hist, de la Mere et du Fils, t. 2. Dreux du Radier, t. 5. 

" Marier ma fille a un prince etranger sans m'avoir appe!6e, afin 
que ma honte soit manifeste a tous les roys et princes de la Chrestiente, 
et de toute la France," wrote Marie, indignantly, in the letter addressed 
to her son, and entitled " Plaintes de la Reyne-Mere au Roy son Fils." 
2 Anne wrote from Tours a pleasant little note to Madame de Montglat, 
who still resided at St. Germain, as preceptress to the sisters of the King. 
Her Majesty desired her love to the Princesses " mais non pas a ma 
so3ur de Verneuil, qui est une paresseuse." MS. Bibl. Imp. F. fr. 3818. 
13 " La Duchesse de Luynes etait tres bien avec son mari." 
Madame de Motteville, Mem., vol. i. 

L4 One day Louis, riding by the Hotel de Luynes, saw the English 
ambassador alight from his coach and enter the mansion. " Ah ! 

11 va a 1'audience du Roi Luynes," bitterly exclaimed the King. 

15 Anne Marie de Luynes, who died a nun, at Maubuisson, in great 
odour of piety. The son of the Constable, Louis Charles Albert, Due 
de Luynes, was born December 25, 1620, and died October 1690, 

16 Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency. 

17 Journal de ma Vie, Bassompierre. Annee 1622. 

18 Laurence de Clermont, the third wife of the Constable Henri Due 
de Montmorency. See Freer's Last Decade of a Glorious Reign, for 
the history of the Duchess, and of her persecutions, vol. 2, p. 17. 

9 Un gentil mot du Sieur de Pluvinel etait Que le Roy a pied esfc 
Roy de ses sujets ; mais qu'a cheval il est Roy des Rois voulant 
montrer combien est excellente en cette art sa majeste. Le Portrait 


du Roy Louis XIII., par le Sieur de Bellemavre au Sieur de Merencourt 
a Venise. Paris, 1618. 

20 Marie de Rohan, widow of the deceased Constable de Luynes. She 
married the Duke de Chevreuse in 1622. " C'etait le second des MM. de 
Guise, et le mieux fait de tous les quatre : le Cardinal etait plus beau, 
mais M. de Chevreuse etait Fhomme de la meilleure mine qu'on pouvait 
voir ; il avait de 1'esprit passablement." Tallemant, t. 2, p. 38. 

21 " Le Due de Montmorency etait tres assidu aupres d'Anne 
d'Autriche ; il fit meme le passion6. Louis en parut alarme ; et 
les amis du Due lui conseillerent de s'absenter de la cour, Marie de' 
Medici se chargeant de convaincre son fils que ce bruit injurieux a 
la jeune reine n'etait qu'une imposture des ennemis de Montmorency." 
Anquetil, Tallemant. Madame de Motteville allows that the Duke 
permitted himself great liberty towards the Queen, under the cloak 
of what was termed " la galanterie espagnole." 

22 Frangois Leclerc de Tremblay, born in Paris, Nov. 4, 1577, son 
of Jean Leclerc de Tremblay, French Ambassador at Venice, chancellor 
of the Duke d'Alen9on, brother of Henry III., and of Marie de la 
Fayette, daughter of Claude de la Fayette, Sieur de St. Romain. He 
took the habit of St. Francis, February 2, 1599, and entered the 
monastery of the Great Franciscans, Rue St. Honore. 

23 Marie Madeleine de Vignerot, daughter of Rene de Vignerot, 
Seigneur de Pont de Courlay, and of Fran9oise du Plessis-Richelieu, 
sister of the Cardinal. Marie de' Medici presented the bride with a 
dowry of 200,000 livres, and a parure of diamonds worth 12,000 crowns. 

24 " Le Cardinal haissait Monsieur ; et craignant, vu le peu de sante 
que le Roi avait, qu'il ne parvint a la couronne, il fit dessein de gagner 
la Reine. Pour parvenir a son but, il la mit sans qu'elle sut d'ou cela 
venait fort mal avec le Roi et avec la Reine-mere, jusque-la qu'elle 
etait fort maltraitee de 1'un et de 1'autre. Apres il lui fit dire, par 
Madame de Fargis, dame d'atours, que si elle vouloit, il le tireroit 
bient6t de la misere dans laquelle elle vivoit." Tallemant, t. 2, p. 282. 

25 Mem. de Brienne, 1. 1, p. 274. " On rioit a gorge deploy6e ; et qui 
pouvait s'en empecher, puisque apres cinquante ans j'en ris encore moi- 
meme ? " asks the Count de Brienne, when he ends his story, 

26 The Infanta Marguerite espoused the Emperor Ferdinand III. 

27 Thomson's Life of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. 

28 Godefroy, Grand Cerem. de France, t. 2. Mercure de France, ann. 
1625. "Apres suivaitle reine de France tres superbementvetued'une robe 
de toile d'argent en broderie ; menee et conduite par ses deux ecuyers." 

29 Thomson's Life of the Duke of Buckingham. 

30 Bassompierre. Mem. d'un Favory du Due d'Orleans : ecrit par 
M. de Bois d'Annemets 1'heureux Favory. Thomson's Life of the 
Duke of Buckingham. Cabala MS., 312. 

31 The Duke was hospitably entertained by the Duke de Chevreuse 
at his h6tel, Rue St. Thomas du Louvre. 


32 Mem. de Madame de Motteville, 1. 1. Madame de Motteville was not 
an eye-witness of the facts she records, as she had not then permanently 
entered into the service of the Queen. She records the reminiscences and 
confessions of Anne of Austria. It was in the year 1640 that Madame 
de Motteville became resident bed-chamber woman to the Queen. 

33 The name given to the Duchess of Buckingham in their corre- 
spondence by King Charles and her husband. 

34 Honore d'Albert, Seigneur de Cadenet, created Duke de Chaulnes 
on his marriage with Charlotte d'Ailly, Countess de Chaulnes and 
de Pequiny. The King gave him the government of Picardy. 

35 Catherine Henriette de. Bourbon, daughter of Henri Quatre and 
Gabrielle d'Estrees. The Duchess died June 20, 1663. 

36 Laporte, who was confidentially trusted by the queen, and who 
was then an inmate of her abode in Amiens, gives the following relation 
of the adventure : " Apres s'etre bien promenee la reine se reposa 
quelque temps, et toutes les dames aussi ; puis elle se levait et dans le 
tournement d'une allee ou les dames ne la suivirent pas, sitdt le due de 
Buckingham se voyant seul avec elle a la faveur de 1'obscurite qui 
commen9ait a chasser la lumiere, s'emancipa fort insolemment jusqu'a 
vouloir caresser la Reine, qui en meme temps fit un cri auquel tout le 
monde accourut." Mem. Parti culiers de La Porte : Geneve, 1756. 

37 Ibid., Mem. de La Porte. 

38 Mem. de Motteville, tome 1. The Duke de la Rochefoucauld also 
relates the incident, which created unspeakable consternation and 
comment. He says, " Que la reine fut contrainte d'appeler ses femmes." 

39 Nicolette d'Albert, youngest sister of the Constable de Luynes ; she 
espoused M. Vernet, a person of low origin, dancing-master to the pages 
of the Duke de Montmorency. Mademoiselle d'Albert, previous to her 
marriage, had greatly compromised her reputation. She was hand- 
some and sprightly, and through her brother's influence was appointed 
dame d'atours to the Queen, while her husband was made Governor 
of Calais. She subsequently married Henri de la Marck Due de 
Bouillon, through the favour of Richelieu. 

40 Mem. Particuliers de M. de La Porte. 

41 Mem. de Motteville, t. 1. 

42 La Porte, Mem. Particuliers. These memoirs are included in the 
Collection Petitot. 

43 Mem. d'un Favory de Monseigneur le Due de Orleans. " C'etoit 
une chose admirable de voir se superbe appareil (de vaisseaux Anglais) ; 
on ne se la peut representer qu'on ne s'imagine de voir une grande 
ville flottante ayant plusieurs clochers." 

44 The reason of the disgrace of Anne's Spanish physician has never 
been ascertained. Ribera was not permitted to remain in France. 

45 Anne sharply observed one day to her royal consort, " Qu'elle n'avait 
pu empecher que le Due de Boukingham n'eut de 1'estime, et meme 
de 1'amour d'elle ! " an observation which greatly incensed the King. 



THE marriage of Madame Henriette over, the 
excitement of the court subsided, and the daily 
incidents of the palace were varied only by the 
dissensions and reconciliations of Marie de' Medici 
and her minister. These violent spirits differed, 
clamoured, threatened each other with annihila- 
tion, wept and embraced. The successful issue of 
Richelieu's policy in the affair of the strongholds 
of the Valteline, which France refused to deliver 
up to the Holy See pending the settlement of the 
question relative to the disputed possession of 
these places, raised the reputation of his Eminence 
to high repute. The important concessions, 
moreover, which Richelieu wrested from some of 
the chief Huguenots of the realm, and his firm 
attitude in upholding the majesty and dignity of 
the crown, delighted the King, whose aspirations 
were despotic though he lacked firmness to en- 
force his will. In the deportment of the Cardinal 
there was a novel ingredient which astonished and 
awed the swarm of unruly courtiers, who had ren- 
dered the regency of the Queen-mother one vast 
cabal. Richelieu jested with the merry, wept with 
the melancholy, granted favours to the unfortun- 



ate, looked downcast under verbal obloquy, and 
even seemed anxious to turn away wrath by the 
magic of a soft answer ; great, therefore, had been 
the individual surprises of certain railers, malcon- 
tents and caballers, to find themselves suddenly 
transported to the Bastille by virtue of a privy- 
council warrant ; or seized in the night, and con- 
veyed under escort to some distant chateau, all 
under the hand and seal of the gracious church- 
man who dominated at the Louvre. Le Pere 
Joseph, 1 or /' Eminence Grise, as was the sobriquet 
of the able tool of Richelieu so clever, indeed, 
that doubt arises whether the Cardinal was not the 
puppet, and le Pere Joseph the motive power in 
the relation between these astute men also was 
fast rising into a personage of importance, being 
treated with deference by the ministers whom it 
had pleased Richelieu to retain at their posts. 

Over the life of Anne of Austria, however, the 
darkest blight had fallen. Her lord, King Louis, 
suffered her indeed to live under the sheltering 
roof of his royal Louvre, but he permitted her 
there to exist only as a political and social nullity 
to whom the most ordinary amusements of her 
rank and station were denied : a Queen who had 
to ask permission to quit the precincts of the 
palace, who could confer no favour, and whose 
splendour, even on public occasions, was surpassed 
by that of the Queen-mother, to whom she had to 
yield precedence. The proud spirit of the Queen 
rebelled against these restrictions ; over the heart 
of her husband her beauty exercised no spell, to 


him her vivacity was repellant, while the very 
sound of her rich and sonorous language reminded 
Louis of a foe. No rival, nevertheless, dominated 
over the heart of the boy-king ; the wanton 
beauties of the late reign never attracted a glance 
from the sad eyes of Louis XIII., indeed, flip- 
pancy of manner was punished by exclusion from 
the Louvre a rigour which was for some time un- 
sparingly exercised after the scandals of Henri- 
etta's marriage festivities. Anne's most happy 
time was spent in seclusion at St. Germain, where 
she often craved permission to sojourn followed 
by a few ladies, in order to superintend the forma- 
tion of the gardens planned by Henri Quatre. The 
Queen passionately loved flowers. 2 and a simi- 
larity of taste often brought into her society her 
young and brilliant brother-in-law, Monsieur. Im- 
petuous in all things, Anne gave herself up to the 
pleasure of his society, and discarded in favour 
of Monsieur most of the etiquettes which then 
hedged in a queen of France, even from familiarity 
with her husband's brother. She was heard to 
address Monsieur in public as monfrere, she per- 
mitted him to kiss her hands, to enter her pre- 
sence unannounced, she sent him letters, which 
she asserted related only to botany, a science in 
which the young Duke was an adept. In short, 
with girlish coquetry Anne was preparing for her- 
self a more cruel ordeal than any she had yet 

Gaston, Duke of Orleans, had now attained his 
eighteenth year. Heir-presumptive to a throne 


the occupier of which was childless, and pro- 
nounced by the most learned physicians of the 
realm to be in a condition of health, from epileptic 
fits and other maladies, from which fatal results 
might ensue at any period Monsieur was a per- 
sonage to be revered and conciliated. 

Fondly beloved from his youth upwards by his 
mother, and indulged by her without reason, the 
young Duke, until after the exile of Queen Marie, 
set discipline at defiance. The late King had 
nominated M. de Breves as the governor of his son 
Gaston a statesman of enlightenment, who had 
added to the glory of the reign of Henri Quatre by 
his able diplomacy at foreign courts. His attach- 
ment to Marie de' Medici rendering him suspected, 
de Breves was dismissed by the Constable de 
Luynes, who gave the office to his own early 
patron, the Count de Lude. M. de Lude was too 
wealthy and influential a nobleman to give that 
abject obedience to the royal commands expected 
from him, and therefore soon resigned his post to 
the Marshal d'Ornano, who forthwith entered on 
his functions, and prospered. Monsieur, on the 
completion of his education, became the centre of 
a knot of idle, insolent and mischievous young 
cavaliers, who, living on their wits, and by the 
sufferance of certain potent dames of the court, 
sought to kindle the ambition of their royal 
master, and to urge him into endless schemes 
opposed to the government of the King, all tend- 
ing to their own aggrandisement. The leaders 
amongst these gentlemen were MM. de Puylau- 


rens, de Chalais, de la Valette, de Bois d'Anne- 
mets, the Duke de Vendome and the Grand Prior 
his brother, the young Count de Lude, M. de 
Marcheville, the Count de Louvigny, and MM. de 
Coigneux and de la Riviere and others. 3 These 
unruly spirits professed reverential devotion for 
the Queens, Anne and Marie ; they sympathised 
with the former, and to mark such feeling at- 
tended assiduously the levers of the Spanish ambas- 
sador. The Cardinal de Richelieu they abhorred 
and ridiculed, while they crooned over his 
Majesty, and predicted his early death and the 
consequent elevation of their own royal master. 
Instead of checking this license of word and deed, 
d'Ornano encouraged such, being convinced like- 
wise that Gaston would ultimately become King 
of France. It might seem difficult for these mis- 
chief-makers to find grievances for Monsieur, who 
was young, flattered, indulged and surfeited with 
luxury and wealth ; nevertheless, two wrongs by 
which he was afflicted were discovered, discussed 
and unfolded. The first grievance was the alliance 
contracted for the Duke with Marie de Montpen- 
sier : the which barred him from the free choice 
of a consort, deprived him of the influence accru- 
ing from a foreign alliance, and rendered him for 
ever subject in purse and dignity to his brother the 
King. The betrothal of the Duke to Mademoiselle 
de Montpensier was the subject of much factious 
discussion. The King, the Queen-mother, and 
Richelieu promoted it as a matter of sound policy 
and of honourable fulfilment of a pledge given by 


the late king. The Prince and Princess de Conde 
naturally gave no encouragement to a marriage 
which would probably remove Conde from his 
proud position of the third personage in the realm. 
A portion of the house of Guise-Lorraine jealously 
deprecated the elevation of its head, by the 
marriage of the step-daughter of M. de Guise with 
the heir-presumptive. Gaston himself spoke spite- 
fully of his pale -fiancee, and imprudently de- 
clared that, like M. de Buckingham, he would vow 
allegiance only to his sister-in-law, Queen Anne. 
The young Count de Soissons opposed the alliance 
on the ground that Mademoiselle de Montpensier 
had been promised to himself by Marie de' Medici 
during her regency, in lieu of her own daughter 
Madame Henriette should the alliance of the 
latter with the heir of the English crown be ac- 
complished. The sentiments of the young princess 
were in favour of alliance with Monsieur, and 
probably no person was more astonished than 
Marie de Montpensier herself to hear a union dis- 
cussed which from childhood she had deemed to 
be her destiny. Anne very imprudently suffered 
her wishes and opinions on the alliance to tran- 
spire, which declaration was met on the part of 
the King by an absolute command to Monsieur to 
fulfil his engagement. The Queen-mother at the 
same time reiterated this order, though it is be- 
lieved that she now secretly encouraged the Duke 
in his aversion for his betrothed. The faltering 
health of King Louis rendered Monsieur a grand 
card in the hands of skilful diplomatists. Spain 


wished to maintain the French alliance. Anne of 
Austria, childless, and probably soon likely to be- 
come a widow, pleased the young prince, and was 
said to be herself influenced by his fascinations. 
The question, therefore, arose in the subtle brain 
of the Queen-mother whether sound policy, and a 
due regard to her own interest, did not direct that 
Gaston d'Orleans, on succeeding to his brother's 
crown, should also take to wife the widow of his 
predecessor ? It is asserted, and on very strong 
evidence, that the young Queen likewise pondered 
deeply on this question, and eventually signified 
to Mirabel, and to others, her willingness, in case 
of widowhood, to follow the example of Queen 
Anne de Bretagne, who twice wore the matri- 
monial crown of France. 4 There can be no doubt 
that at this period the alliance between Monsieur 
and the Queens to overthrow the power of Riche- 
lieu was projected. Marie de' Medici fiercely re- 
sented the independence of Richelieu, and hated 
his system of centralisation and repression ; and 
to procure his disgrace, or removal from the 
ministry, was the first necessary step towards 
his overthrow. Whether Anne contemplated the 
dilemma into which her resentment was plunging 
her is doubtful ; the Queen throughout her 
chequered career was ever ready to plot and to 
dissemble, but the consequences of her intrigues 
never seem to have aroused her solicitude. 

Madame de Chevreuse, meantime, that arch and 
daring spirit, so full of resource and constancy, had 
not yet returned to France ; but, alarmed at the 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 101 

wrath of her sovereign, the Duchess had wisely 
remained at Brussels, on a visit to the Arch- 
duchess Infanta Isabel. By some means not on 
record, though probably by a letter from the 
Queen, the Duchess was put au courant with the 
proposed intrigue, and entered into it with 
ardour and with her accustomed audacity. 
Through Madame de Chevreuse, therefore, Anne 
caused a notification to be made to the Marshal 
d'Ornano, the ex-governor, but bosom friend of 
Monsieur, " that it would gratify her much if he 
could find means to prevent the marriage of M. 
d'Orleans with Marie de Bourbon-Montpensier." 6 
" I acted thus, because I believed that this mar- 
riage, favoured by the Queen-mother, was against 
my interests ; because, if the future Madame bore 
children and I had none, she would be more 
highly considered than myself," 6 is Anne's own 
declaration. Amongst the most devoted admirers 
of Madame de Chevreuse was Henry de Talley- 
rand, Prince de Chalais, 7 master of the wardrobe 
to the King and first gentleman to Monsieur, in 
whose train he always appeared. Chalais, there- 
fore, betrayed by the dazzling charms of this 
syren, and too happy to supplant Lord Holland 
in her favour, prepared to obey her behests. 

D'Ornano, meanwhile, having declared himself 
a devoted adherent of Queen Anne, did all he 
could to disgust the Duke of Orleans with his 
bride-elect. " If you, Monseigneur, espouse a sub- 
ject of the King your brother, you will yourself 
fall into greater subjection to his authority. Your 


fortune and lands will ever remain in his Majesty's 
power ; and if at any future period you stand in 
need of foreign support or help, to not one poten- 
tate of Europe can you appeal ! " 8 The foreign 
alliance to which, it is supposed, d'Ornano hinted, 
was the union of Monsieur with the Infanta Mar- 
guerite, sister of Anne, once the betrothed of King 
Charles I. of England and eventually the consort 
of the Emperor Ferdinand III. This alliance- 
failing one with Anne of Austria in the event of 
the death of the King was highly approved by 
Monsieur ; being, as he said, altogether more 
august and profitable, if less wealthy, than a 
marriage with Mademoiselle de Montpensier. 

This grievance of his compulsory marriage 
being well engrafted on the willing mind of Gaston 
d'Orleans, the Marshal d'Ornano next commented 
on his shameful exclusion from the privy council ; 
a disgrace inflicted by the parvenu minister, whose 
dismissal was necessary to vindicate the honour of 
Monsieur. The Duke declared that this slight was 
keenly felt by himself, and that he was deter- 
mined to have redress or to withdraw from court. 
At the beginning of Easter week, 1626, the King 
left Paris for Fontainebleau, accompanied by Mon- 
sieur and by the Queen-mother. Anne likewise 
received a command to follow ; and as her 
Majesty loved very much " a respirer Vair des 
bois," she journeyed thither with pleasure. The 
day following the arrival of the court at Fontaine- 
bleau, Monsieur opened his battery by informing 
King Louis " that it was a reproach and shame to 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 103 

him, that being his Majesty's brother, he had no 
share or influence in affairs of state." A sharp 
discussion ensued, during which Monsieur took 
the opportunity peremptorily to decline the hand 
of Marie de Montpensier, adding, " that the 
neglect which he experienced convinced him of the 
wisdom of the opinion expressed by his friends 
that a foreign alliance was requisite for his honour 
and prosperity." 9 Louis replied soothingly, " that 
he would consider the request and make answer 
in a few days." Richelieu, meantime, had his at- 
tention riveted on the malcontents ; and soon he 
discovered the simmerings of their resentment, 
and fathomed the sullen passiveness of Anne of 
Austria. From her Majesty the eyes of his Emi- 
nence took survey of the position of the Duchess de 
Chevreuse in Brussels, " cettefemme quifaisoit plus 
de mat que personne ; v and with his habitual 
discernment Richelieu divined that some plot, 
hostile to the existing order of affairs in France, was 
in agitation. Monsieur meantime stormed, and 
despatched d'Ornano, the bearer of his complaints, 
to the villa of the Cardinal at Fleury, where the 
prudent prelate had deemed himself safer than to 
abide at Fontainebleau. The Marshal obtained 
audience of the minister, who received Monsieur's 
message without surprise, and declared himself 
' the humble servant of M. d'Orleans." During a 
promenade made by d'Ornano and the minister in 
the gardens of the latter, the Marshal was seized 
with cramp in the leg and a trembling of the 
limbs ; 10 ailments which afterwards were declared 


to be sympathetic with the ire which surged in the 
heart of his Eminence. The following day as 
five days had elapsed since the Duke petitioned 
the King Monsieur sought audience of his 
mother, and announced his resolve to leave Fon- 
tainebleau, adding menaces concerning his in- 
tended destination. Marie, alarmed, soothed her 
son, and promised that, as on the morrow a privy 
council was to sit, his wishes should be gratified. 
From this point it is difficult to follow the Queen- 
mother in her dubious course ; whether or no 
Richelieu temporarily resumed his old power over 
her mind by his concessions relative to Monsieur, 
it is certain that the acts of Marie de' Medici again 
corresponded, for some interval, with the policy of 
the minister. A secret council was holden the same 
evening in the apartments of the Queen-mother, 
at which the King, the Cardinal and the Chan- 
cellor d'Aligre were present. It was resolved to 
gratify Monsieur, but to arrest so pernicious a 
counsellor as the Marshal d'Ornano. The intro- 
duction of the Duke as a privy councillor was 
effected on the morrow, after an angry tirade from 
the Marshal, who claimed, but was refused, the 
privilege of entering the council chamber with his 
late pupil, and standing behind his chair, as the 
secretaries of state attended his Majesty. The 
same night d'Ornano was arrested in the Chambre 
Ovale, and conveyed to the chamber which had 
been used as a temporary prison for the unfor- 
tunate Marshal de Biron, also made a prisoner at 
Fontainebleau. The tumult in the palace was 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 105 

great ; and Puylaurens, one of the mignons of 
Monsieur, rushed to the chamber of the Duke, 
crying out in consternation that M. d'Ornano 
was arrested ! The Duke sprang from his bed in 
frantic passion, and was hastily arraying himself, 
when an equerry entered and summoned him to 
the presence of the King. 

Gaston found the King surrounded by the chief 
noblemen present at Fontainebleau, and looking 
cool and unmoved as he might have been if dis- 
cussing the odds of a game of tennis. In the apart- 
ment was the Queen-mother, en robe de chambre ; 
also the Cardinal. Louis opened the conference 
by calmly saying, " that to his very great regret 
he had been compelled to order the arrest of 
the Marshal d'Ornano, who had treacherously at- 
tempted to create brawls between his brother and 
himself." The eyes of Monsieur sparkled with 
fury. " Your Majesty has been grossly deceived ; 
nobody can judge of the innocence of M. d'Ornano 
better than myself ! Never has he given me advice 
counter to your Majesty's service. The authors of 
this evil deed are abominable and wicked, and 
never will I pardon them until I have reduced 
them to dust under my feet." The Cardinal here 
interposed, and gravely demanded whether Mon- 
seigneur referred in such language to his Majesty's 
ministers ? "I speak of and refer to the accusers 
of M. d'Ornano. See, Messieurs, whether you will 
dare to be amongst their number ! " replied Mon- 
sieur. The King here assured Monsieur of his 
affection, saying, " that he regarded him as a son 


and an only brother, and would soon make clear to 
him les tromperies de M. le Marechal." " The very 
thing I beseech your Majesty to do," responded 
Gaston undauntedly, " as I pray you to give me 
back my friend promptly, when you are assured 
of his innocence ! " Monsieur then abruptly left 
the room. 11 A silence of some moments ensued. 
Richelieu then proposed the further arrest of MM. 
de Masargues and Dangeant, the brother-in-law 
and the secretary of the prisoner ; also that 
Madame la Marechale d'Ornano should be arres- 
ted and conducted outside the gates of Paris, and 
there discharged from custody. 12 His Majesty gave 
assent to these measures, and then dismissed the 
high personages present, complaining of fatigue. 
The next day d'Ornano was conveyed to the 
fortress of Vincennes under a strong guard, and 
confined in its most unwholesome chamber, which 
admitted a pestilential malaria from the moat be- 
neath. 13 The friends of the Marshal asserted that 
he was a victim to the King's indecision respecting 
Monsieur, for that when the Duke was emanci- 
pated from the control of his tutors his Majesty 
had commanded d'Ornano to repress the ardour 
of Gas ton's suit to Mademoiselle de Montpensier. 
The rage of Monsieur was not assuaged when he 
learned the departure of the Marshal for Vin- 
cennes ; and the young cavaliers of his suite 
assiduously inflamed his wrath, especially Chalais 
and M. de Louvigny. The Duke one day suddenly 
encountered the Chancellor d'Aligre, and haugh- 
tily asked him whether he was one of those who 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 107 

had counselled the iniquitous arrest of M. d'Or- 
nano ? Surprised by the excitement of the Duke's 
manner, the Chancellor stammered " that he was 
as much astonished as his royal highness, and had 
nothing to do with the affair " ; an answer which 
was punished by immediate dismissal from office. 14 
The Duke put the same abrupt question to Riche- 
lieu, who boldly responded " that he was not 
intending to make the same answer as M. le Chan- 
celier, who, as well as himself, had advised the 
King to effect that arrest, after hearing his 
Majesty's statements." 

As moderation and apparent disinterestedness 
were assumed by Richelieu at the commencement 
of his power, he immediately petitioned the King 
to suffer him to withdraw to his house at Fleury, 
as he found that he had irrevocably offended Mon- 
sieur. Without waiting for the royal reply, which 
Louis never gave but with hesitation, his Eminence 
ordered his coach and quitted Fontainebleau. 15 

This " flight," as it was termed by Monsieur and 
by the turbulent spirits around him, raised the 
confidence of the conspirators in their insane pro- 
jects, and confirmed them in a criminal design 
they harboured, to rid themselves of the ob- 
noxious minister by taking his life. The Count de 
Soissons promised his co-operation, after exacting 
a solemn declaration from Monsieur that he re- 
linquished all pretensions to the hand of Marie de 
Montpensier. The Duke de Vendome and the 
Grand Prior, his brother, flocked to the standard 
of Monsieur on this supposed triumph of his 


policy ; while frequent communications passed 
between Chalais and Madame de Chevreuse. 
These letters were submitted to Monsieur, who 
showed them to Queen Anne. Madame de Chev- 
reuse, meantime, maintained the closest relations 
with the Marquis de Lainez, an attache of the 
Spanish legation at Brussels. The assassination of 
Richelieu was daringly discussed by these plotters ; 
a deed to be followed by the emancipation of M. 
d'Orle"ans, the liberation of the Queen from her 
matrimonial bondage, and possibly by the com- 
pulsory abdication of Louis XIII. in favour of his 
brother. As a step to the accomplishment of this 
great project, Chalais advised that M. le Grand- 
Prieur, 16 " qui etait ires redoutable et habile, ay ant 
sur tons part en V esprit de Monsieur" should with- 
out delay repair to Havre, and win over his uncle 
the Due de Villars, governor of that important 
port, to the cause of Gaston. Up to this point all 
had prospered in safety and secrecy ; the retire- 
ment of Richelieu from court, however, moved the 
impatient spirit of the hostile clique, and it was 
determined to forestall the slow progress of any 
negotiation with Spain by striking an immediate 
blow at the life of the Cardinal. Nine of Monsieur's 
most intimate friends held council three days after 
the arrest of d'Ornano, and decided the matter 
under the presidency of the Duke ; these persons 
were Chalais, Soissons, the Marquis de la Valette, 17 
Puylaurens, Bois d'Annemets, Louvigny, Mar- 
sillac, Vendome, and St. Gery. The scheme of the 
assassins was simple in its atrocity : it was 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 109 

planned to send six inferior officers of the house- 
hold of Monsieur to Fleury, the country house of 
Richelieu, where the latter was residing alone and 
comparatively unattended, at three o'clock in the 
morning of the day but one following. These 
personages were to rouse the household of his 
Eminence by clamorous shouts ; when admit- 
tance was obtained, which was to be demanded in 
the name of M. d'Or!6ans, who, they were to state, 
was on his road to breakfast at Fleury, they were 
to pick a quarrel with the servants, draw their 
swords, and to assassinate the Cardinal in the 
melee. 18 The Duke was then to put himself at the 
head of the malcontents, and act as circumstances 
might dictate. His seditious challenge was to be 
for the Church, the liberty of the princes of the 
blood, the annihilation of the Huguenots, the 
alliance with Spain, and the rights of the Queen. 
When all was prepared, and nothing but the actual 
blow of the assassin seemed needed to effect the 
longed-for emancipation, Chalais failed his accom- 
plices. He possessed a friend, one M. de Valencey, 
who had appeared to relish the designs of the con- 
federates when a word of disaffection had been 
accidentally dropped in his presence, but who 
had never actually declared himself. To this per- 
sonage Chalais had the weakness to confide the plot 
on the eve of its execution. " How, Monsieur," 
exclaimed Valencey in generous indignation, 
" so audacious and abominable a plot is projected 
by the King's servants, to slay another and a 
cherished servant of his Majesty, and you do not 


hasten to denounce the vile conspiracy ! You will 
at once do so, Monsieur, or take the conse- 
quences of my own immediate revelation of the 
treachery ! ' : In vain Chalais entreated for 
silence ; but Valencey insisted that he should at 
once accompany him to Fleury, and warn M. le 
Cardinal : " Do it, Monsieur, in your own words : 
give your own explanation make the best of it ; 
but go I must to his Eminence alone, or in your 
company." Chalais in despair obeyed, and the 
two repaired to Fleury and obtained audience of 
the Cardinal. Richelieu listened to the story with 
an aspect of pitying compassion, and feigned to 
believe the repeated assertions of Chalais that he 
had always hated the foul plot and had resolved 
to denounce it. His apparent belief, and gentle 
deprecation, with the tears he plentifully shed on 
this occasion, quite reassured the indiscreet young 
cavalier, who hastened from Fleury back to Fon- 
tainebleau, hoping- to prevent the departure of 
Monsieur's band of bravoes. Valencey meantime, 
after receiving the cordial thanks of the Cardinal, 
was directed by him to seek instant audience of 
the King and Queen-mother, and to unfold the 
plot. It was between eleven and midnight when 
Valencey reached Fontainebleau ; but access was 
readily obtained to their Majesties by the pass 
furnished by Richelieu. Marie's consternation was 
intense ; while Louis summoned du Hallier and 
M. de Vitry, and commanded them to repair to 
Fleury, taking thirty archers and thirty horse 
soldiers to guard the Cardinal, whose meekness in 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 111 

remaining at his house after being warned of his 
peril deeply affected their Majesties. 19 This de- 
tachment met Richelieu at dawn on his way to 
Fontainebleau. The Duke's assassins had arrived 
during the night at Fleury, knocked up the house- 
hold as had been arranged, with every aggravation 
of insolence and violence. The doors of the man- 
sion, however, to their surprise flew open on their 
mandate. The retainers of Richelieu bowed ob- 
sequiously before the avant coureurs of so august a 
person as Monseigneur ; while the Cardinal in 
person expressed his sense of the honour done him, 
" so much so, that he placed the chateau at the 
command of the leader of the company, and in- 
tended himself to set out and escort his royal 
highness to Fleury." While Monsieur's envoys 
were meditating on the purport of these words, the 
clever Cardinal gave them the slip, and stepping 
into his coach, which he had caused to be prepared, 
he set out for Fontainebleau. Gaston was just 
rising when Richelieu arrived ; the Cardinal pro- 
ceeded straight to the apartment of the young 
prince, and mildly reproached him for not giving 
him warning of the honour he intended to confer 
by his visit, ending by placing Fleury at his com- 
mand. Taking Monsieur's shirt from the trembling 
hands of M. de Chalais, the Cardinal courteously 
handed it to the astonished young prince and 
took his leave. 20 The incident was then suffered to 
drop. Queen Anne and Monsieur were filled with 
amazement at the failure of their enterprise, not 
knowing from what quarter the Cardinal had 


obtained his information. Chalais kept his own 
counsel, until the truth was forced from him a few 
weeks later by the address of Madame de Chev- 
reuse. The intrigue, however, received only a 
check from the unexpected denouement at Fleury. 
The design of the Cardinal's assassination was still 
the topic of the correspondence of the conspira- 
tors, amongst whom M. de Chalais, despite of his 
recent treachery, became the recognised organ of 
approach to the ear of the Duke of Orleans. 21 

Richelieu, however, held a clue. Had Chalais 
promptly avowed his breach of faith the subtle 
intriguers might have been less confident and more 
cautious. The first step in the counterplot was 
skilful ; his Eminence overwhelmed Chalais with 
attentions, and, as an eminent mark of confi- 
dence, announced his intention to take up his 
abode at the house of the latter at Maison Rouge 
when the court removed to Blois. He then blandly 
requested as a personal favour from the King, that 
Madame de Chevreuse might return to court, as he 
desired to merit the favour and approbation of 
Queen Anne. M. de Vendome, at the intercession 
of the Cardinal, was reassured, and bidden by his 
Majesty to bring back his brother and join the 
court at Blois, when their grievances should be 
redressed. M. de Soissons received an unexpected 
communication from M. le Cardinal, conveying 
the information that his Majesty confided to him 
the peace of the capital during his absence in the 
provinces, and directing the Count on no pretext 
to quit Paris. 1 


1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 113 

As soon as the Cardinal was settled at Maison 
Rouge, he summoned his friend the formidable 
Capuchin Pere Joseph, and relating all that had 
recently occurred, asked for aid to thread the 
labyrinth. 23 " It is at Brussels that we must search 
out the intrigue ; give me a sure man, and I will 
answer for the result ! " exclaimed Pere Joseph. 
The Cardinal acquiesced ; selecting the young 
Count de Rochefort, one of his pages, and a Rohan 
by birth, he sent him to Pere Joseph, with orders 
to obey the Capuchin in all matters. Rochefort 
was conducted to the Capuchin monastery, Rue 
St. Honore, and was there taught to imitate the 
deportment and the rule of the fathers. When the 
travesty was perfect, Pere Joseph sent him on foot 
to Brussels, wearing the habit of a Capuchin monk, 
and furnished with a letter to the superior of the 
Order in Brussels, who had promised further in- 
troductions. Rochefort was the cousin of Madame 
de Chevreuse ; he was gifted with the energy and 
spirit of his race. By the assumption of sanctity, 
and by the secret influence of Richelieu, the young 
Capuchin soon procured an introduction to Mar- 
quis de Lainez. To this nobleman he pretended to 
confide his discontent with his calling, and his 
hatred of France, adding that his desire would 
be to enter a monastery in Spain. So cleverly did 
he at length insinuate himself into the confidence 
of Lainez that the latter undertook to procure 
him permission to drink the mineral waters at 
Forges, which Rochefort stated was a boon 
necessary for his health, though unattainable, on 


account of the dislike with which he was regarded 
by the Provincial of the Order in France. The 
pass was obtained at the request of the Arch- 
duke, and Rochefort prepared to return to France, 
triumphant in the possession of a packet of papers, 
which Lainez, as he anticipated, had affection- 
ately requested him to convey thither, and deliver 
to a personage who would await him at Forges. 
A courier from the Cardinal met Rochefort half 
way between Brussels and Forges, to whom he 
delivered the important packet. Richelieu had 
copies made on the spot of the contents of the 
packet, which was then resealed and given again 
to Rochefort. The latter continued his journey, 
and arriving at Forges found a person who gave 
the name and address of La Pierre, advocate, Rue 
Perdue, Place Maubert, Paris, who, exhibiting a 
letter from Lainez, demanded the papers. This 
person was followed by the Cardinal's spies to 
Paris, and was traced with his papers to the house 
of the Prince de Chalais. On his return home, an 
agent of police arrested La Pierre under pretext of 
robbery ; his person was then searched, and the 
packet being missing, was at once known to have 
been left in the possession of M. de Chalais. The 
copied papers seized were then examined by the 
Cardinal, who found, amongst other documents, 
a long letter without signature, addressed to 
Chalais, in which not only was his own assassina- 
tion spoken of as un fait accompli, but the writer 
went on to discuss casualties which might attend 
the death or deposition, " of the most august 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 115 

person of the realm. " 24 This event accomplished, 
the marriage of Anne of Austria with King Gaston 
was assumed as a future fact which had received 
her Majesty's own assent, and that of the Queen- 
mother, and which, when communicated to 
Philip IV., King of Spain, had also obtained his 
Catholic Majesty's approbation. Mention was 
made also of a letter written by Anne to her 
brother, in which she had intimated her consent 
to and approbation of all the designs of the con- 
spirators, and moreover, that she had despatched 
a special courier to Madrid, to convey this epistle 
to King Philip. Furnished with such a detail of 
this " infernal project," Richelieu triumphed for 
the most august heads of France must incline 
reverently before the power won by this knowledge. 
The letters written by Chalais in return were in- 
tercepted, and by these the Cardinal came by the 
further information, that the Spanish cabinet 
agreed to the design of the conspirators, but de- 
clined to take a part in the plot until some notable 
success had been attained. The intercepted cor- 
respondence was at once laid before the King by 
his minister. With a cry of anguish, the unhappy 
King read, and bewailed the cruel destiny which 
arrayed against him his nearest kinsmen. He 
insisted, nevertheless, on the immediate arrest of 
all concerned in the plot. Richelieu combated this 
desire ; he wished to envelop the plotters and to 
allow them no avenue of escape, before the final 
blow was struck. Towards his wife the bitterest 
resentment rankled in the heart of Louis, never 


more to be effaced. The apologists of Anne of 
Austria aver that the Cardinal enveloped her in 
this conspiracy, which in reality was aimed only 
at his own overthrow, on purpose to neutralise her 
power and to render the criminal wife the help- 
less foe. They aver that no one but the King and 
Richelieu saw the letter addressed to Chalais, 
which was afterwards said to be destroyed ; and 
they deny that Anne ever wrote to her brother in 
approval of the plot as directed against the person 
and the throne of Louis XIII. 25 It is not, however, 
denied that Anne consented to espouse Gaston 
d'Or!6ans and was looking forward to the death 
of her husband as a fact of speedy accomplish- 
ment. The archives of Simancas furnish proof 
positive of her assent and of her knowledge of 
the negotiation then proceeding for her future 
union with M. d'Orlans. Moreover, the arrests 
and sentences which by and by followed, smiting 
some of the noblest princes of the land, must have 
moved the nation with strong indignation, if 
inflicted to vindicate a cruel fraud ; at the instiga- 
tion, likewise, of a minister new to the people, and 
whose power was not then cemented by public 
confidence or awe. 

On the 6th of June the court removed to Blois, 
the Cardinal still remaining at Maison Rouge. On 
the 12th the Duke de Vendome and his brother 
the Grand Prior arrived, and on the night of the 
14th of the same month the princes were both 
arrested in their beds by Du Hallier, captain of the 
body-guard, and committed close prisoners to the 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 117 

castle of Amboise. The reason assigned by his 
Majesty for the arrest of his illegitimate brothers 
was, that they excited the people to hatred of his 
government, and to contempt of his person, be- 
sides traitorously assuming an attitude hostile to 
M. de Richelieu. 26 Meantime, Madame de Chev- 
reuse returned to France, and joined her royal 
mistress at Blois, resuming her empire over the 
mind of the Queen, and more than her past in- 
fluence with M. de Chalais. Monsieur also arrived 
at Blois, fearing not to stand over the mine he was 
preparing to explode. Here the expediency of 
gaining over some of the principal governors of 
provinces, and important frontier towns, was 
suggested to Monsieur by Bois d'Annemets and 
Chalais. A certain Abbe d'Aubasine presented 
himself at Blois to pay his respects to the King, 
and happening to state in confidence to Chalais 
that the Due d'Epernon, Governor of the Angou- 
mois and of the Pays des Trois Eveches, was 
disaffected and a partisan of Monsieur, it was 
determined that his royal highness should write to 
the Duke and make certain propositions. Chalais 
had some difficulty in persuading the Duke to this 
step, as Monsieur always showed an intense aver- 
sion to attach his signature to any document. In 
this instance he suffered himself to be overper- 
suaded, and whilst he was engaged in the con- 
coction of the epistle, M. de Marcheville suddenly 
entered the apartment. Monsieur being startled 
in the very act of doing violence to his inclination, 
turned pale, and seizing the paper, stuffed it into 


the pocket of his haul de chausses. This Marche- 
ville, though one of the mignons, had carefully 
avoided giving countenance to the designs of the 
malcontents, and feigned to be ignorant that his 
royal master had secrets. 27 The sudden resignation 
of M. de Marcheville on the following day, and 
leave of absence being solicited by another of the 
duke's chamberlains, M. d'Audilly, might have 
warned Gaston and his friends that prudence 
and caution were advisable. Chalais, however, 
continued to repair in the dead of the night to the 
chamber of Monsieur, and there amongst other 
evil counsels he induced the infatuated Prince to 
follow up his letter to the Due d'Epernon by an- 
other to M. de la Valette, the duke's son and his 
lieutenant at Metz, on whom Gaston was told 
that he had claims, as Madame de la Valette was 
the illegitimate daughter of Henri Quatre. The 
Due d'Epernon, grateful perhaps for the cle- 
mency shown by Louis after the troubles excited 
by the flight of Marie de' Medici from Blois, sent 
Monsieur's letter straight to the King. The young 
Marquis de la Valette, a few days later, also replied 
through M. de Louvigny, " that he was the humble 
servant of Monsieur, and would be happy to serve 
him ; nevertheless, in an affair of such importance 
as to deliver up to his royal highness his Majesty's 
fortress of Metz, he must first consult his father 
and chief, Monsieur le Due d'Epernon." 28 Riche- 
lieu, at this juncture, having secured his proofs of 
the treasonable negotiations pending, and having 
skilfully assembled his foes at Blois, presented 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 119 

himself before the King and denounced the trai- 
tors. He also informed his Majesty that the Count 
de Soissons had insolently prepared measures to 
accomplish the abduction of Mademoiselle de 
Montpensier, who was living in Paris at the Hotel 
Guise ; and that M. d'Orleans and Queen Anne 
were privy to the intended outrage. Louis became 
violently agitated ; but after poring some time 
over the documents submitted by his minister, he 
ordered the latter to proceed with the utmost 
rigour to unmask the traitors, and to confound 
their devices, pledging his royal word to be 
guided by the counsels of his Eminence. Richelieu 
then advised his master to proceed forthwith to 
the city of Nantes a visit already jotted down in 
the royal programme of travel before the return of 
Louis to the capital. He next despatched Roche- 
fort to Paris, the bearer of an order commanding 
Madame de Guise and her daughter Mademoiselle 
de Montpensier, to give his Majesty rendezvous at 
Nantes thus defeating any enterprise contem- 
plated by the Count de Soissons. Monsieur and 
his friends now commenced to feel the prickings 
of distrust ; private warnings harassed them, in 
which it was reported that Goulas, the Duke's 
secretary, and MM. de Marcheville and d'Andilly 
had been observed stealthily creeping from the 
abode of M. le Cardinal. Moreover, their friends in 
Brussels seemed to lose heart at the enterprise ; 
while the Marquis de Mirabel maintained an omi- 
nous silence respecting Richelieu, and mentioned 
even the word " submission." The Queen likewise 


was observed to weep in secret, and little inter- 
course existed between the Queen-mother and 
Anne ; while the King studiously avoided, as 
far as possible, any acknowledgment of the fact 
that the partner of his throne inhabited Blois. A 
further augury of coming evil was descried in the 
visit paid by the Prince de Conde to the Cardinal 
at Limours an honour never before conferred. 

The court, meantime, commenced its progress, 
and made temporary sojourn at Tours, Saumur, 
and Amiens. At Saumur a quarrel happened be- 
tween M. de Louvigny and the Count de Candale. 
Chalais, who was of the party, took the side of 
Candale ; when M. de Louvigny, beside himself 
with rage, reproached Chalais with his treasonable 
intelligence in the presence of the Due d'Elboeuf . 
Louvigny having thus committed himself, sought 
audience of the King on the morrow, and confessed 
the overture which he had made to M. d'Epernon 
and his son, on behalf of Monsieur. Louis listened 
coldly ; dismissed Louvigny, but commanded his 
arrest before the lapse of three hours. Under the 
searching scrutiny of Richelieu, Louvigny con- 
firmed his previous confession, and owned to be 
privy to the plot for the assassination of his Emi- 
nence ; moreover adding that Chalais meditated 
the death of the King, which he intended to 
accomplish when, as master of the wardrobe, he 
adjusted his Majesty's ruff, by scratching him 
slightly on the neck with a poisoned pin. A 
warrant thereupon was at once despatched for 
the arrest of M. de Chalais, who was seized and 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 121 

carried to Nantes, as he was stepping on board the 
barge in which Monsieur was travelling, at a place 
just below Amiens. The Cardinal now held every 
clue to the projects of his enemies. Chalais lay in 
prison ; Madame de Chevreuse and her royal 
mistress trembled as the dark tribulation ap- 
proached ; Marie de' Medici, who had been accused 
in some of the papers intercepted of approving 
the marriage of the supposed widow of Louis XIII. 
with Monsieur, and anxious to vindicate herself in 
the opinion of her son, was nervously complai- 
sant ; Mademoiselle de Montpensier, smitten with 
awe at finding herself involved in a state plot, was 
humble and obedient ; d'Ornano and the two 
brothers de Vendome lay in prison ; Conde, that 
irascible and touchy personage, so haughtily 
patronising, had been compelled, lest he should be 
suspected of collusion in the plot, to seek the good 
will of his Eminence at Limours, and even to 
sooth any probable irritation by speaking of an 
alliance as possible between the heir of the Condes 
and la petite Clemence de Maille Breze, niece of 
Richelieu. 29 As for Monsieur, it was the policy of 
Richelieu to unmask and to humble him, but to 
cast him prostrate at the royal feet eventually on 
easy terms. Expiation by death, by torture, by 
banishment, by humiliations unparalleled, was 
nevertheless to be exacted from the miserable 
tools and dupes of his royal highness's ambition 
and duplicity. Above all, Anne of Austria was for 
evermore to be reduced to a position of abject 
dependence on the King and his minister, and 


discredited to a degree that her favour or disfavour 
became alike indifferent ; while the fact that her 
Majesty was the eldest daughter of Spain, then 
considered to be the most potent monarchy of the 
universe, increased rather than diminished the 
triumph of the Cardinal. Monsieur, therefore, 
during the journey between Tours and Nantes, was 
scolded, cajoled, caressed and frightened. He was 
mysteriously exhorted, both by the Cardinal and 
the Queen-mother, to be on his guard ; that the 
gentlemen of his household were in bad odour with 
the King ; and that some political catastrophe 
was at hand. M. de Coigneux, who though in 
favour with his royal highness had not partici- 
pated in the cabal, was chosen by Louis as his 
medium of communication with his brother, 
while the Cardinal prepared more potent seduc- 
tion for the weak brain of Monsieur from the lips 
of his trusty Capuchin, Pere Joseph, who was 
summoned to Nantes by express. 

A commission, composed of the new Lord 
Keeper Marillac, of the presidents Cusse and de 
Bry, and of the King's private secretary Beau- 
clerc, of Fouquet, Machault, and de Criqueville, 
Masters of Requests, and of six members of the 
Parliament of Bretagne, was empowered to try 
the unhappy Chalais, and to investigate the 
alleged plot to its most secret ramifications. 30 
Monsieur, though outwardly free, was warned by 
the Queen-mother not to venture without the city, 
under pain of arrest. Madame de Chevreuse, like- 
wise, perceived herself to be under surveillance; 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 123 

while the young Queen cowered under the dis- 
pleasure of her lord, and while weeping over her 
forlorn condition, was repeatedly heard to utter 
the undignified wail, " that M. le Cardinal wanted 
to send her back to Spain, in order to marry the 
King to la veuve Combalet." Richelieu, meantime, 
proceeded to unravel the plot, with the utmost 
parade of moderation and attention to the forms 
of ancient procedure. It was the first essay of the 
power of the minister, and a foretaste of the 
judicial arraignments by special commission which 
eventually made every disloyal heart quake. 
Certain members of the commission were ap- 
pointed to interrogate the Duke of Orleans. Mon- 
sieur was previously admonished to make candid 
and ample revelations, while Pere Joseph " as- 
sured Monsieur that if he confessed everything 
demanded from him he should receive a pardon 
and even a recompense." Letters were first 
shown to the young Prince from the envoys 
of France at certain small German courts, and 
also one from the ambassador in Vienna, warning 
the King that a conspiracy existed, and that its 
details were not unknown to Monsieur, to her 
Majesty the Queen consort, and to certain per- 
sonages mentioned ; its objects being first to 
assassinate the Cardinal de Richelieu, and sub- 
sequently to dethrone the King for incapacity, 
mental and physical, and to marry Queen Anne 
to the Duke of Orleans. The plot was to be sup- 
ported by the influence of the Duke of Buckingham 
over the English cabinet. Monsieur shuddered 


at his peril, and clung to the protection of Riche- 
lieu as his refuge in the terrible investigations 
pending. The morning of the llth of August, 
therefore, found Monsieur ready and fluent ; he 
made and signed a declaration, of which the 
following is an abstract : Istly : That it was true 
M. le Comte de Soissons was in his confidence, and 
diligently reported to him affairs brought before 
the privy council ; 2ndly : That Chalais was em- 
ployed as their amanuensis and messenger ; that 
it was true the latter had advised him to slay M. le 
Cardinal, to seize the fortress of Havre, and to de- 
mand for M. de Cceuvres the government of Pont 
de PArche, which strong fort they coveted in order 
to protect their flight from Paris to Havre ; that 
Chalais had counselled him to propitiate and to 
enter into secret relations with the Huguenot 
chieftains ; that the said Chalais had instructed 
and recommended one touvigny to journey to 
Metz to invite and gain over the Marquis de la 
Valette to his (Monsieur's) interests ; 3rdly : That 
M. de Chalais had told, and sworn to him (Mon- 
sieur) that the King had encamped 10,000 men 
in the vicinity of Nantes, in order, as Chalais 
concluded, to compel him to retire to Nancy or 
to Brussels." 31 This cowardly avowal formed the 
nucleus of the charge of treason against M. de 
Chalais. The letters of the Duchess de Chev- 
reuse, 32 of the Duke d'Epernon and of M. de la 
Valette were given in as evidence ; also certain 
letters which had been intercepted, from Joannes, 
valet to M. de Chalais, addressed to Martin, his 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 125 

brother. Lastly : Richelieu and le Pere Joseph 
produced their charge against Monsieur, Queen 
Anne, and Madame de Chevreuse, by showing 
copies of the letter brought into France by M. de 
Rochefort, addressed to Chalais, with the replies 
returned by that miserable young cavalier. On 
the same day, the llth of August, the Commis- 
sioners met in the refectory of the monastery of 
the Franciscans at Nantes, and proceeded to the 
discharge of their preliminary duties, previous to 
commanding the presence of the criminal before 
their tribunal. Chalais during this interval had 
remained in a condition of pitiable despair. Ma- 
dame de Chevreuse alone, with noble generosity, 
sought to soothe his trouble, and addressed to the 
poor captive a comforting note, which she caused 
to be sewed within the plait of a starched ruff sent 
to Chalais, by his request, to wear when he ap- 
peared before his judges. Such was the panic 
occasioned by the sudden arrests and the mysteri- 
ousness of the hidden causes of inquiry, that the 
agent employed by Madame de Chevreuse proved 
a traitor, and carried her note to the Cardinal, 
who caused the writing to be copied and produced 
it on the following day against the Duchess. 

It was determined by the High Court to issue 
orders of arrest against the Duchess de Chevreuse, 
the Count de Soissons, the Due d'Epernon, and 
his son, 1'Abbe Aubasine, M. de Louvigny, and 
certain mignons of Monsieur to wit, MM. de Bois 
d'Annemets, Puylaurens, St. Gery, Marsillac, le 
Meilleraye and de Mouay nevertheless, that 


such warrants should first be authenticated by the 
sign-manual of the King. 33 Triumphant in the 
possession of these documents, 34 Richelieu laid 
them before the King at a council specially sum- 
moned on the morrow. Louis desired to hear some 
of the witnesses ; the council was therefore ad- 
journed till after dinner of the same day. Invita- 
tions were issued to the Presidents Cusse and de 
Bry to attend ; and before this assemblage Louis 
resolved, by the advice of his minister, to summon 
Queen Anne and Madame de Chevreuse. The Duke 
de Bellegarde, Louvigny, the Duke d'Elboeuf, 
le Pere Joseph, the Count de Rochefort and the 
Marquis d'Efnat were first heard. The intercepted 
correspondence was read over by the secretary 
Beauclerc, in the presence of his Majesty, who 
reclined in a fauteuil, with a gloomy scowl upon 
his countenance. Marie de' Medici presently 
entered, and seated herself by Richelieu ; in so 
doing her Majesty whispered a word in his ear, 
which his Eminence noticed by a slight inclination 
of the head. At the command of the King the 
folding doors opposite were opened, and Anne of 
Austria appeared on the threshold, unattended, 
save by an usher and by one half -scared lady. 
Anne dismissed her attendant, and then advanced 
and took a seat at the bottom of the table 
indicated by the Cardinal, as the King neither 
rose nor took the smallest notice of her presence. 
The interrogatory which followed unfortunately 
never transpired : that it was severe and uncom- 
promising, the tears shed by the Queen and its 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 127 

after effect on her health and temper testify. 
Anne seems steadily to have denied the allegations 
against her ; unfortunately, however, her Majesty 
had previously given peremptory contradiction to 
undoubted facts well known to her royal husband 
and to his minister, from terror at the conse- 
quences of her indiscretion. The letter written by 
Madame de Chevreuse to Chalais, and placed in 
the Queen's hands, must have taxed her fortitude, 
for there now remains little doubt that Anne had 
tampered in the schemes of these foolish plotters 
to a degree which for ever bereft her of the regard 
of her husband, who emphatically affirmed his 
belief in her culpability. When questioned con- 
cerning her speculations on the King's intended 
deposition, and her design to espouse Monsieur, 
Anne replied, " that she should have gained there- 
by too small a stake to render it even probable 
that she had blackened her conscience by the 
imagination of such a crime ! " 35 " Her Majesty 
thereupon, with tears, bitterly upbraided the 
Queen-mother for the persecutions and indignities 
heaped upon her since her arrival in France." 
No minute of this council was preserved. Anne's 
reply, relative to M. d'Orleans, alone, of all her 
answers to the various charges, was suffered to 

When the Queen retired, Madame de Chevreuse 
was summoned before the council. The Duchess 
entered, sustained by a consciousness of wit, 
beauty, and of aptness of speech and retort. She 
was subjected by the King himself to a long and 


humiliating interrogatory ; dismissed and placed 
under the surveillance of the captain of the body- 
guard. M. de Louvigny was next introduced, to 
make further revelations relative to the malignity 
of the treason of M. de Chalais. The latter, besides 
his avowed intent to kill Richelieu, and to depose 
the King, was accused of regicidal designs by de 
Itouvigny, who, a few weeks previously, was con- 
sidered to be the intimate friend of the unhappy 
prisoner. Chalais, who was master of the ward- 
robe, meditated the murder of the King, according 
to the statement of Louvigny, by steeping the 
shirts worn by his Majesty in a subtle poison ; 
intending to accelerate the action of the venom by 
scratching the King on the nape of the neck with a 
poisoned pin, while adjusting his ruff. "This 
Chalais," says the Abbe d'Artigny, 36 " was of a 
temper so malicious and spiteful, that when he 
was attiring his Majesty he made faces behind the 
King's back ; also, when in prison, he could not 
hold himself from speaking evil things of the King, 
and even to offend him deeply by letters which he 
presumed to write. Louis XIII. could not refrain, 
therefore, from one day exclaiming, ' This man 
has truly a malignant and churlish temper ! ' 

On the 18th of August, Chalais was led before 
his judges, after having been subjected to three 
searching interrogatories. His condemnation was 
unanimously voted, the prisoner appealing against 
his sentence, and denying the charges alleged. 
The decree condemned Chalais to decapitation, 
after suffering the torture of les brodequins, 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 129 

and to the pains of degradation and the confis- 
cation of his estates. No sooner was the unfor- 
tunate man conducted back to his prison, than 
he was again beset by the emissaries of Richelieu, 
seeking, by any promises, to extort confession ; 
and, especially, to wring from the unwilling lips of 
the prisoner full details respecting the liaison 
existing between Anne of Austria and her brother- 
in-law. For long Chalais resolutely insisted on the 
innocence of the Queen, stating although it was 
true that for a period of seventeen days the death 
of the King and his minister had been discussed 
yet that after the arrest of MM. de Vendome, and 
after the failure of the conspiracy to kill Richelieu 
at Fleury, he had tampered with the conspirators 
at the command of the minister only to discover 
their progress and designs. Vanquished at length 
by the subtle Pere Joseph, 37 Chalais made other 
avowals : he stated that Queen Anne, Monsieur, 
and Madame de Chevreuse, were implicated in the 
conspiracy ; that the Queen-mother herself was 
so far committed, that she had acknowledged if 
the King died a wise policy would direct the 
acceptance by Monsieur of the hand of his 
brother's richly dowered widow, on assuming the 
crown of France ; that the death of the Cardinal 
de Richelieu had been decided upon, to be accom- 
plished as opportunity occurred ; that it was a 
fact that the Queen had communicated the details 
of the conspiracy to her kindred in Spain, and had 
received the approbation of Philip IV. her 
brother. Transported with his success, the wily 


Capuchin entered his patron's presence, and ten- 
dered the admissions which placed the highest 
personages of the realm at the mercy of the 
Cardinal. Richelieu, it is said, repaired privately 
the same night to the dungeon of the prisoner, and 
promised him life and ultimate pardon, provided 
that he would repeat his confession in the hearing 
of his guards, or reveal every incident in a private 
interview with the King. 

The Duke of Orleans, during these proceedings, 
maintained a most undignified attitude ; avoided 
by the courtiers uncertain whether he would 
long be tolerated by the King ; clinging to the 
wily Capuchin Joseph ; and creeping warily to the 
apartments of the Queen-mother, who scarcely 
dared speak to her son, to learn the attitude of 
affairs. The young cavaliers of his suite fled from 
Nantes. Puylaurens and Bois d'Annemets alone 
mustered courage to face the storm. Le Coigneux, 
meantime, ascertained that Monsieur could free 
himself from the effects of his misconduct only by 
consenting to immediate marriage with Mademoi- 
selle de Montpensier. The Duke, thereupon, ven- 
tured to propose stipulations, one of which was 
the pardon of M. de Chalais, but was met by the 
crushing intimation that the criminal had made 
confession, and had deeply implicated both Mon- 
sieur and Queen Anne, and therefore that the 
Duke must accept with gratitude the will of the 
King, or take the consequences. Monsieur then 
alleged certain reasons, which would prevent 
his immediate espousals ; nevertheless, on the 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 131 

morrow he suddenly visited Marie de' Medici and 
assented to his marriage, provided that the 
Marshal d'Ornano and Chalais were liberated and 
that certain pecuniary concessions 38 were granted 
all which negotiations he committed to her 
care and to that of M. le Coigneux. The Duke's 
submission was well timed ; the irritated spirit of 
Louis XIII. brooked not trifling, and his Majesty 
conceived that his honour demanded that the 
immediate union of his brother to Marie de 
Montpensier should stifle and refute the reports 
current respecting Monsieur's liaison with Anne 
of Austria. Certain reforms were likewise com- 
menced in the household of the Duke, on the 
authority of the King : three of his chamberlains 
were summarily dismissed, and the Due de 
Bellegarde was placed at the head of his establish- 
ment. 39 Louis, meanwhile, offered to his brother 
oblivion of the past on condition of his marriage 
with Marie de Montpensier. 40 Upon that event, his 
Majesty proposed to put Monsieur into possession 
of his appanage, the duchies de Chartres and 
d' Orleans and the county of Blois ; to settle upon 
him lands to the amount of 100,000 livres an- 
nually ; with a nett revenue of 760,000 livres for 
the expenses of his household. 41 Le Pere Joseph 
undertook to render Monsieur satisfied with this 
munificent offer ; a few arguments, a little depre- 
cation, and the transparent assurance " that after 
Monsieur's reconciliation with the King he would 
be in a better condition to intercede for the 
prisoner and the rest of the accused," prevailed. 


The ceremony of the affiancing was performed 
August 20th, in the apartment of the Queen- 
mother by the Cardinal de Richelieu, and the 
pair were married at midnight. The ceremony was 
performed with the pomp befitting the occasion 
and the publicity which King Louis desired. The 
marriage contract was signed at five p.m. on a 
table standing on a platform of state. The King 
sat under a canopy, supported by the Queen- 
mother ; opposite sat Queen Anne, with an 
aspect pale and discomposed, having on her right 
the young bride. At the table stood Richelieu, at 
the head of a numerous assemblage of bishops. 
The apartment was filled with a brilliant court, 
including Bellegarde, d'Elboeuf, Bassompierre, 
Marsillac, the Duchesses de Rohan, d'Halluin, de 
Guise, de Bellegarde and others. The King had 
commanded that no order of precedence should be 
observed, and that the ladies should take place 
in the vicinity of the haut dais, as they arrived. A 
scramble for precedence, nevertheless, occurred 
between the Duchesses d'Halluin and de Rohan 
the latter lady being the strong-minded and reso- 
lute daughter of the Duke de Sully during which 
the illustrious ladies so far forgot decorum as to 
pinch each other in their efforts not to lose the 
terrain, that each declared the other wished to 
usurp. 42 " The royal pair were affianced, and at 
midnight espoused. Never was there before seen 
so sad a ceremony. Madame was dressed in a 
robe of white satin, adorned with her own superb 
pearls and with those belonging to the Queen. 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 133 

We had neither violins, nor music of any kind. 
Monsieur had not even a new habit. Furniture 
was borrowed to decorate the bridal chamber. 
Few private persons have been married with such 
scanty pomp. The King came to the coucher of 
Monsieur and handed him his shirt, and the 
Queen-mother was present at the toilette of 
Madame. When every one had retired a laugh- 
able incident occurred. A little lap-dog was 
accidentally shut up in the chamber of the newly- 
married pair, which obliged Madame de Guise, 
who occupied an adjacent apartment, to rise and 
hunt the miserable animal, whose yelps added to 
the ridicule of this fine marriage." 43 

The marriage concluded, 44 Monsieur ventured to 
insist on the hopes inspired by M. le Cardinal, 
that mercy might be shown to the accused. Cha- 
lais also loudly claimed the immunity so per- 
fidiously promised by the Cardinal on condition 
of his confession. The sentence pronounced on the 
unfortunate young man was, nevertheless, con- 
firmed by the King, who mitigated only the 
rigour of the penalty by forbidding that torture 
should be employed before execution. His 
Majesty was pleased, moreover, to annul the 
attainder of that branch of the house of Talley- 
rand from which Chalais sprang. 45 The sentence 
was appointed to be carried out three days after 
the celebration of Monsieur's marriage ; mean- 
time, the fate of the minor delinquents was pro- 
nounced. Madame de Chevreuse received sentence 
of banishment from court, and was conducted by 


an exempt of the royal guards to her husband's 
castle of Dampierre, where she was consigned to 
strict surveillance. The King for some days in- 
sisted on her imprisonment in the Bastille, and 
was deterred only from this severity by the inter- 
cession of Richelieu, who was a great admirer of 
the spirited Duchess, and by the entreaties of M. 
de Chevreuse, who undertook to answer for her 
submission. " The Duchess was transported with 
fury," writes Richelieu ; " she went so far as to 
assert that we knew her not when we concluded 
that she had only wit, coquetry, and vanity ; 
nevertheless, she would soon show us that she was 
good for something else, for there was nothing 
that she would not suffer to be avenged, and no 
indignity to which she would not joyfully submit 
to compass such." 46 Before her departure for 
Dampierre the Duchess had petitioned to be 
allowed to retire to England, where her beauty 
and vivacity had rendered her popular. 47 Madame 
de Chevreuse, however, who hated the melancholy 
solitudes of Dampierre, continued to agitate so 
effectually that, after an interval of six months, 
she obtained permission to visit her husband's 
kindred of Lorraine, at Nancy. The Count de 
Soissons, advised of the accusations preferred 
against him, propitiated the wrath of his royal 
master by resigning his post as governor of Paris, 
and by quitting the realm, a self-condemned exile : 
the warrant of arrest was thereupon cancelled. 
The post of governor of Bretagne was taken from 
the Due de Vendome, who continued for some 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 135 

time a captive at Vincennes. Conde also bowed 
before the policy of the Cardinal, and did not 
venture to present himself for a long period at 
court for his supposed connivance in the plot at 
Fleury. Sundry minor a wards were allotted to the 
inferior agents of the conspiracy ; fines, imprison- 
ments, and banishments warned the valetaille of 
the great lords that the formidable ruler of France 
took cognizance also of their derelictions, as well as 
of the more heinous offences of their masters. 

The most illustrious offender still remained to 
be visited with a public manifestation of royal 
wrath. The condition of the young Queen was 
pitiable. The King refused to hold communication 
with her, and she was forbidden to see the 
Duchess de Chevreuse or to converse with M. 
d'Orleans. Marie de' Medici, sheltered only by 
Richelieu from the indignation of her son for her 
semi-adherence to the intrigues under investiga- 
tion, dared not afford even a semblance of pro- 
tection or countenance to the Queen. On the 27th 
of August an order was issued, signed by Louis 
and countersigned by his minister, forbidding 
entree to the Queen's saloons and cabinets to the 
noblemen and gentlemen in waiting, or to the 
courtiers of the Louvre, unless they paid their 
respects to her Majesty in the King's presence, 
and entered her apartments and departed there- 
from in his suite. A restriction more humiliating, 
and subversive of the courtly splendours and 
deference enjoyed by her predecessors queens of 
France, could not have been inflicted. Anne 


likewise received the imperious commands of her 
royal husband never to grant a private audience 
without first advertising Queen Marie or the Car- 
dinal, and naming the personage whom she was 
about to receive and the object of the interview. 48 
Correspondence with Madame de Chevreuse was 
strictly forbidden, as also with Madame de la 
Valette. The severity of this punishment, how- 
ever, did not subdue the proud heart of the Queen. 
Neglected by her husband, she persistently turned 
for sympathy towards her own kindred of Spain, 
whose counsels aggravated her position ; for the 
King, her brother, never effectually interfered to 
ameliorate her position, or to intercede in her 

The Duke of Orleans continued to make un- 
ceasing efforts to procure a commutation of the 
sentence pronounced on Chalais, but to no pur- 
pose. Early on the morning following his 
brother's marriage, the King quitted Nantes for 
Paris, being preceded by the Queens, Anne and 
Marie. It was thought that his Majesty's sudden 
journey was to avoid further solicitations on the 
part of Monsieur. The Duke, nevertheless, con- 
tinued his intercession, and implored the Car- 
dinal to stay the execution until he could rejoin 
the King his brother. His Eminence replied, 
' that he had no power to grant the request of his 
Royal Highness." The same answer Richelieu re- 
turned to the mother 49 of the unfortunate Chalais, 
who on her knees implored mercy for her misguided 
son, on the plea that Chalais had previously 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 137 

saved the Cardinal's life, by confessing the plot 
to assassinate him at his chateau de Fleury. 
It must, nevertheless, be owned that Louis acted 
with clemency towards the guilty contrivers of a 
plot so aggravated ; for to assert that such 
existed only in the scheming imagination of the 
Cardinal de Richelieu, is utterly to disregard the 
evidence which has descended to these days. That 
many documents were suppressed, as damaging to 
the honour of the crown and to the reputation of 
Queen Anne, is not surprising ; neither can it 
excite wonder that King Louis commanded that 
no minutes of the privy council before which his 
Queen was arraigned should be preserved and 
registered. " She wished for my death, and 
coveted another husband during my lifetime ! 5: 
was often the bitter remark of Louis XIIL when 
any one pleaded the cause of the Queen ; and such 
remained his Majesty's settled conviction on his 
death-bed. The Duke of Orleans, the Count de 
Soissons, the Duke d'Epernon and M. de la Va- 
lette, the Duchess de Chevreuse and her potent 
kindred of Rohan, were not likely to have ac- 
cepted the odium of such a conspiracy without 
protest if, in fact, the whole affair had been a 
device trumped up by Richelieu to rivet his power. 
Philip IV. of Spain remained silent, and never 
denied, through his ambassador or otherwise, the 
reception of the letter stated to have been written 
by the Queen. The Archduchess-Infanta Isabel, 
moreover, never repudiated the assertion that the 
intrigue was discussed and matured in Brussels, 


her own capital ; which so good and conscien- 
tious a princess would have done if possible in 
aid of her niece Queen Anne, oppressed under so 
grave a charge of domestic and state treason. The 
fact, however, which seems amply to prove the 
truth of the conspiracy and of the charges re- 
specting the Queen is, that three years later, 
Anne, of her own accord, proposed a renewed 
discussion of the policy of her alliance with M. 
d'Orleans, after the then expected death of Louis 
XIII. The health of the King was precarious, 
and the result of his repeated attacks of illness so 
uncertain under the rude medical treatment of the 
day, that the expectation of his death repeatedly 
acted as a snare to lure the malcontents to pre- 
mature revelation of their designs. 

M. de Chalais suffered on the twenty-sixth day 
of August. 50 Before his execution he made recan- 
tation of all his avowals, and adhered only to the 
statement " that for seventeen days only, before 
his interview with M. le Cardinal at Fleury, he 
had meditated the death of the Cardinal and the 
deposition of Louis XIII." The interference of his 
friends, however, served to prolong his agony. In 
the hope that the prayers of M. d'Orleans might 
eventually prevail, and therefore that the gain of 
a few days might be life to Chalais, they bribed 
and carried off the public executioner of Nantes. 
The morning appointed for the execution dawned, 
and no headsman appeared. By order of the Car- 
dinal, the execution was delayed until six in the 
evening, when two prisoners under condemnation 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 139 

of death taken from the common jail under- 
took to perform the task, on receiving a pardon 
for their services. These unskilful executioners 
mangled the poor prisoner in the most shocking 
manner, and succeeded in despatching him only 
after thirty-five strokes of the axe. 51 The body of 
the unfortunate Chalais was given to his mother, 
who caused it to be interred before the high 
altar of the Church of the Franciscans of 

When all was over, M. de Louvigny, the original 
denouncer of Chalais, was arrested and com- 
mitted to close prison at the suit of Monsieur, 
for having accused the latter falsely, maliciously, 
and disloyally ; attributing to the brother of the 
King high crimes which had no foundation, and 
which, for the honour of the crown, needed to 
be atoned for and retracted. Having pardoned 
Monsieur for his late and principal share in the 
conspiracy for which Chalais suffered, Louis 
XIII. and his minister required justification for 
their clemency, and a plausible statement which 
might clear the reputation of the heir-presump- 
tive of France. 


1 Joseph Leclerc de Tremblay, Capucin. 

2 Anne had a great aversion to roses, and fainted on inhaling their 

3 The Count de Soissons and the Duke de Bellegarde inscribed 
themselves of the faction of Monsieur. The princes of Vendome were 
the sons of Henri Quatre by Gabrielle d'Estrees. 

4 Consort of Charles VIII., and subsequently of Louis XII., by 
whom the queen had two daughters Claude, heiress of Bretagne, who 


married Francis I., King of France ; and Renee, married to Duke 

Ercole I., of Ferrara. 

5 Mem. de Motteville, t. i. p. 27. 


7 Henri de Talleyrand-Perigord, Prince de Chalais, grandson of the 
famous Marshal Blaise de Montluc. He was master of the wardrobe 
to the King, and one of the lords in waiting on Monsieur. Chalais 
had married Jeanne de Castille, daughter of the financier Jeannin de 
Castille, and widow of the Count de Chancy. " Madame de Chalais 
est une belle personne. Elle s'aime tellement qu'elle s'evanouit si 
elle vient seulement a souhaiter quelque chose qu'elle ne puisse avoir." 

8 Mem. d'un Favori de Monseigneur le Due d'Orleans. M. de Bois 
d'Annemets was the favourite, and the writer of the memoirs ; which 
therefore possess the value of having been written by an eye-witness 
of the events which they record. 

9 Mem. d'un Favori. Vie du Pere Joseph, Capucin nomme au 
cardinalat, contenant FHistoire Anecdote du Cardinal de Richelieu. 
A. St. Jean de Maurienne, chez Gaspard Butler. 1704. 

10 "II luy arriva un accident digne de remarque, ayant ete saisy, en 
se promenant dans le jardin du Cardinal, d'un tremblement si furieux 
dans une jambe et une cuisse, qu'il pensa tomber de son haut." 
Mem. d'un Favori. Archives Curieuses, t. 3. 

11 MS. Bibl. Imp. Beth. 9162, fol. 48. 

12 " Madame d'Ornano fut menee par un enseigne des gardes nomme 
Fouguerolles a Gentilly." Mem. d'un Favori du Due d'Orleans. 

13 Ibid. 

14 Bassompierre, Journal de ma Vie, ann. 1626. " Les dames de la 
cour," writes the gallant Marshal, " etoient fort melees dans ces intri- 
gues ; les unes en haine de la maison de Guise, qu'elles voyoient 
agrandir par la prochaine alliance de Monsieur ; les autres en haine 
de Mademoiselle de Montpensier ; et les autres pour 1'interet du mariage 
de Monsieur." 

15 Journal de ma Vie, Bassompierre. 

16 Alexandre de Vendome, Prior of St. John's, youngest son of 
Henri IV. and Gabrielle d'Estrees, Chevalier de Vendome. " M. le 
Grand-Prieur professait une inimitie publique contre Richelieu, qu'il 
accusait de detourner les graces que le Roi voulait verser sur sa maison ; 
il se vantait d'etre le seul Mardochee qui ne flechissait pas le genou 
devant ce superbe Aman." 

17 Son of the Duke d'Epernon, and husband of Gabrielle de Balzac- 
Verneuil, daughter of Henri IV. and Madame de Verneuil. 

18 Bassompierre. Mem. d'un Favori de M. le Due d'Orleans. 
Mem. Anecdotes, &c., Louis XIII., t. 4. Le Vassor, Hist, de Louis XIII. 

19 Bassompierre, Journal de ma Vie, ann. 1626. Bassompierre was 
in waiting at Fontainebleau while the events occurred which he relates. 

20 Mem. de Richelieu. Bassompierre. The duke, to conceal his 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 141 

design, and to account for an early departure from the palace on the 
morning fixed for the execution of the plot, had organised a hunting 
expedition. " Monsieur," said Richelieu significantly, on taking leave, 
" vous ne vous etes par Iev6 assez matin ; vous ne trouverez plus, 
la bete au gite ! " 

21 Chalais promit d'etre fidele a 1'avenir ; et leur donnait cette 
libre reconnoissance de sa faute, qu'il leur faisoit pour marque de 

22 Bassompierre ; ibid. Vie du Prince de Chalais, Henri de Talley- 
rand. Galerie des Personnages Illustres de la cour de France. 

23 Vie du Pere Joseph. Memoires d'un Favori de Monsieur. Archives 

24 Vie du Pere Joseph Leclerc de Tremblay. 

25 No apologies which have since been made for Anne of Austria can 
efface the undoubted fact that Louis XIII. believed her to be guilty ; 
besides, why was the Queen subjected to persecution and surveillance, 
if no evidence attested her connivance in the projects of Chalais and 
other conspirators ? 

26 Relation de tout qui s'est passe a I'emprisomiement de M. le Due 
de Vendome, et M. le Grand -Prieur son Frere, au Chateau de Blois. 
Archives Curieuses, t. 3, 2eme serie. 

27 Mem. d'un Favori de M. le Due d'Orleans. Archives Curieuses, 
t. 3. 

28 Relation de tout ce qui s'est passe au Proces de Chalais, 1626. 
Aubery, Mem. pour servir a 1'Histoire du Cardinal Due de Richelieu, 
t. 1. Cologne, 1667. 

29 Nicole du Plessis de Richelieu, sister of the Cardinal de Richelieu, 
married Urban Marquis de Brez6, subsequently Marshal of France. 
She had two children, the Princess de Conde, and Armand de Breze, 
Duke de Fronsac, co-heir of the Cardinal with his cousin de Pont- 
courlay, also nephew of the Cardinal. Madame de Brez6 died insane. 
For many years previous to her death she laboured under the delusion 
that she was made of glass, and shrieked if approached. 

30 Relation de tout ce qui s'est passe au Proces de Chalais. Auber\% 
Mem. pour servir a 1'Histoire du Cardinal Due de Richelieu, t. 1. The 
proceeding of the Cardinal caused great nmrmurings. Chalais, it 
was asserted, ought to have been tried before a Parliament of the 
realm, and not by a tribunal of judges nominated by his accusers. The 
act of the minister was stigmatised as " un precede inique." " Les 
amis du cardinal repondirent qu'il avait pris ce biais pour manager 
1'honneur des families." 

31 Relation de tout ce qui s'est passe au Proces de Chalais. Vie du 
P. Joseph de Tremblay. Le Vassor, Hist, de Louis XIII. 

!2 These letters were found in a casket at Maison Rouge, the country 
house of Chalais ; they were chiefly love epistles " Mais il se trouva 
des choses peu respectueuses pour Louis XIII., que ces amants railloient 


sur sa froideur, et sur ses autres defauts naturels." Galerie des Per- 
sonnages Illustres de la Cour de France, t. 4. Lyon, 1806. 

33 Relation de tout ce qui s'est passe au Proces de M. de Chalais. 
Aubery, Mem. pour servir a 1'Histoire du Cardinal de Richelieu, t. 1. 
Mem. d'un Favori de M. le Due d' Orleans. 

34 " Richelieu assura le Nonce Spada que Chalais avait engag6 
Gaston a des Eclats qui auroient du devenir tres prejudiciables a la 
paix du royaume, comme de quitter la cour, de se retirer a La Rochelle, 
et de soulever les Huguenots." Galerie des Personnages Illustres de 
la Cour de France. 

35 " Le Roy fit venir la Reine au conseil, ou il lui reprocha qu'elle 
avoit conspire centre sa vie pour avoir un autre mari. La Reine, a 
qui 1'innocence donna des forces, outree de douleur de cette accusation, 
lui parla avec fermete, et lui dit, a ce que j'ai S9U par elle-meme, qu'elle 
auroit trop peu gagn6 au change pour vouloir se niorcir d'un crime 
pour un petit interet." Motteville, t. i., p. 28. Madame de Motteville 
always believes the statements offered to her by Anne of Austria with 
implicit faith, deeming her Majesty immaculate. 

86 Hist, du Critique et de la Litterature, t. 6, p. 219. 
* 7 " Le Capucin 1'assura, de la part du Cardinal, que s'il avouait 
tout ce qu'on lui demanderoit, il aurait sa grace ; et sur la parole d'un 
religieux dont la reputation, n'avoit pont ete attaquee, cet accuse 
declara plus qu'il ne savoit pour certain des mecontents." Vie du Pere 
Joseph, Capucin. 

38 Mem. d'un Favori de M. le Due d'Orleans. 

39 Journal de ma Vie. Bassompierre, ann. 1626. 

40 Richelieu, it is said, caused Monsieur's horoscope to be drawn 
before his marriage, to ascertain whether his royal highness, or his 
posterity, were likely to succeed to the crown of France. The answer 
of the oracle was " Imperium non gustabit in seternum." 

41 Mem. d'un Favori de M. le Due d'Orleans. Vie du Pere Joseph. 

12 Benediction Nuptiale de Monseigneur le Due d'Orleans, Frere de 
Louis XIII., et de Marie de Montpensier. Godefroy, Grand C6rem. de 
France, t. 2. 

43 Mem. d'un Favori de M. le Due d'Orleans. 

44 " Chalais apprit ce mariage par le bruit de canon. II ne dit mot, 
et attend tristement le sort que cet evenement lui annonce. On 
1'avoit mis en cachot." Galerie des Personnages Illustres, t. 4. 

45 Relation de tout ce qui s'est passe au Proces de M. de Chalais. 
Aubery, t. 1. One chronicler, an eye-witness of the execution, states 
that Chalais said on the scaffold : " Ce n'est pas sur 1'esperance qu'on 
m'a donne de ma grace que *ai avoue, mais parceque la conviction 
etait entiere." 

46 Cousin, Vie de Madame de Chevreuse. Mem. du Cardinal de 
Richelieu, t. 3. 

47 " Madame de Chevreuse fit confesser (aux dames Anglaises) 

1626] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 143 

que toutes leurs beautes n'etoient rien au prix de la sienne." M6m. 
d'un Favori du M. le Due d'Orleans. 

48 Mem. de la Rochefoucauld, t. 1. Dreux du Radier, Vie d'Anne 
d'Autriche. Motteville, t. 1. The latter insists that the " persecu- 
tions " which the Queen experienced were not inflicted for any fault 
of her own, " Mais les premiers marques de 1'affection du Cardinal de 
Richelieu furent les persecutions qu'il lui fit." Griff et, Hist, de Louis 
XIIL, t. 1. 

49 Fran9oise de Montluc, daughter of Blaise de Montluc, Marshal of 

50 Relation du Proces de Chalais. Aubery, Mem. pour servir a 
1'Histoire du Cardinal de Richelieu, t. 1. " II n'a rien dit a tout 
cela [son arret], qu'il resignait son ame a Dieu, et son corps au Roy. 
Chalais est mort dans la plus grande resolution qui ait jamais et6 
veue. II a dit dans la chapelle : ' Ne suis-je pas bien malheureux 
d 'avoir desservy le meilleur prince qui soit au monde ? ' " Deux 
Lettres touchant la Mort de M. de Chalais, de Nantes, ce 26 Aout 
1626, a 7 heures du soir. Aubery, t. 1. 

51 " On a tirez deux hommes destinez au gibets des prisons de cette 
ville, dont 1'un a fait I'ex6cuteur, et 1'autre lui a assist^ pour lui servir. 
Mais 9a a et6 avec si peu d'adresse, que, outre les deux premiers coups 
d'une epee de Suisse, qu'on a achetee sur le champ, il lui en a donne 
trente-quatre d'une doloire dont se servent les tonneliers ; et a 
et6 contraint de le retourner de 1'autre c6t6 pour 1'achever de couper, 
le patient criant jusqu'au vingtieme coup ' Jesus, Maria, et Regina 
Cceli ! ' " Extrait de Deux Lettres touchant la Mort de M. de Chalais. 
Aubery, Mem. pour servir a 1'Histoire de M. le Cardinal de Richelieu. 



ON her arrival in Paris, Anne earnestly petitioned 
to be allowed to retire to St. Germain. She was 
afflicted with a constant nervous tremor, and 
suffered at intervals from such prostration of 
strength as to create serious alarm. The mental 
anxiety which she had undergone had shaken her 
health, and in her solitude and depression Anne 
lamented her separation from Madame de Chev- 
reuse. Peril and disgrace, however, unfortunately 
brought not to the Queen's mind a juster ap- 
preciation of the responsibilities and dignity of 
her position. She took no step on her return to 
the Louvre to reconcile herself with her husband ; 
she treated Richelieu in public with negligent 
indifference, and made no attempt to conceal the 
greatness of her indignation against Marie de' 
Medici for " the shameful abandonment " which 
she had experienced at Nantes. Festivities were 
rare events at the Louvre, and the recent ordi- 
nance, forbidding entree to the Queen's cabinets 
and saloon to the gentlemen of the court, had con- 
demned Anne to virtual solitude. The Queen was 
surrounded by domestic spies, who made reports 
to Richelieu ; for the latter watched with jealous 
vigilance her correspondence in England and 



Spain. Aware of this surveillance, the Queen, 
nevertheless, continued to correspond with the 

. Duchess de Chevreuse, with her kindred in Spain, 
with the Infanta at Brussels, with the Queen of 

, England, and even with the Duke of Buckingham 
through the instrumentality of Gerbier, steward of 
tjie household to Buckingham, who yet lingered 
in France, under pretext of collecting works of art 
.for the decoration of his master's palaces. King 
Charles and his ministers were at this period 
specially odious to Louis ; the feuds of the French 
attendants of Queen Henrietta Maria, and the 
indiscreet zeal of the priests, had necessitated 
their banishment from England. London was pro- 
voked almost to a tumult by the doings of these 
personages, and by the unhappy influence which 
Madame de St. Georges exercised over the quick 
temper of her royal mistress. 1 From this lady, who 
was the daughter of the King's old gouvernante, 
Madame de Montglat, Louis heard of the extrava- 
gant and indecorous manner in which Bucking- 
ham raved of the Queen of France, and of the 
Duke's indiscreet comments on Anne's unfortun- 
ate destiny as a wife. Lord Montague was des- 
patched by Charles to explain the step which he 
had found himself compelled to sanction, relative 
to the expulsion from England of Henrietta's 
French attendants. 2 Louis, however, being ap- 
prized, by Madame de St. Georges, that the am- 
bassador carried letters from Buckingham to the 
Queen and to the Duchess de Chevreuse, Mon- 
tague received, on his arrival in Paris, an order to 



leave the realm without audience, or being per- 
mitted to deliver his despatches. Bassompierre 
was appointed, a few days subsequently, as am- 
bassador extraordinary to the court of Great 
Britain ; deputed to mediate, on behalf of the 
Queen-mother and King Louis, between Charles 
and his Queen ; and to insist on the plenary exe- 
cution of the marriage contract which granted to 
Henrietta the full and public exercise of her faith. 
The office of first dame d'atours, vacant by the 
banishment of Madame de Chevreuse, was given 
by the Cardinal to Madame de Fargis, the wife of 
de Fargis, 3 late French ambassador at Madrid. 
Anne objected violently to the appointment, 
but after a few months of sullen protest, ended 
by taking Madame de Fargis into favour and 
by yielding absurd compliance to her counsels. 
Madame de Fargis was the daughter of M. de la 
Rochepot, the old and faithful servant of Henri 
Quatre, and his ambassador for many years at the 
court of Madrid. So flighty and ill regulated was 
the conduct of Madeleine de Silly, that at an early 
age she had been confided by her father to the 
care of his old friend the Countess de St. Paul, a 
rigid Huguenot, as became the representative of 
the elder line of Caumont de la Force ; and whose 
hotel in Paris seems to have served as a kind of 
penitentiary for unruly damsels of rank. The 
discipline of the Hotel de St. Paul proved of no 
avail. Mademoiselle de Silly so compromised her 
reputation with the Count de Cramail and others 
that she was compelled to seek the shelter of a 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 147 

convent. " One might have imagined," says a 
contemporary, " that this lightsome lady was 
beautiful : not at all, her face was marked by 
small -pox ; but she was agreeable, witty, lively, 
gallant, and a most charming companion." Made- 
moiselle de Silly, however, declined to take vows, 
and remained at her convent, the Carmelites of 
the Faubourg St. Jacques often scandalizing the 
community, but winning toleration by her incom- 
parable temper and fun until the death of her 
father and of her eldest and only sister, the 
Countess de Retz. 4 Madeleine, now sole heiress of 
her late father, thereupon took leave of her friends 
the Carmelites, under pretext that her health for- 
bade her to follow the severity of their rule. Her 
old levity returned in full vigour; on mingling again 
with the world, she appeared at the assemblies 
of the Hotel Rambouillet, and there captivated 
M. de Fargis d'Angennes, cousin-german of the 
Marquis de Rambouillet, her host. Wit, humour, 
and joyous abandon were more to a d'Angennes 
than morality or bienseance. Madeleine de 
Silly became the wife of M. de Fargis, who had 
just been appointed ambassador to Madrid, and 
accompanied him to Spain. Her sojourn there 
lasted four years, and great had been the admira- 
tion excited by the graceful and lively ambassa- 
dress. Madame de Fargis, however, rejoiced in her 
husband's recall from his mission, for the gloomy 
and decorous court of Philip IV. wearied and 
taxed too severely her powers of self-control. 
She had scarcely arrived in Paris when the post 


of lady of the bedchamber to Queen Anne fell 
at the disposal of Richelieu. Madame de Fargis 
instantly solicited the appointment through the 
Cardinal de Berulle, who was confessor and 
director of the Carmelites of the Faubourg St. 
Jacques, and whose friendship she had won 
during her seclusion with the nuns. Berulle intro- 
duced the fair petitioner to the potent minister, 8 
who found the wit of Madame de Fargis so much 
to his taste, and was so satisfied with her apparent 
devotion to his interests and by her promises to 
rule the Queen and her household in subservience 
to his will, that Richelieu decided upon the 
appointment. Madame de Fargis accordingly, in 
defiance of the repugnance manifested by the 
Queen, entered upon her functions, which virtually 
gave her the privileges of the first lady of the 
household, as Anne at this period had no dames du 
palais. Madame de la Flotte 6 was at the same 
time appointed by the Cardinal as governess of 
Queen Marie's maids of honour ; and about this 
period she introduced her grand- daughter, the 
celebrated Marie de Hautefort, at the Luxem- 
bourg. The merit of Mademoiselle de Hautefort 
was discerned by Marie, who presented her to the 
notice of Louis XIII. as a damsel of " singular 
virtue and probity." 

Madame de Chevreuse, meantime, had been 
busily engaged on the work of proving to the Car- 
dinal de Richelieu " that she was not the friend- 
less and incompetent personage he took her to 
be." Intent on vengeance, few could have more 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 149 

skilfully combined the elements of dissension, or 
have fostered so cleverly the prevailing discord 
between the powers of Europe. In France dis- 
content was rife : the crown was gradually, but 
firmly, resuming its ancient grants of privileges to 
the great barons of the realm, which had been so 
cruelly misused ; the King aimed at being in 
future the sole fountain of honour and dispenser 
of grace. The haughty lords, who were para- 
mount over the provinces of the kingdom, saw 
themselves displaced for trivial misdemeanours, 
and their governments given to new men, crea- 
tures of the minister, and dependent upon the 
bounty of the King for their position and revenue. 
The Huguenots rebelled under the strong hand of 
Richelieu ; the Rohans beheld their pretensions 
to the once Protestant principality of Beam, so 
long a menace to the descendants of Henri IV., 
derided. Duplessis-Mornay wrote in vain, and 
found his threats futile ; and Lesdiguieres, wise in 
his day, secured the fortunes of his house by re- 
nouncing Calvinism. The strongholds wrested 
from Henri IV. by his restless subjects of the 
reformed faith, Richelieu now redemanded, and 
announced that that focus of sedition, La Rochelle, 
and its adjacent territory must submit to the 
universal ascendency of the crown by the ex- 
pulsion of its heretic municipality, and of its 
defenders, de Rohan and his brothers of Soubise. 
The frantic cries of the French Protestants, thus 
menaced by a minister armed with irresponsible 
power, echoed in the English council ; and the 


Duke de Rohan sent his brothers de Soubise to 
implore the aid of Charles I. and the favourable 
auspices of Buckingham. A mandate of exter- 
mination for the great Huguenot citadel had 
already gone forth ; the engineers and the sur- 
veyors of the Cardinal encircled La Rochelle, and 
by the command of his Eminence were engaged in 
fortifying the island of Re, which had been cap- 
tured by M. de St. Luc, after the Huguenots had 
suffered a naval defeat from the ships under M. 
de Montmorency. The influence of the Duchess 
de Chevreuse was yet alive in England. Lord 
Holland was devoted to her ; Buckingham con- 
ciliated her favour for the sake of and as a means 
of access to Anne of Austria; and King Charles 
admired her sprightliness and extolled her per- 
sonal charms. She was, moreover, a near kins- 
woman of the " great Rohans." Marie de Rohan 
Chevreuse, therefore, whose relatives might kindle 
civil war throughout Bretagne and the south of 
France, felt that her enmity could make itself felt 
even when her foe was the omnipotent Cardinal 
ruler of France. Spain, already passively inimi- 
cal, was ready to take up arms on the slightest 
provocation. The restraint in which her ambas- 
sador lived in Paris ; the grievances of the young 
Queen Anne ; the unfriendly distance maintained 
by King Louis towards his wife's kinsmen ; and 
the earnest desire manifested by Philip IV. to 
disturb the entente between the crowns of France 
and England, apparently riveted by the marriage 
of a French princess with Charles I., rendered the 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 151 

Spanish minister accessible to negotiation. The 
question concerning the succession to the duchy 
of Mantua, moreover, opened a multitude of griev- 
ances and heartburnings. The new duke was 
one of Louis' most potent princes, Charles de 
Gonzague de Cleves, Due de Never s. The Em- 
peror Ferdinand II. opposed his investiture, and 
in concert with the Spanish Viceroy of Milan and 
the Duke of Savoy, invaded the duchy and its 
dependency of Montferrato. Nevers appealed to 
Louis XIIL, and besought his intervention ; a 
prayer, to which the politic Richelieu gave little 
heed, pending his warlike designs on the Rochel- 
lois. In the Duke of Lorraine, Madame de Chev- 
reuse found a ready and willing ally. 7 Charles 
IV. had espoused his cousin Nicole, eldest daughter 
of Duke Henry of Lorraine and Marguerite de Gon- 
zague, and heiress of the duchy. The duke was a 
vacillating, unsteady man ; a slave to feminine 
charms and wiles, and indifferent to his consort, 
whose attachment he repaid by attempts, after 
their marriage, to set aside her claims on the 
duchy, and to assert those of his father, the Count 
de Vaudemont, as the nearest male heir of the late 
duke, his father-in-law. 8 Charles received Madame 
de Chevreuse with distinction ; he assigned for 
her use the beautiful palace of Blamont, and 
abetted her intrigues to bring about a coalition of 
the Powers against France, The campaign was 
to be inaugurated by the succour of La Rochelle. 
The Duke always inclined to the alliance of 
Austria rather than to that of France. Richelieu 


had demanded several of Charles' frontier strong- 
holds ; and, unable to cope against so potent a 
pleader, he had sought safety under the protec- 
tion of the Emperor. The design of the confeder- 
ates, after the relief of La Rochelle by the British 
fleet, was that the Duke of Buckingham should 
disembark, and accept a command in the late 
beleaguered city ; that the Duke of Savoy should 
then invade Provence ; that the Duke de Rohan, 
at the head of the Calvinist armies, should raise 
Languedoc ; while the Duke de Lorraine made 
his way through Champagne to the very gates ot 
the capital such having been the proposed cam- 
paign and dream of all the traitorous subjects of 
France from the days of the great Constable de 
Bourbon. To execute the plan of the conspiracy 
it was necessary that the English fleet should take 
the initiative, and by the succour of La Rochelle 
and the destruction of Richelieu's famous forts on 
the island of Re, enable the French dissidents in 
the south to take heart endugh to listen to the 
subtle promptings of Philip IV. and his minister, 
the Count-duke de Olivarez. As Philip II., the 
zealous champion of the popedom, had tampered 
with the allegiance of the heretic Henri de 
Navarre in his war with his orthodox sovereign 
King Henry III., and promised aid to the Hugue- 
nots, so now Philip IV. was ready to become 
the ally of the Rohans, provided that the realm 
suffered calamity enough to destroy its com- 
petition with the monarchy of Spain. It appears 
that the Queen was kept constantly informed of 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 153 

the progress of this negotiation ; unadmonished 
by her recent narrow escape, and by the clemency 
which she had received at the hands of the King 
her consort and of the minister whom she pur- 
sued with such reckless hate, Anne ventured still 
to cabal. Such was the Queen's hardihood, and 
so perfect were her powers of dissimulation and 
silent endurance, that no past danger ever seems 
to have been sufficiently remembered to act as a 
warning for the future. Her very helplessness, 
beauty and affability won devoted attachment, 
so that no princess ever possessed adherents more 
faithful and determined. Under a silent and 
submissive demeanour strong passions agitated 
the spirit of the Queen : her haughtiness of 
character invested her with self-control, while 
her passive but determined enmity rendered her 
a foe to be dreaded even by Richelieu. 

The young Duchess of Orleans, during the 
course of these events, gave birth to a daughter at 
the Louvre, May 29th, and died a few days 
afterwards, surviving her marriage with Monsieur 
scarcely ten months. 9 To propitiate Monsieur, 
and to make him loyally oblivious of the vexa- 
tions he had experienced at Nantes, Madame re- 
ceived enthusiastic welcome at the Louvre, and 
was invested with privileges derogatory to the 
prerogatives of the Queen-consort. The Duchess 
was dispensed from the obligation of visiting the 
saloon of the Queen daily ; neither was she 
expected to present herself three times in the 
week at her Majesty's lever, as had been the 


invariable etiquette of the court of France. At the 
public receptions of the Louvre, Marie de' Medici 
and Madame gathered around them a coterie of the 
most brilliant personages of the court ; while 
Anne sat in her chair of state comparatively aban- 
doned, being timidly addressed by Monsieur, and 
saluted with ceremonious politeness by the King. 
Madame does not appear to have been deeply 
lamented; her infant daughter, 10 heiress of her 
immense wealth, was confided to the care of Marie 
de' Medici, who had her brought up at the 
Tuileries, under Madame de St. Georges. 11 The 
fancy of Monsieur soon became fascinated by the 
radiant loveliness of a fair young princess of Gon- 
zague-Nevers, daughter of the Duke of Mantua, a 
debutante at court, and to whom he commenced to 
offer ardent suit. 

Bassompierre, meanwhile, had returned from 
London, having partially succeeded in mediating 
between Charles and his consort. Henrietta, 
however, still mourning her early friends, and 
believing herself lost in a land of heretics, where her 
priests were pelted in the streets by the London 
populace and her faith derided, implored the 
Queen her mother to permit her to visit France 
" But, Madame, this happiness, if you grant it to 
me, can only be obtained by permitting M. de 
Buckingham to become my escort to your court." 
The Duke of Buckingham also confided to Bas- 
sompierre his longing desire to return to Paris ; 
and charged the ambassador to sound the Car- 
dinal on the subject, and to hint that great achieve- 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 155 

merits in diplomacy, very advantageous to France, 
might be obtained by their personal conference. 12 
Bassompierre performed his mission, and stated 
the Duke's wish, which was met on the part of 
Louis XIII. by an indignant refusal. 13 Anne also 
privately requested Bassompierre to write to M. 
de Buckingham to put off his visit ; and to state, 
in her name, that such would be very displeasing 
to her. 14 The disappointment of Buckingham 
hurried him into the folly of lending a favourable 
ear to the solicitations of the Rochellois, whose 
interests were supported in England by M. de 
Soubise. He, moreover, entered into a close 
correspondence with Madame de Chevreuse, and 
selected as the medium of his communications 
with the Duchess, Walter Montague, second son of 
the first Earl of Manchester, who was about to 
travel in France. Richelieu, however, was too 
wary to be so surprised, or to suffer the enemies 
of France to complete their coalition ere he struck 
the blow which should subjugate his master's re- 
bellious subjects of the reformed faith. Moreover, 
Monsieur was again sullen and unmanageable, al- 
though honours, privileges and wealth were 
heaped upon him with a lavish hand. For some 
inscrutable reason of her own, Marie de' Medici 
opposed the desire of Monsieur to espouse for his 
second wife the Princess Marie de Gonzague, of 
whom he continued madly enamoured. The Car- 
dinal, whose policy it was to humour his royal 
patroness in all possible ways, save in those 
matters which might have operated for his own 


dowrifall, supported her Majesty in this refusal, 
and gained over the King to show similar dis- 
approbation. Monsieur threatened, stormed 
but was finally propitiated for an interval, by the 
promise of a military command. 15 Without wait- 
ing, therefore, for his foes to perfect their design, 
Louis XIII. invested La Rochelle, and appointed 
his brother as general-in-chief of his armies ; nomi- 
nating Bassompierre and M. de Schomberg as 
his aides-de-camp and counsellors. This con- 
cession, however, was extorted from the King, 
who jealously watched the career of Monsieur ; 
and was conceded only on news of the sailing of 
Buckingham and the fleet from Portsmouth, 
during a sharp attack of his old malady, which 
prevented Louis from leaving the Chateau de 
Villeroy, whither he had arrived from Paris en 
route for the camp. 

Buckingham meanwhile set sail at the begin- 
ning of July, 1627, with a fleet of fifty men-of-war 
and of sixty smaller vessels, and an army of 7000 
men. 16 Charles declared to his council that his 
reasons for invading France were threefold 1st, 
that King Louis had declined to grant a passage 
through France to some English levies under 
Count Mansfield ; 2ndly, that the French fleet 
had made prizes of some small coasting vessels 
hovering about La Rochelle ; and lastly, because 
the Huguenots were oppressed, and in danger of 
losing all their strongholds, La Rochelle being 
already besieged. The Duke of Buckingham was 
more candidly explicit on the causes and motives 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 157 

of the war. " In spite of all the power and might 
of France, I will see her fair Queen again ! " ex- 
claimed he publicly at a farewell banquet at 
Whitehall. The Duke's galley was adorned with 
a yellow and black banner, the colours of Anne of 
Austria, and her cipher was everywhere dis- 
played. 17 The chief cabin on board was dedicated 
to her charms : it was draped with yellow silk 
damask ; at one end was a life-size picture of the 
Queen, shrouded by superb curtains of cloth of 
gold, before which golden candelabra were placed, 
holding lighted tapers of white wax. 18 The mad- 
ness and infatuation of this conduct admit of no 
palliation ; the prosperity of the Duke's career 
must have induced insanity, and have rendered 
him cruelly forgetful of the position of Anne of 
Austria, and of the disgrace which his insensate 
ambition had already inflicted. So unexpectedly 
was the expedition decided upon, that the munici- 
pality of La Rochelle were not even apprised of 
the sailing of the fleet when Buckingham appeared 
before the town \ the people, therefore, refused to 
admit their intending allies before due inquiry 
had been made as to the object of the landing 
of so formidable a force. 19 Buckingham thus 
repulsed, attacked the island of Re, and began to 
batter the great fort of St. Martin, which was de- 
fended by the brave M. de Toiras with admirable 
valour. The cannonade, however, was suspended 
for a few days, by order of the Duke ; who, being 
probably assailed with misgivings as to the motive 
of the war, and perhaps a little disheartened by 


his reception by the Rochellois, abated in much 
of his boasted vigour. Richelieu immediately 
ordered the despatch of 6000 men under Schom- 
berg to Re, who encamped on the island, and 
rendered essential assistance to Toiras ; while 
Monsieur diligently pushed the siege by land. 
The Duke of Buckingham was profuse in his 
civilities to any French gentlemen who visited his 
fleet. M. Saint Surin, a distant kinsman of 
Richelieu, especially recommended himself to the 
Duke's favour ; and the latter one day introduced 
him into the chamber on board the galley where 
the picture of Anne of Austria hung. Buckingham 
boldly avowed his admiration for the Queen, and 
his desire to visit Paris ; bitterly complaining of 
the uncourteous refusal of the prayer, which he 
had preferred through Bassompierre. He ended 
by requesting M. Saint Surin to communicate 
again his desire to the Cardinal ; engaging, if his 
Christian Majesty consented to receive him in the 
capacity of ambassador from his Britannic Ma- 
jesty, that he would presently take pretext to 
retire from before La Rochelle and leave the city 
to its fate. St. Surin undertook the mission ; but 
repented his officiousness when he found himself 
arrested after his interview with the minister, and 
about to be consigned to the Bastille " for pre- 
sumptuous and traitorous communication with 
the enemy " ; a fate from which his kinship to 
Richelieu delivered him. 20 Meanwhile the garrison 
of Fort St. Martin was reinforced by the unfore- 
seen and gallant descent of Schomberg. The 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 159 

blockade, also, being loosely maintained, the be- 
leaguered garrison obtained abundance of pro- 
vision. On the 20th of October Buckingham 
landed his troops and again attacked the fort ; 
he was repulsed with immense slaughter, and his 
soldiers driven into the sea by the troops under 
Schomberg. Retreat became inevitable, and the 
embarkation of the soldiers under such disastrous 
circumstances was attended with further loss of 
life. The Duke rejoined his fleet, having lost 
more than half of his land forces, and immediately 
set sail for England. 21 

The vigilance of the Cardinal was rewarded in 
another quarter by an important capture. Walter 
Montague, 22 as has before been related, had been 
charged with the perilous office of carrying the 
correspondence and the replies returned by the 
English court to Madame de Chevreuse. Through 
his spies Richelieu learned that suspicious cir- 
cumstances were attached to the frequent jour- 
neys to and from Nancy made by the young 
Englishman ; and that the letters he was known 
to carry were probably of more momentous 
import than effusions sent by the English admirers 
of the Duchess. A warrant was thereupon issued 
for the detention of Montague, which was de- 
livered for execution to the Marquis de Borbonne, 
who arrested him on the frontiers of Lorraine, and 
conveyed him a prisoner to the neighbouring 
castle of Coissy. 23 His papers were seized and 
despatched to Paris. The fact of the arrest of 
Montague was communicated to the Queen, as 


her Majesty was supping in public. Anne turned 
deadly pale, and pushed the dishes from before 
her as they were presented ; then rising, at the 
conclusion of the repast, she retired to her private 
apartments. Her distress and consternation ap- 
pear to have been extreme ; it was possible that 
Montague's papers might again fatally com- 
promise her position at any rate, she dreaded 
lest the examination of the prisoner would reveal 
her own guilty knowledge of the design forming 
for the invasion of France. Her perturbation was 
increased by the arrival, a few hours later, of a 
note from Madame de Chevreuse, written in wild 
alarm, apprising her Majesty of the arrest of 
Montague, but professing total ignorance as to 
the nature of the despatches and letters of which 
he was the bearer. 

Anne spent the night and part of the following 
day weeping in her oratory, alone with Madame de 
Fargis; devising means for 'communicating with 
Montague, in order to discover what the con- 
fiscated papers contained. The sympathy of 
Madame de Fargis at this juncture elicited the 
Queen's entire confidence : with all her wilful 
perversity, and dissimulation, there was, at any 
crisis, a touching helplessness and grief in Anne's 
aspect which usually proved irresistible in evoking 
the best energies of her adherents. Her friends 
felt themselves honoured by the outward aban- 
donment, on the part of their royal mistress, 
of the distance imposed by her rank ; by her 
naive appeals to their sympathy ; and by her 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 161 

admissions that, abandoned by their help, she 
esteemed herself lost. Through the Cardinal de 
Berulle, Madame de Fargis discovered that the 
prisoner Montague was to be immediately escorted 
to the Bastille ; and that certain regiments of the 
royal guards were already selected to proceed to 
Coissy on the morrow. In one of these regiments 
the Queen suddenly remembered that her faithful 
La Porte had been drafted as a soldier after 
his dismissal from her service, on the return of 
the court from Amiens. Her Majesty, there- 
fore, applied to M. Lavaux, who was intimate with 
La Porte, and the father of one of her dressers, 
to bring the latter to the Louvre at midnight, 
when she would confer with him secretly in her 
oratory. To such clandestine and undignified 
interviews Anne was driven, to hide the miserable 
intrigues from which she could not refrain. 

Anne seems always to have taken the oppor- 
tunity to cabal when her adopted country was in 
straits and needed loyal devotion. At this period 
France was menaced abroad by the arms of 
England, Spain, Savoy, and Lorraine ; the Em- 
peror Ferdinand defied her power, and in spite 
of earnest expostulations, was proceeding to ruin 
and dethrone the French prince, whom the rights 
of primogeniture had placed on the ducal throne 
of Mantua. At home civil war menaced the 
realm : the Huguenots were utterly disaffected 
and malcontent ; and the heir-presumptive to the 
throne threatened to league with rebels, against 
whom he had accepted a command. Monsieur 


had suddenly retired from the camp before La 
Rochelle on the arrival there of the King. He 
stated in excuse, that Louis had promised him 
the command in chief, which engagement was an- 
nulled by the royal presence ; moreover, that the 
continued opposition made to his marriage with 
Marie de Gonzague convinced him that " their 
Majesties never had his welfare and happiness at 
heart." At court the Queen-mother was involved 
in violent dissensions with the Cardinal minister, 
respecting the Lord Keeper Marillac, whom 
Richelieu wished to supersede in the ministry in 
favour of the more able de Chateauneuf . Such was 
the position of affairs when Queen Anne joined in 
the correspondence of the Duchess de Chevreuse 
with the foes of France. This incident in the 
troubled career of the Queen would probably 
have escaped record but for the pen of La Porte. 
It does not appear that, at this period, any cor- 
respondence injurious to Anne fell into the hands 
of the King. Richelieu probably did suspect, and 
acted on his suspicion ; but proof of Anne's mis- 
demeanour failed him ; and it was ever the policy 
of the Cardinal, " never to accuse, without he 
could likewise stab." " The news of the arresta- 
tion of my lord Montague threw the Queen into a 
strange fright," records La Porte, 24 "she dreaded 
lest her name might be compromised by the 
papers taken from Montague ; and that, if such a 
fact had been laid before the King, with whom 
she was not then on good terms, his Majesty might 
ill-treat her, and send her back to Spain, as he 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 163 

would most assuredly have done. This fear so 
greatly disquieted her Majesty, that she could 
neither eat nor sleep. She was in this quandary 
when her Majesty suddenly remembered that I 
was a soldier of one of the regiments chosen for 
the escort of my lord. She, therefore, enquired of 
Lavaux where I could be found ; he looked me up, 
and conducted me at midnight to the Queen's 
chamber, after every person had retired. Her 
Majesty explained to me her trouble ; adding, 
that having no person whom she could trust, she 
had sent for me, believing that I should serve her 
with devotion. She said, that on the report 
which I was to bring her, depended her worldly 
salvation, and honour. The Queen then ex- 
plained her desire ; and directed me to take the 
opportunity when I was on guard near to the 
person of the said prisoner Montague, to ask him 
whether in the papers taken from him her 
Majesty was named ? Also, if it should happen, 
as it was certain to befal, that when in the Bastille 
he should be subjected to severe interrogatories, 
and pressed to reveal all the accomplices in the 
intended league, I was to pray and admonish 
earnestly the said my lord, not to name her 
Majesty. I succeeded in informing Montague of 
the distress of the Queen ; and he replied, ' That 
her Majesty might rest tranquil ; for that he be- 
lieved she was not named directly, or indirectly, 
in any of the letters and despatches taken from 
him ' ; also, he assured me I might tell the Queen, 
* that he would rather die than reveal, or say 


anything that could injure her ! ' When I delivered 
this reply, the Queen actually trembled for joy ! 5: 
writes La Porte. Anne escaped this time with the 
fright. The young " my lord " was subjected to 
no examination of consequence in the Bastille, 
and was simply detained there until the peace 
with England, concluded in 1629 ; when, out of 
deference to the clamour of the Duke of Lorraine, 
" the ambassador accredited to his court " was 
conducted under escort to the frontiers of the 
duchy, and there released. 

The Rochellois, meantime, were comforted in 
their adversity and desertion by the entry into 
their harbour of a fast sailing vessel, bringing a 
letter from Charles I., assuring the citizens of his 
continued support ; and that he was preparing a 
fleet and armament which would at once insure 
the concession of their liberties. Delays, however, 
arose, of which the French government knew how 
to profit. Throughout the winter of 1627 and the 
first months of the following year, the siege was 
carried on with wonderful vigour. The King re- 
mained in camp until the 9th of February 1628 ; 
when, feeling indisposed, he returned to Paris, 
leaving Richelieu sole commander-in-chief, with 
the power of life and death over every ' person 
engaged in the siege. 25 Aware that the Rochellois 
could never be subdued while their city was open 
to the approach of an English fleet, Richelieu 
commenced that wonderful work, the mole and 
fortification which close the harbour of La 
Rochelle. Two French engineers, Louis Metezeau, 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 165 

a townsman of Dreux, and Jean Tiriot, were the 
designers of the work, which was carried on under 
the inspection of the Cardinal, whose courage 
and perseverance were sustained by his able coun- 
sellor the Capuchin father, Joseph de Tremblay. 
The Cardinal lived in a lone house known as Le 
Pont de la Pierre, situated a stone's cast from the 
beach. There the Cardinal and " his shadow ' 
worked, plotted, pondered and sustained each 
other during the blockade ; they sketched im- 
aginary schemes for the glory and the political 
government of France, which, impossible as these 
designs then appeared, the matchless genius of 
these two men realised under the fostering growth 
of King Louis' inaptitude for affairs of state, his 
ever wavering health, and the suspicions which 
poisoned his existence. 

Long and angry debates ensued meanwhile in 
the English Parliament relative to Buckingham's 
policy ; 26 which retarded the sailing of the pro- 
mised succours, and enabled the French engineers 
to continue their works, the aim of which mystified 
the British cabinet. The fate of the rebel city was 
rendered more desperate by the assassination of 
Buckingham ; who fell by the knife of one Felton, 
August 24th, 1628, after granting audience to 
Soubise, and other French gentlemen, at Ports- 
mouth, as he was again about to embark to relieve 
Rochelle. 27 The assassin had served in the former 
expedition to Re, and had felt himself aggrieved, 
because the captain of his ship having fallen 
during the memorable embarkation from that 


island, the Duke declined to promote him to the 
vacant post. The news of the death of Bucking- 
ham was received with satisfaction in France. 
The Queen refused for long to believe that the 
gallant, handsome favourite had fallen. " No ! 5: 
exclaimed Anne, "it is impossible ! I have just 
received letters from the Duke." 28 When con- 
vinced of his death, her dejection was great ; and 
for some time her Majesty seemed to find solace 
only in the correspondence of Queen Henrietta. 
The latter, however, had hated the presuming 
favourite, whom she accused of attempting to de- 
grade her to the forlorn position of her sister-in- 
law ; and who had suggested the banishment of 
her French ladies, to avenge his own exclusion 
from the Louvre. The command of the English 
fleet was conferred on the Earl of Lindsay ; who, 
on the 28th of September, appeared off La 
Rochelle with a fleet of seventy-tw r o vessels and 
attacked Richelieu's new fortifications, but failed 
to destroy them, or to open the harbour. The 
inhabitants, meantime, were reduced to the last 
extremities of famine ; on the repulse of their 
allies, their despair and sufferings compelled them 
to open negotiations with their incensed sovereign 
and his minister. These overtures were made 
October 23rd. On the 30th the city surrendered 
and was punished by the total abrogation of its 
charters and privileges, besides the imposition of 
a fine to an immense amount, to defray the cost 
of the fortifications and siege works. On the 1st of 
November, All Saints' Day, the victorious Riche- 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 167 

lieu celebrated mass at the high altar of the late 
heretic cathedral dedicated to Ste. Marguerite, 
after the solemn reconsecration of the church by 
the Archbishop of Bordeaux. The same day 
Louis XIII. made his state entry into the revolted 
city. Thus, after seven successful revolts against 
the royal authority in the space of 100 years, the 
factious Rochellois were totally subdued ; their 
fortifications levelled ; their privileges annulled ; 
and their harbour effectually barred against the 
approach of any fleet but that of their liege 
sovereign. The English fleet under Lord Lindsay 
made sail after the surrender of La Rochelle, and 
safely put into port in Portsmouth harbour. The 
ignoble termination of this expedition occasioned 
stormy and even tumultuous debates in the 
English Chambers. Peace, however, was even- 
tually concluded with France in September of the 
following year, 1629 : the articles of the marriage 
treaty of Henriette Marie were confirmed again ; 
England abandoned the Huguenots of France to 
their fate ; an amnesty was to be granted for all 
concerned in the late transactions, and Madame de 
Chevreuse was to be recalled from banishment and 
suffered to reside in the chateau of Dampierre. 29 

The submission of La Rochelle was followed by 
an expedition undertaken by the King in person to 
compel the Spaniards to raise the siege of Casale ; 
which was invested by Don Gonzalez de Cordova. 
The Emperor persisted in his refusal to grant in- 
vestiture of the duchy of Mantua to Charles de 
Gonzagues ; and demanded that the territory 


should be relinquished to him as lord paramount, 
until the rights of the various claimants were 
examined and adjusted. Duke Charles implored 
the succour of the King ; and the policy of Riche- 
lieu being now favourable to the old tactics of 
Sully and Henri Quatre, the Duke's prayer was 
conceded. The reduction of the remaining Hugue- 
not strongholds of the South the minister post- 
poned to the more propitious season, when both 
Spain and Austria, humbled by the victorious 
arms of France, as he had predetermined, should 
thereby be compelled to abandon these rebellious 
vassals to the mercy of the government. The 
King, accompanied by Richelieu, quitted Paris 
February 4, 1629, for his Italian expedition. He 
was attended by the Dukes de Longueville, d'El- 
bceuf, de Schomberg ; the Marshals de Bassom- 
pierre, de Crequi, and other noblemen. The army, 
flushed with its recent success before La Rochelle, 
was obedient and enthusiastic, and regarded the 
relief of the fortress of Casale, and the expulsion 
of the Spaniards and Savoyards from Montferrat, 
as a very inferior achievement. The prospect of a 
war with Spain was a bitter accession of grievance 
to the Queen ; and at this period her stolen in- 
terviews became so frequent with the Spanish 
ambassador, the Marquis de Mirabel, as to give 
great umbrage to the King. One day before the 
departure of Richelieu from Paris, he paid a visit 
of formal courtesy to Queen Anne to say fare- 
well. As the visit of the minister had not been 
previously announced, he found Mirabel closeted 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 169 

with her Majesty ; the only other person present 
being Madame de Fargis. The Cardinal advanced, 
and after inclining profoundly before the Queen, 
addressed Mirabel with his usual bland cordiality 
of tone. " Monsieur PAmbassadeur," said he, 
" his Christian Majesty desired me, on the first 
opportunity, to express to you his regret and 
astonishment at the haste which the Emperor has 
shown in sending his armies into the Milanese, and 
against Duke Charles of Mantua, an old subject of 
France ! 5: " The Emperor might certainly have 
shown more prudence if he had waited for the 
termination of our negotiations with your Emi- 
nence. His Imperial Majesty doubtless believed 
that the affair would drag on here with endless 
tedium, as it has so often happened ; he therefore 
deemed it politic to urge on a denouement by 
arms ! " responded Mirabel, sarcastically. Riche- 
lieu showed that he was piqued at this reply, and 
to turn the conversation he addressed the Queen 
on some indifferent matter. Anne, however, rose, 
and taking the hand of Mirabel interposed, saying, 
" M. PAmbassadeur, do not excite yourself. I, 
who have at heart the interests of Spain in equal 
degree with those of France, cannot approve of the 
precipitancy shown by the Emperor in sending his 
armies as a menace to our frontiers. I will myself 
write to the King my brother on the subject." 30 
It had been often better for the Queen if she had 
remembered the celebrated axiom of Richelieu : 
ic If words are the first power in the world, silence 
is the second ! " When this conversation was 


repeated by Richelieu to the King, he was greatly 
offended that the Queen had declared " that she 
had the interest of Spain as much at heart as that 
of France," and personally administered a sharp 
rebuke ; forbidding her Majesty during his absence 
to see the Spanish ambassador, who had alone 
disobeyed the recent ordinance prohibiting entree 
to the Queen's private saloons to the gentlemen 
of the court. 

During the absence of the King, Anne withdrew 
to St. Germain, attended by her household ; while 
Marie de' Medici, installed in the Louvre, repre- 
sented the absent majesty of France, and held all 
court receptions. Occasionally Anne ventured to 
trespass upon the strict injunctions which she had 
received to avoid the capital, by paying private 
visits to the Val de Grace, a convent which she had 
recently founded. Even this privilege of retreat 
Anne had managed to abuse, by granting secret 
audiences in the convent to Mirabel, and to other 
personages who presumed not to present them- 
selves at the Louvre. Richelieu's spies, however, 
soon detected the subterfuge, and it was several 
times reported to the minister that M. de Mirabel 
had been seen to leave his coach in an obscure 
street adjacent to the Faubourg St. Jacques and 
proceed on foot to the Val de Grace, where he 
was admitted ; and after an interval of several 
hours was observed in the same furtive manner 
to return to his coach. 31 The mystery so foolishly 
maintained by the Queen in her intercourse with 
her own family, and her pertinacity in refusing 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 171 

to impart the purport of any of her frequent 
communications, added to the well-known facts 
that she was in correspondence with Madame de 
Chevreuse, and occasionally so with Monsieur, 
afforded ground for the suspicion that she was dis- 
loyal to her husband's crown. Her preference for 
everything Spanish, and the favour which she 
showed to persons who spoke her native tongue, 
such as Mesdames Bertaut and de Fargis, and the 
daughter of the former, afterwards the celebrated 
Madame de Motteville, perpetuated the notion, of 
which Anne unreasonably complained, that she 
was still in heart an alien from France. It was 
moreover suspected, and all but proved, that at 
this period Anne reported to Mirabel any decision 
of the privy council affecting her brother's affairs 
which accidentally came to her knowledge, or 
any hasty and inconsiderate word which dropped 
in her presence from the lips of the King or his 
minister concerning their Catholic Majesties. 32 In 
the abbess of the Val de Grace, Luisa de Milley ? 
Anne found a companion and firm friend. The 
brother of the abbess was a subject of Spain, being 
a native of Franche Comte, and governor of 
Besanon. Luisa de Milley had been educated in 
the Carmelite convent of Avila : all her aspira- 
tions were therefore Spanish ; and as many of her 
connections resided in Spain, this liaison afforded 
the Queen an easy and invaluable mode of com- 
munication with her own country. 

" The Queen," writes Madame de Motteville, 
" being still young, but desirous of providing for 


her eternal salvation before all things, had 
selected the convent of the Val de Grace as a 
place of retreat, where she could always retire, 
and taste that peace which is to be found only at 
the footstool of God." Anne, in 1621, bought the 
Hotel de Valois, for the sum of 36,000 livres ; the 
old building was partially demolished, July 1623, 
and the remaining apartments adapted to con- 
ventual purposes, after the Queen had selected a 
suite of rooms for her own occupation. Anne 
built a superb private oratory, the altar of which 
was decorated with a painting and a crucifix, 
gifts of Philip IV. of Spain. The community of 
Val Profond, a small convent situated about nine 
miles from Bievre, was chosen to inhabit her 
Majesty's new foundation ; but why these ladies 
were so favoured does not appear. The nuns, 
with their abbess, La Mere d'Arbouze, were in- 
stalled at the Val de Grace in the early part of the 
year 1623. The community was of the Benedic- 
tine order ; and their abbess appears to have been 
renowned for saintly austerity, as she was trans- 
ferred during the following year to the convent of 
La Charite, there to enforce discipline and the 
rule of St. Benedict, which had fallen into disuse, 
to the great scandal of the neighbourhood. Luisa 
de Milley, abbess of St. Etienne, was then chosen 
by the Queen as the head of her house, and as- 
sumed rule at Val de Grace about the year 1625. 
Anne immediately established relations of the 
closest confidence with the new abbess, who 
sympathised deeply in her Majesty's distresses. 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 173 

The abbess was subsequently accused of having 
sanctioned public prayer in her chapel, for the 
downfall of the Cardinal minister and of all the 
other enemies of the very Christian and per- 
secuted Queen of France. La Mere Luisa and her 
nuns looked upon Anne as an immaculate saint, 
whose prayers and patronage brought the blessing 
of Heaven on their house ; they faithfully kept 
her secrets and performed her bidding, even when 
such involved imminent risk to themselves. No 
betrayal or hostile witness ever confronted the 
Queen from the Val de Grace ; and the glorious 
and magnificent house which hereafter rose on the 
foundation of the humble convent of La Mere 
Luisa, was dedicated by Anne of Austria as much 
in memory of the devoted fidelity which she had 
there experienced, as a lofty monument of her joy 
and thanksgiving for the birth of Louis XIV. 
The other personages, besides the Abbess Luisa 
and Mesdames de Chevreuse and de Fargis, at 
this period in the confidence of Queen Anne, were 
her physician, Vaultier, and her apothecary, 
Michel Danse. Vaultier had been for some time 
high in the favour of Marie de' Medici, who had 
taken measures to bespeak for him a cardinal's 
hat. He subsequently passed from the service of 
Marie into that of her daughter-in-law, Queen 
Anne, and became an ardent but injudicious 
servant of the latter, entering into all the petty 
cabals which the ladies and women of Anne's 
household raised against the minister. Amongst 
her humbler servants were La Porte, Lavaux, his 


wife and daughter, a dresser named Catherine, 
and her nurse, Dona Estafania, who wisely shut 
her ears against insinuations and scandals, and 
consequently lived a life of tranquillity. 

The Duke of Orleans, meantime, fled from the 
kingdom to Nancy ; so intense was his resent- 
ment at the persistent opposition manifested by 
his mother and the King at his suit to the Princess 
Marie de Gonzague. Marie de' Medici, during the 
Italian campaign, dominated in Paris, living for 
the moment on amicable terms with Richelieu's 
beloved niece, Madame de Combalet, who was 
about to shine at the Palais Cardinal as Duchess 
d'Aiguillon. A glorious campaign, which ter- 
minated by the successful action of the Pas de 
Susa, and the relief and cession of Casale to the 
French, rejoiced the court and nation. The King, 
after installing the Marshals de Crequi and de 
Bassompierre over the captured territory, received 
the thanks of the Duke of Mantua, and returned 
to France to carry on the campaign in the South 
for the total reduction of the Huguenot power. 
The exploits of " 1'Armee de Valence " were as 
signal as those of the division in possession of 
Montferrat. Town after town, with but few 
exceptions, submitted to the royal power, and was 
graciously pardoned for past treasons, though 
deprived of treasured charters and religious ex- 
emptions. Languedoc submitted : the Duke de 
Rohan laid down arms, and accepted articles 
signed at Alais, in which it was stipulated that the 
fortifications of the great Huguenot strongholds 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 175 

of Nimes, Castres, d'Usez, and Montauban, should 
be demolished. The Huguenots were compelled to 
make restoration of Church lands and benefices 
seized or appropriated by them from the com- 
mencement of the civil wars in 1561 ; all churches 
were dedicated afresh, and the orthodox service 
re-established. The Cardinal refused to receive 
the petitions of the ministers of the churches ; he 
declared that he knew no distinction between the 
religion of any of his Majesty's subjects ; that all 
should participate in the paternal regard of the 
government ; and no person or sect be distin- 
guished, except for loyalty and devotion to the 
glorious race of Bourbon. 

Louis XIII., leaving his minister at Montauban, 
arrived at Fontainebleau at the beginning of May 
1629, where the Queens had repaired to offer their 
congratulations. Marie received her son as a hero 
descended from Mount Olympus, but the pouting 
lips of Anne of Austria had no smiles for Louis. 
Her ironical salutations, and allusion to his 
victories over Spain and the Empire, justly pro- 
voked his anger, while her dejection, the absence 
of splendour in her attire, and the readiness with 
which she yielded her precedence and prerogative 
to Marie de' Medici, excited the King's distrust. 
Anne ever thus let the opportunity slip to estab- 
lish ascendency over the mind of Louis. While 
the Cardinal dictated peace at Montauban, she 
should have seized the moment to propitiate her 
consort, who found the exigeant humours of the 
Queen- mother hard to endure. Until the return 


of Richelieu, Louis found recreation in the chase. 
He also derived relaxation from his musical in- 
struments, and in setting verses to dreary tunes 
of his own composition. The King also found 
amusement in carving wooden shrines with his 
under secretary, M. de Noyers, who excelled in 
that art. Richelieu at length returned to receive 
the congratulations of his royal master on his 
diplomatic victories in the South. The reception 
of his Eminence by Marie de' Medici, however, 
was stormy and ominous. Richelieu, during his 
sojourn in the South, had taken no counsel of the 
Queen-mother respecting his compact with Rohan 
and his followers ; he had even severely repri- 
manded Marie for her arbitrary detention at 
Vincennes of the Princess Marie de Gonzague ; 
and had sent an order for the release of the young 
princess, at the solicitation of Monsieur and of her 
cousin-german the Duke de Longueville. More- 
over, he had blamed the conduct of Marie in other 
matters relative to the Duke of Orleans, who y 
while pretending to respond to the overtures of 
the King to return from his self-inflicted exile, had 
stipulated that he should not be required to visit 
his Majesty until time had allayed the acrimony 
of his feelings in having been so cruelly thwarted 
in his matrimonial designs. The Duke had there- 
fore sullenly retired to the capital of his appanage, 
Orleans. Richelieu had recourse to his usual 
remedy to defeat the anger of the Queen-mother ; 
he pretended to be overwhelmed with dismay, and 
prepared to quit Fontainebleau, " as he perceived 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 177 

that his fate was sealed, and her Majesty's dis- 
pleasure irrevocable." His subtle Eminence next 
commanded his niece, De Combalet, to resign her 
office in Marie's household ; and his cousin, De 
Meilleraye, to tender his baton of chamberlain. 
The King, alarmed at these preparations, flew to 
his mother and besought her to pardon a delin- 
quent so submissive. Marie, unable to resist the 
entreaties of her King and son ; and moved by 
the meek deportment of a minister whose power, 
as she well knew, might, if he chose to exert it, 
prove irresistible, consented to a truce. 33 The 
winter of 1629-30, therefore, passed in stormy 
altercations and reconciliations ; the ill-regulated 
temper of Queen Marie relieving itself by vilifying 
the Cardinal in public, and by accusing him to 
the King as a liar, a deceiver and an ingrate. 
" We shall see M. le Cardinal ere long pack up his 
baggage and decamp, or I shall quit the court ! J: 
M. Bonne vil, first valet de chambre to her Majesty, 
represented that M. le Cardinal seemed greatly 
depressed at the report of the depreciating things 
she was constantly heard to utter. " M. le Car- 
dinal," replied Marie de' Medici, " is elastic, and 
able to adapt himself to any role ; one minute his 
spirits are joyous, the next he seems to be half 
dead : rising from a poor little pitiful abbe, see 
how grandly he plays the part of Eminence and 
prime minister ! He treats me, his benefactress, 
with a more bitter hate than he gave to M. de 
Luynes, and he pretends to exclude me, the 
mother of his King, from power ! Ah ! M. le 


Cardinal weeps his crocodile tears at pleasure ! ?: 
In such fashion did this violent woman agitate the 
court. During the winter season of 1629 the cabal 
was formed that nearly overturned the power of 
Richelieu, and which was defeated only by his 
own extraordinary sagacity, and by the weakness 
of Louis XIII. Marie was the soul of the cabal ; 
her Majesty gathered round her, in support of her 
cause, and the downfall of the insolent prelate, 
the Princess de Conti, Marguerite Louise de 
Lorraine-Guise, the old friend of Henri Quatre, 
who was still frivolous, coquettish, flighty and 
fascinating " la premiere dame qui a appris a 
sa majeste Anne d'Autriche d'etre coquette " the 
Duke de Guise, Conde, Monsieur, the Duchess 
d'Elbreuf ; Marillac, whose dismissal from office 
had been resolved at the Palais Cardinal ; the 
Duchess de Lesdiguieres, the Marshal de Bassom- 
pierre, Mesdames de Fargis and de Chevreuse, 
Vaultier, the Count de Soissons in short, all 
the influential malcontents of the realm. The 
Queens, moreover, sought reconciliation ; which 
was presently demonstrated to the world by the 
frequent appearance of Anne at the Luxem- 
bourg, and by Marie's presence in the saloons of 
the Louvre. The Cardinal took matters quietly ; 
he armed a legion of spies, domestic and public, 
who followed his foes to their most private retire- 
ment ; and the result of their investigations he 
jotted down in that amusing Journal of Events, in 
which he records, apparently with naive surprise, 
the agencies employed for his overthrow. 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 179 

Early in the year 1630, however, the note of 
warfare again resounded. Spain refused to ratify 
the concession made by Don Gonzalez de Cordova, 
Viceroy of Milan, and agreed to by the Duke of 
Savoy ; and her armies, under the famous Mar- 
quis de Spinola, marched to invest the fortress of 
Casale, which was still garrisoned by French 
troops under the Marshal de Crequi ; while Count 
Colalto besieged Mantua. Richelieu was prepared 
for a campaign, which he had foreseen : the 
triumph of the Emperor over his revolted Bo- 
hemian subjects who had thrown off their 
allegiance and elected for their King the Pro- 
testant brother-in-law of King Charles of England, 
the Elector Palatine had inspired his Imperial 
Majesty with the notion that his army was invin- 
cible, and would soon sweep Montferrat of her 
Gallic invaders. The gallant veterans of Susa and 
of La Rochelle, and of many a hard-contested 
siege in the South, rose again to arms at the call 
of their King ; and Louis soon saw himself at the 
head of a fine army, every soldier of which longed 
to fly to the rescue of his countrymen beleaguered 
by the hated Spaniards in Casale. For the mo- 
ment political feuds were forgotten, and every 
class in the realm acquiesced in the wise and 
able mandates of the minister. The King in- 
sisted on assuming the conduct of the war ; an 
enthusiasm, nevertheless, partly kindled by the 
warlike counsels of Richelieu, who descried less 
danger in being followed to the camp by the King 
than in leaving Louis exposed to the hostile 


influences of the Louvre. His Majesty quitted 
Paris and arrived at Lyons, accompanied by the 
Queens, 34 about the 3rd of April ; from thence 
Louis proceeded to join the camp at Grenoble, 
after making a short sojourn in the district of the 
Lyonnais. Richelieu, meantime, had been negoti- 
ating with the Duke of Savoy ; overtures which 
resulted in nothing, and which were terminated by 
the sudden advance of part of the royal army to 
besiege Pignerol. His Eminence, however, quitted 
the camp, and journeyed to meet the King at 
Grenoble, attended by Giulio Mazarin after- 
wards the famous Cardinal of that name who 
had been sent by the Pope on a secret mission to 
negotiate an armistice between the Powers. From 
Grenoble, Richelieu travelled to Lyons to salute 
the Queen-mother, and to test his favour in the 
capricious esteem of Marie. He found her Majesty 
more hostile than ever, and surrounded by his 
hottest foes, such as Beringhen, Vaultier and 
others, and especially the Lord Keeper Marillac. 
In noting this last fact, Richelieu, in his Journal, 
adds the significant line, 

"Qui amat periculum, peribit in illo." 35 

On the occasion of this visit, Mazarin first bent the 
knee before Anne of Austria, being presented to 
her by Richelieu, with the following insolent words 
" Madame, I present to you the Sieur Giulio 
Mazarin ; your Majesty will doubtless approve of 
this sagacious personage ; as he, an agent of his 
Holiness, bears, as you perceive, a strong resem- 
blance to the late Duke of Buckingham." 36 Anne 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 181 

blushed, and unfurled her fan to cover her con- 

Chambery, meantime, capitulated to the royal 
arms during the sojourn of the Cardinal at Lyons, 
much to the secret triumph of Louis. The cam- 
paign in Savoy prospered ; place after place 
surrendered, as during the previous invasion of 
the duchy by Henri Quatre. The health of the 
King, however, gave way before the excitement 
and fatigue to which he was exposed. He fell ill 
at St. Jean de Maurienne ; from which place his 
Majesty, at the earnest entreaty of his physicians, 
returned to Lyons, leaving the further conduct of 
the war to Richelieu, Schomberg, Crequi, and Bas- 
sompierre. Louis' disorder was bilious fever of 
very aggravated description. The weakness and 
depression of the King increased ; and Marie de' 
Medici beheld her son restored, as she hoped, to 
her maternal influence. Melancholy, irritable at 
the slightest proposal to discuss or transact state 
affairs ; anxious alone for conference with his 
confessor, the venerable Pere Souffran ; and lured 
only to momentary forgetfulness of his misery 
by the blue eyes of Marie de Hautefort, Louis 
was ready to agree to any stipulation or conces- 
sion rather than debate a point. 37 The hopes of 
Richelieu's enemies therefore revived ; the cabal 
rallied, and letters of counsel and entreaty 
poured upon the Queens, that they should now 
exert their united powers of persuasion to exact 
from the King a lettre de cachet forbidding the 
return of Richelieu to court, and decreeing his 


banishment from the realm. Anne entered with 
eagerness into the conspiracy, and constantly 
discussed its details with the Queen- mother and 
with Vaultier and those interested in the down- 
fall of the minister. The principal persons in 
the secret were the Princess de Conty, the Lord 
Keeper Marillac, the Duchesses d'Elboeuf 38 and 
d'Ornano, 39 the Duchess de Lesdiguieres, Madame 
de Fargis, Bassompierre, and the Due de Guise 
and his consort Henriette, heiress of the house 
of Joyeuse. The Duke of Orleans was also con- 
sulted ; and an active correspondence was again 
imprudently instituted between the young Queen 
and Monsieur. The Spanish ambassador, like- 
wise, seems to have advised Anne to enter again 
on the perilous course of intrigue which had 
already entailed such degradation on the royal 
dignity. As the King's malady increased, the 
spirit of the caballers became sanguine, and they 
proceeded to discuss not only the removal of 
Richelieu from office, but whether his high mis- 
demeanors did not merit retribution. Monsieur 
counselled the arrest of his Eminence, in which 
opinion he seems to have consulted the wishes 
of Marie de' Medici ; others proposed that he 
should be assassinated in camp ; another pro- 
posal was, that the person of his Eminence should 
be made over to the Spanish government, to be 
transported to one of Philip's colonies of the New 
World ! Madame de Fargis, meantime, was em- 
ployed by the Queen to write epistles and to con- 
vey messages. Anne's animosity against the 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 183 

Cardinal is described as unsurpassed by that of 
his most bitter political opponent. By the advice, 
it is said, of Madame de Fargis, prompted by 
Mirabel the Spanish ambassador, Anne was reck- 
less enough to consent again to the discussion of 
the policy of her marriage with Monsieur, in case 
of the speedy decease of Louis. 40 Madame de 
Fargis, at any rate, was a party to this correspond- 
ence ; as there is no doubt that the project was 
again submitted to Monsieur, with the assent and 
full knowledge of Anne of Austria. The prospect 
of being deprived of the queenly diadem of France 
had inexpressible bitterness for Anne of Austria, 
who certainly had no reason to review either with 
pleasure or with triumph the events of her 
married life. In this interval she had suffered as 
a princess and a wife ; her husband had openly 
showed alienation and dislike wrongs, she had 
attempted to avenge by culpable intrigues which 
had heaped upon her disgrace and privations. 
The crown matrimonial of France, however, 
seems to have borne a superlative charm for all 
the princesses of Hapsburg, and they clung to its 
glittering honours amid contumely and neglect. 
Eleanor of Austria, Elizabeth of Austria, Anne of 
Austria, Marie Theresa of Austria, and Marie 
Antoinette of Austria, were women, all distin- 
guished for personal and mental charms ; but 
their married life was fraught with domestic and 
political misfortune ; and they failed personally 
to adapt themselves, either to the sovereigns 
their respective husbands, or to the manners and 


traditions of the land of their adoption. In the 
case of Anne of Austria, absolute dislike existed 
between Louis XIII. and herself, in addition to 
the absence of personal sympathies and pursuits. 
The Queen had many undoubted grievances to 
suffer from the frigid, imperious and vacillating 
temper of her consort, and from his almost 
ludicrous dread of dictation, to which, however, 
no man could have been more subject. She saw 
her personal charms despised, 41 and her society 
avoided ; her pecuniary means were curtailed 
from dread of the power which the command of 
money would have given her to intrigue with 
foreign courts. To avenge herself for her priva- 
tions and want of influence, Anne had recklessly 
sullied her royal dignity : her adventures with 
Buckingham resounded throughout Europe, and 
her connivance in the conspiracy of Chalais had 
greatly redounded to her discredit ; while it must 
be confessed that few husbands could have 
pardoned the treachery and indelicacy of her 
overtures to Monsieur in case of her own widow- 
hood and his accession to the throne of France. 

The precarious condition of Louis' health re- 
newed Anne's political anxieties. On the 30th 
of the month of September 1630, the disease 
presented so unfavourable an aspect that his 
Majesty's physicians gave up their hope of saving 
his life. An abscess had formed on the liver ; the 
sufferings of Louis were intense, and his strength 
rapidly failed. Marie de' Medici never left the 
bedside of the King except when he was engaged 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 185 

with Souffran, his confessor. 42 During the inter- 
vals of his relief from pain, Marie extorted from 
the King a solemn promise, or, as is stated by 
some contemporaries, his oath, that in case of his 
recovery he would dismiss Richelieu. Anne also 
showed herself assiduous in the sick chamber. 
On the 1st of October the physicians informed the 
King that his recovery was hopeless. Louis re- 
ceived the tidings with resignation, and requested 
the sacraments of the Church. Mass was cele- 
brated by the Cardinal de Lyons, in the presence 
of the Queens ; 43 at the end of the service Louis 
caused himself to be raised on his couch, and 
addressing those present, said : "I grieve that I 
am too weak to speak to you all I can only ask 
you to pardon any wrong that I have committed. 
I wish the same prayer to be made to all my 
subjects. Le Pere Souffran will tell you all that I 
would add, if strength permitted me." 44 He then 
beckoned to the Queen to approach his bed, when 
he bade Anne farewell and embraced her. All 
persons then retired, leaving the King with his 
surgeons and his confessor. The Queens betook 
themselves, as it was said, to prayer ; Marie de' 
Medici especially professing to be overwhelmed 
with grief and consternation. 

On this day Bassompierre returned from a 
special mission to Monsieur at Orleans, and ob- 
tained immediate audience of the Queens, Anne 
and Marie. The Marshal brought messages from 
Monsieur to his mother, referring to the measures 
which he considered advisable in case of the 


demise of Louis, and of his own accession. 
Amongst other directions, Marie was instructed to 
command the arrest of the Cardinal minister ; 
who was known to be on his road from the camp 
to Lyons a journey which he had undertaken 
after receiving certain intelligence of the pre- 
carious condition of the King. What message 
Bassompierre was intrusted with to Queen Anne 
never transpired ; Monsieur had a salutary re- 
membrance of the peril incurred in the affair of 
Chalais, and seems to have coldly responded to 
her Majesty's overtures. Indeed, Anne had lost 
much in his regard and esteem by her late per- 
tinacious opposition to his union with Marie de 
Gonzague. Richelieu, meantime, had been warned 
of the intrigues concocting against his power, and 
perhaps against his life, by the zeal of M. de St. 
Simon, 45 a gentleman whom he had a little time 
previously recommended for service in the royal 
household on the displacement of personages 
which occurred after the execution of Chalais. 
This St. Simon had quietly insinuated himself in 
the good graces of Louis, by his modest de- 
meanour and apparent indifference to politics. 
" On my arrival in Paris from my English am- 
bassage," writes Bassompierre, in 1627, " I 
found that Barradas 46 had been dismissed, and 
that his place [in the King's chamber] was given 
to a young boy of pitiful aspect, and still more 
sorry wit, of the name of St. Simon." " You have 
heard that Barradas has been dismissed," writes 
the poet Malherbe, December 19, 1627 ; " we 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 187 

have in his place a Sieux de St. Simon. The King 
presented him on Wednesday last to the Queen 
his mother ; he is a young boy of eighteen." The 
King first showed favour to St. Simon because the 
latter brought him accurate news of the hunts 
holden on the royal domain ; and he was also a 
good rider, and was careful of his Majesty's 
horses. St. Simon, who possessed the shrewd 
discrimination which distinguished his celebrated 
son, perceiving that his fortune rested neither in 
the hands of the Queens, nor even in the favour of 
his royal master, attached himself to Richelieu, 
and served the minister by the accuracy of his 
reports and the vigilance of his warnings. From 
the latter, therefore, Richelieu received report 
of the activity of the cabal plotting his over- 
throw, and immediately set out to confront and 
neutralize the danger. Orders had been issued 
by Marie de' Medici to refuse entrance into the 
King's chamber to M. le Cardinal. On Richelieu's 
arrival in Lyons, however, one of those miraculous 
revivals had occurred in the condition of the 
King which had so often destroyed the projects 
of Monsieur and his clique. Louis peremptorily 
asked to see his minister, of whose presence in 
Lyons he was apprised by St. Simon and by his 
confessor Souffran. 47 The unexpected turn in the 
King's malady caused great affright and con- 
sternation, and a conference was holden in the 
chamber of Marie de' Medici to decide on the 
steps to be adopted. The Queen-mother dwelt 
on the solemn promise made her by the King to 


dismiss his minister Louis having stipulated 
only, that peace might first be re-established in 
Germany ; also between France and the Empire, 
by the concession of the rights of the Duke of 
Mantua. The Marshal de Marillac, nevertheless, 
advised that the death of the minister should now 
be compassed, and offered to strike the blow ; his 
brother, the Lord Keeper, counselled the Car- 
dinal's immediate exile to his diocese of Luon ; 
Bassompierre his arrest and imprisonment in the 
Bastille ; the Queen-mother declared herself in 
favour of a sentence of banishment ; an award 
stated to be likewise approved by the Duke of 
Orleans. Anne demanded the exile of the minister, 
whom she denounced as the great obstacle to a 
cordial understanding between the courts of 
France and Spain. 48 This conference was scarcely 
over before all its details were fully known to 
Richelieu ; and afterwards, in the coming period 
of his unquestioned power, he is said to have re- 
taliated on the wily plotters their own award on 
himself. The same evening the King passed 
through another dangerous crisis of his malady, 
and for some hours all again was agitation and 
panic. Believing that his end approached, Louis 
sent his confessor, Souffran, to his consort, to ask 
in his name pardon for all the trials and possible 
provocations of her married life. " But this 
august princess," records the venerable father, 
" took to weeping and shrieking 49 in such frantic 
emotion, when I opened my mission, and seemed 
on the point of fainting, so that I could not 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 189 

conclude all that I wished to impart to her Majesty. 
Prayers were diligently offered for the King's re- 
covery night and day ; and the Holy Sacrament 
was exposed on the altars of all the churches in 
Lyons." Anne's hysterical tears doubtless flowed 
from extreme suspense, and from the agony of 
fear which assailed her at the presence of the 
minister ; being conscious of the equivocal char- 
acter of her correspondence with M. d'Orleans. 
The same evening, and during a paroxysm of the 
King's disorder, when all persons present round 
his Majesty's couch believed that respiration so 
laboured must soon cease, Richelieu sent for 
Bassompierre, who was colonel of the Swiss 
guards, and humbly requested him to bring over 
the officers of that regiment to his service, so 
that in the event of the King's death he might 
reckon on a faithful military escort to the 
frontier. 50 The Cardinal wept and assumed his 
most beseeching demeanour. Bassompierre, as 
indeed it was his duty to do, listened with gravity; 
and replied, that his oath of fealty forbade him to 
divert the services of the royal guards, even for a 
temporary purpose ; but that M. le Cardinal, in 
the event which he anticipated, must submit 
himself to Queen Marie de' Medici, who, he was 
informed, would assume the direction of affairs 
until the arrival of the new king from Orleans. 61 
Richelieu dismissed the Marshal with a little 
salutation full of resignation, and prepared him- 
self for the coming event. His niece, Madame de 
Combalet, quitted Lyons during the night, taking 


with her many valuable effects appertaining to 
her uncle, while the Cardinal himself made rapid 
preparation for flight. Every one avoided the 
fallen minister excepting the newly married 
Duchess de Bouillon, sister of the late Constable 
de Luynes, who offered to Richelieu the shelter 
of her husband's stronghold of Sedan. At six 
o'clock on the following morning the bells of all 
the churches of the town rang jubilant peals ; the 
altars were adorned, and the gorgeous aisles of St. 
Jean de Lyons at mid-day echoed to the notes of 
" Te Deum Laudamus " the night of suspense 
was passed, and Louis le Juste was restored to 
his people ! The breaking of another internal 
tumour had brought the King to the verge of the 
tomb ; but Louis slowly revived from the deep 
syncope of exhaustion, feeble but free from pain, 
and comforted by the favourable verdict of his 
physicians, who now answered for the life of their 
royal patient. 52 The court at Lyons fell again at 
the feet of Richelieu ; the Queens nursed their 
wrath, and took comfort in the solemn pledge 
which they had extorted. A dreadful misgiving, 
however, seized the young Queen, that possibly 
the Cardinal was in possession of the secret of her 
correspondence with Monsieur, which knowledge 
he might impart to the King. The recovery of 
Louis was marvellously rapid ; on the 14th of 
October he removed for change of air to the 
Chateau de Bellecour, 53 near to Roanne, and soon 
continued his journey to Paris. Marie, meantime, 
had been laid up for a few days at Lyons with a 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 191 

swelled knee, and did not accompany her son to 
Bellecour. Louis had urgently prayed his mother 
to hide their determination to dispense with the 
Cardinal's services, until after the arrival of the 
court in Paris. The King piqued himself on his 
powers of dissimulation, and was even proud to 
be compared in crafty address to Charles IX. 
Richelieu, under pretext of state business, re- 
mained with the Queens, and even attended 
them to Paris, travelling in the same boat ; so 
important did the Cardinal deem it to prevent 
further communications between Anne and the 
Duke of Orleans. The personage who at this 
period played the part of spy in the household 
of the young Queen does not appear ; probably 
the Cardinal's agent was Madame de la Flotte 
Hauterive, a lady who, by dint of solicitation, and 
by the bright eyes of her grand- daughter, Marie 
de Hautefort, had recently succeeded in obtaining 
her nomination as gouvernante of Queen Anne's 
maids of honour. 54 Madame de la Flotte origin- 
ally had visited Paris to sue in person a cause 
pending before the Parliament of Paris, which 
involved the whole of her little patrimony. She 
waited upon the powerful minister, authorised by 
a passport to his presence from Madame de Com- 
balet and accompanied by her grand-daughter. 
The acute powers of observation and of resolve 
possessed by his petitioner were not lost on the 
Cardinal ; the charming face and dignity of 
demeanour of the young girl, her companion, 
confirmed Richelieu's prepossession. The widow 


quitted the presence of his Eminence flattered, 
and moved by strange ambitious anticipations. 
The suit was in the course of a few days decided 
in her favour, and Mademoiselle de Hautefort 
was presented by Madame de Combalet to the 
Princess de Conty, who, captivated by her lovely 
face, took her that same evening in her coach to 
the fashionable promenade, Le Cours de la Reine, 
and introduced her to the Queen-mother. Marie 
de Hautefort was subsequently enrolled amongst 
Marie's maids, and was lodged in the Luxem- 
bourg, while her grandmother, who was still 
handsome, entered the service of the politic 
minister, and was eventually placed by him in 
the Louvre in the important, though subordinate, 
office of governess of the maids of honour of her 
Majesty Queen Anne. 

On the arrival of the Queens in Paris, 55 the 
hostile cabal eagerly greeted their Majesties, who 
returned triumphant in the possession of the 
King's promise to exile his minister. The peace, 
meantime, upon which Louis had based his assent, 
was on the eve of accomplishment. The French 
envoys, le Pere Joseph and M. de Brulart, wrung 
from the fears of the Emperor a recognition of the 
rights of the Duke de Never s to the ducal throne 
of Mantua. On the 13th of October 1630, the 
treaty was signed between his Imperial Majesty 
Ferdinand II. and the King of France in the town 
of Ratisbon. Casale was ceded to the Duke of 
Mantua, and was to be evacuated by the Spanish 
garrison ; and the King engaged no longer to 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 193 

oppose the election of the Imperial prince as King 
of the Romans ; or to sanction the designs of 
Gustavus Adolphus King of Sweden, who, in 
alliance with the deposed Elector Palatine King 
of Bohemia and other Protestant princes of 
Germany, threatened the empire with sanguinary 
warfare. The reluctance of the King to disgrace 
his minister, nevertheless, was manifest ; in the 
course of a few weeks, Richelieu's ascendency 
had been confirmed, and the bewilderment of 
the King amid the accumulations of state busi- 
ness accruing on the termination of the war, 
was painfully conspicuous. The Queen-mother, 
meantime, continued to besiege the King with 
reproaches for his tardy fulfilment of his solemn 
promise. In vain Louis sought to pacify his 
mother, and to persuade her even into a tem- 
porary reconciliation with the Cardinal. He ex- 
plained the urgency of his affairs, the dearth of 
able statesmen, his own fears and presentiments ; 
and finally, implored her to pardon Richelieu, to 
accept a seat in the council of state, and to act in 
conjunction with a prelate so shrewd, faithful and 
competent to exalt the nation and to maintain 
the royal prerogatives. Marie responded to her 
son's appeal by a rude negative : " Either M. le 
Cardinal leaves the court, or I abandon your 
Majesty ! What ! you hesitate to give this just 
satisfaction to your mother, and prefer an insolent 
churchman, who will finally drive your people 
to revolt, as he has already rendered your court 
a desert ? " 56 The young Queen added her 


entreaties, and besought her husband to conciliate 
the Princes, to give due preponderance to the 
Queen his mother, and to reconcile himself sin- 
cerely with the king her brother and with M. 
d' Orleans, all which might be achieved by the 
disgrace of M. le Cardinal. Richelieu, meantime, 
conducted himself with consummate prudence. 
He sent his niece from Paris, and commanded 
that his most valuable effects in the Palais Car- 
dinal should be packed ; while he constantly 
alluded in public to his probable departure, and 
dismissal from office ; and made parade of re- 
commending certain persons, whose abilities, he 
thought, might serve the state, to the various 
chiefs over departments of the government. 
Daily he presented himself in the antechamber of 
Marie de' Medici, and of Anne of Austria. The 
doors of the Luxembourg Palace were closed 
against him ; the young Queen, however moved 
perhaps by her dread of what the Cardinal might 
betray granted him occasional audience. The 
meek deportment of his minister touched the 
King most vividly, perhaps, when Richelieu 
presented himself in the royal closet laden with 
state papers, despatches, minutes from the pro- 
vinces, reports from the disaffected districts of the 
realm, ecclesiastical edicts, and summaries of the 
doings of those encroaching personages, MM. de la 
Cour du Parlement ; all of which he now made 
parade of laying before his royal master for 
perusal and signature. Louis yawned, and irri- 
tably pushed aside the obnoxious documents. On 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 195 

one of these occasions he beckoned to his new 
favourite St. Simon, who was occupied in the 
antechamber in finishing off a trifling toy put 
together by the King. Louis rose from his chair, 
and, followed by St. Simon, approached the 
window. " Let us stay here in peace awhile," said 
his Majesty listlessly, " et puis ennuyons-nous, 
ennuyons-nous, ennuyons-nous ! " 67 Fresh political 
complications menaced the newly-signed peace of 
Ratisbon, raised by the clever Richelieu and his 
clever agent the Capuchin Joseph. The spirit of 
Louis died within him at the bare contemplation 
of the diplomacy and intrigue impending ; to 
vanquish which, as Richelieu made his Majesty 
clearly understand, his own services, or those of 
Marie de' Medici and her son d'Orleans, were 
indispensable. On the 9th day of November, 
therefore, his Majesty paid an early visit to the 
Luxembourg, to explain to the Queen-mother 
his political necessities, his personal wishes, and, 
above all, to intimate his determination respecting 
his minister. He found the Queen more irate than 
ever against the Cardinal, and incensed at his 
dissensions with the Lord-Keeper Marillac, which 
betokened the prompt dismissal of that function- 
ary. She declared Richelieu to be an unprin- 
cipled trickster, the hollowness of whose apparent 
devotion to herself she could no longer doubt. 
Louis listened to her Majesty's tirades in sullen 
silence, utterly confounded by Marie's passion and 
vehemence. " This said Cardinal lies in word and 
deed. Has he not written to our son d'Orleans, 


that if he will abandon our interests, his political 
grievances shall be redressed ? Has he not written 
to Messieurs de Vendome that we desire their 
eternal captivity ? M. le Prince, also, has been 
informed by this mendacious slanderer, that our 
enmity is the cause of his continued exile." 58 
Whilst their Majesties were thus in high alterca- 
tion, Richelieu arrived at the Luxembourg. His 
opportune visit had doubtless been concerted 
with the King, who had commanded him to 
make every submission requisite to pacify Queen 
Marie. The ushers on duty had refused, as usual, 
to pass his Eminence on to the royal cabinet. The 
Cardinal, however, went to the chapel, and from 
thence boldly traversed the private corridor which 
led to the Queen's apartments, and thus gained 
access to the room in which Marie and her son 
were conferring. 59 The Cardinal rapped at the 
door, which was opened by the King, who took 
the hand of his minister, and presented him to 
Queen Marie. " Madame, you were speaking of 
me, your humble servant, who deprecates your 
anger and prays for pardon." Marie, with a 
gesture of disdain, turned from the Cardinal, who 
had fallen on his knees at her feet. " Behold, mon 
fils, this wicked and false traitor ! His intention is 
to take your crown, and give it to M. le Comte de 
Soissons, when the latter shall have espoused la 
Veuve Combalet ! Are you unnatural and un- 
dutiful enough to prefer such a varlet to your 
mother ? Sire, spurn from you this destroyer of 
your domestic concord, the bitter foe of your 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 197 

mother, your wife, and your brother ! r As the 
Queen-mother had now worked herself into an 
extremity of passion, Louis retired ; but made a 
sign to the Cardinal to remain. 60 Richelieu again 
tried to deprecate the wrath of his once confiding 
patroness, but Marie drove him from her 
presence with reproaches and by protestations of 
never-ending enmity. The same evening Louis 
again sought his mother and found her in con- 
ference with the Princess de Conty, 61 a determined 
opponent of Richelieu's policy. A second parley 
ensued, in which the King was so moved by the 
tears and entreaties of his mother, that he again 
solemnly renewed his promise to dismiss Riche- 
lieu. His Majesty then retired, announcing his 
intention to depart for Versailles, from which 
palace a letter of dismissal and exile should be 
addressed to the minister. 

Meantime panic prevailed amongst the friends 
and adherents of Richelieu. That much-enduring 
lady, Madame de Combalet, again received notice 
to pack up her effects, and await the final resolu- 
tion of her uncle, who contemplated a retreat to 
Pontoise, and from thence to Havre de Grace. 
The following day the King made fresh efforts to 
subdue the obduracy of the Queen-mother. He 
prayed her to consent that the presidency of the 
council might at least remain with the minister 
for six weeks longer. " My affairs absolutely de- 
mand this concession. In fact, Madame, I have 
commanded my generals in Italy to hazard a 
battle if Casale is not surrendered, as stipulated 


by the peace of Ratisbon." Marie wept, but made 
no sign of relenting. " Madame," resumed his 
Majesty, eloquent in the defence of a minister who 
monopolized all the toils of government, " Ma- 
dame, I entreat that, at least for this period, you 
will speak more condescendingly to M. le Car- 
dinal ; in truth, he is indispensable to me ; you 
are too prejudiced, too violent. M. le Cardinal 
serves me faithfully. I shall never recover from 
the grief and chagrin which you occasion me ! ' : 
Marie, however, refused to listen to her son's 
expostulations ; and peremptorily insisted on the 
departure of the minister. " Mon fils," said her 
Majesty, " either the Cardinal or I myself leave 
Paris within the next few hours. Choose, mon 
fils, between a mother who loves you, and a traitor 
who betrays you and yours ! " Madame de Com- 
balet, at this instant, chancing to send by one of 
her Majesty's ladies a petition to make a farewell 
visit, Marie declined to grant the audience. Louis, 
therefore, again took leave of his mother, despair- 
ing to move her purpose. At the Louvre he 
entered his chamber, and, throwing himself on a 
couch, remained some time in meditation. " St. 
Simon," at length exclaimed his Majesty with a 
sigh, "St. Simon, did you ever hear or witness 
before such a scene ? My mother is implacable." 
" Sire, I confess I thought myself in another world 
on hearing your Majesty so thwarted ! Neverthe- 
less, you are our master ; it is for you alone to 
decide ! " 62 Louis rose ; the shadow of wrathful 
suspicion fell which so often darkened his youth- 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 199 

ful features, and his lips trembled with passion. 
" I am master, as you say ; who shall presume to 
judge between me and my faithful minister ? I 
will show them all that I am master ! " The King 
again fell into taciturn silence. St. Simon had 
heard enough, however, to encourage him to send 
word to the Cardinal de la Valette to counsel 
Richelieu to avoid too precipitate a departure, as 
matters might still be adjusted. The King quitted 
Paris early on the following morning, St. Martin's 
Day, llth of November 1630, attended by St. 
Simon, Beringhen, the Marquis de Mortemar, the 
Dukes de Montmorency and de Crequi, and other 
officers of his household. Marie de' Medici on the 
preceding evening had announced her intention to 
attend her son to Versailles. It was the Queen's 
habit to take a cup of broth in the morning 
before she left her bed, and to sleep afterwards 
for an hour ; her Majesty, therefore, failed to rise 
in time to accompany the King. At 10 o'clock 
Richelieu, being apprized of the departure of 
the King, determined again to wait upon Marie. 
" Monsieur," said he to Bassompierre in the guard- 
room of the Luxembourg, " you will not long be 
troubled to salute, or present arms, to a disgraced 
and unfortunate man like myself ! " The Marshal 
made courteous reply, and attended Richelieu, 
cap in hand, to the door of the chamber where 
Marie and Anne were closeted together in earnest 

St. Simon, meantime, mindful of the benefits 
conferred upon him by his patron, ventured again 


to rouse Louis from his depression by interceding 
for Richelieu, whose crime, he said, was " in 
having dared to repress the treasonable enter- 
prises of the Queens and of M. d'Orleans ; the 
latter wishing to usurp the royal power, if his 
projects had not even a wider scope as was 
asserted by M. de Chalais." " Your Majesty's 
glory and reputation are involved in not weakly 
sacrificing to feminine vengeance a minister so 
loyal, and able ! " St. Simon then affirmed that 
M. de Richelieu was in possession of an important 
secret, the disclosure of which depended on his 
remaining in power, as its betrayal would in all 
probability prove fatal to a private personage. 
Louis listened with eager interest ; so much so, 
that St. Simon despatched an express to the Car- 
dinal de la Valette, advising his Eminence to set 
out without delay with Richelieu for Versailles, 
but carefully to prevent his intention from tran- 
spiring. 63 This transporting intelligence greeted 
Richelieu on his return from the Luxembourg, 
where he had been again, vainly to plead for 
reconciliation at the feet of Marie de' Medici and 
of Anne of Austria. Some inkling of the King's 
vacillation and of a probable turn of fortune in 
the minister's favour actuated some of the more 
prudent members of the court. Richelieu found 
his hotel crowded with personages assembled to 
offer him respectful condolence. Amongst these 
personages was M. de Chateauneuf, then the 
friend of Richelieu, and Lord-Keeper elect after 
the fall of M. de Marillac, an event resolved upon 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 201 

by the Cardinal. Chateauneuf presented to the 
Cardinal a letter from the Duchesse de Chevreuse, 
who had been temporarily won over to the side of 
Richelieu by his patronage of Chateauneuf, with 
whom she was in confidential correspondence. 
M. le Jais, and the Cardinal de la Valette, MM. 
de Meilleraye and de Breze, likewise joined the 
assemblage. 64 The news from Versailles soon 
brought Richelieu tete-a-tete with Louis XIII. 
who shed tears, and threw himself on the neck of 
the Cardinal. Louis then heard with indignation 
the history of the intrigues at Lyons ; the details 
of Queen Anne's correspondence with Monsieur, 
when he (the King) was supposed to be lying on 
the eve of dissolution ; of the empressement shown 
by Marie de' Medici to act for her son d' Orleans ; 
and of the orders transmitted by Monsieur from 
Orleans, through M. de Bassompierre. " The King 
then exposed to M. le Cardinal all the diabolical 
things attributed to him by the Queen-mother, 
with all the artifices by which she hoped to per- 
suade her son to remove him from the conduct of 
affairs." " M. le Cardinal," exclaimed Louis, 
4 the Queen my mother is instigated by a few 
turbulent spirits to persecute you. I will, how- 
ever, control such ! It suffices, Monseigneur, I 
am content with your services. Stay with me ! I 
give you my royal word to protect you against 
their cabals." Louis then, with that mingled 
majesty and decision, which on rare occasions he 
could assume, gave his hand to his minister, and 
leading him into an adjacent gallery, where the 


gentlemen waited, presented him to the assembled 
court. 65 

In Paris, the coterie of Queen Marie continued 
jubilant over her supposed triumph. On the even- 
ing of the llth, their Majesties held a reception, 
which was attended by many of Richelieu's 
friends, who, ignorant of the revolution in their 
patron's favour, thought it politic to conciliate the 
power supposed to be in the ascendant. These 
persons received no signs of recognition from 
their Majesties. The following day, November 
12th, the news of the great counter-plot at Ver- 
sailles burst upon the astonished courtiers, and 
convulsed the Queen-mother with despair and 
indignation. The first intimation was the arrival 
of an order of arrest issued by the King and 
countersigned by Richelieu, against the Lord- 
Keeper Marillac, who was at once seized and 
conveyed under a strong guard to a house which 
he possessed in Lorraine. The seals were given 
to M. de Chateauneuf, a personage who was the 
confidential friend and ally of the exiled Duchess 
de Chevreuse. The King despatched the secretary 
of state de Brienne, to inform the Queen-mother 
of Richelieu's re-establishment in office, and to 
pray her Majesty's consent and approval. On 
the 20th Louis removed to St. Germain, and 
summoned the Queen his consort and Madame 
de Fargis to meet him there. Anne obeyed in 
trembling uncertainty. M. d'Orleans also received 
a similar order, which he obeyed, as he thought it 
expedient to make friends with the Cardinal ; 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 203 

especially as he knew from trusty sources, that 
Richelieu had been informed of the matrimonial 
overtures which had been again hazarded by the 
young Queen. Monsieur, therefore, paid a visit 
in great state to Richelieu, attended by twelve 
gentlemen, and promised him favour and recon- 
ciliation. " Thus," says a contemporary, " the 
great day of St. Martin des Dupes passed with- 
out effect whatever ; Queen Marie, compelled to 
tolerate the Cardinal, refused a conference, or any 
token of amity whatever. ' Je prendrai mon temps; 
je le trouverai, etferay ce queje veux ! Dieu ne paye 
pas toutes les semaines, mais enfin il paye ! ' said 
her Majesty." On the 29th of November, the 
Queen and her son met. Louis greeted his mother 
shyly but respectfully, and asked, as a favour, 
that she would continue to give him the benefit 
of her presence at the council, and to aid his 
minister Richelieu by her great experience. Marie 
wrathfully replied, " that she would never volun- 
tarily see M. le Cardinal ; that she would rather 
die than assist him with her counsels ! '" Another 
day, at St. Germain, M. de Nogent, one of the 
gentlemen of Queen Anne's chamber, but a 
secret partisan of Richelieu, suddenly entered the 
saloon of his mistress, and found Anne in tearful 
conference with the Queen-mother, the Marquis 
de Mirabel the Spanish ambassador, and her 
physician Vaultier. When Nogent entered he 
overheard the young Queen exclaim, " Ah, what 
beautiful and consolatory sentences one finds in 
the Psalms of David ! My spirit revives when I 


read such words as, ' Qui seminat in lachrymis, in 
exultatione metat.' " 66 Nogent immediately re- 
ported what he had heard to the Cardinal, who 
was at St. Germain. The entente between the 
Queens again renewed Richelieu's terrors. " Bon- 
ne vil, about the 12th of December, informed the 
King and M. le Cardinal, that he believed there 
was a cabal offensive and defensive formed by the 
two Queens and Monsieur, the object of which 
was to ruin his Eminence by the diabolical lies 
and testimony of Madame de Fargis and others," 
is the record entered by the pen of Richelieu in 
his Diary of the exciting events of this crisis in his 

Marie at length showed signs of relenting, fear- 
ing that hostilities might terminate by her total 
exclusion from affairs of state. On Christmas day, 
she intimated to the King her willingness to meet 
Richelieu in council, provided that the members 
met in the apartments of the young Queen ; as, 
wrote she, " I cannot yet resolve to receive M. de 
Richelieu at the Luxembourg." 67 To humour the 
exacting spirit of Marie de' Medici, Louis had 
hitherto assembled the privy council in an apart- 
ment of the Luxembourg. Further conditions were 
attempted by Marie : she demanded the pardon 
of Marillac ; a promise of protection for her own 
partisans ; also an assurance that Monsieur should 
not be permitted to marry without her permission. 
All these conditions were peremptorily declined, 
as the Queen-mother continued to demonstrate 
a spirit essentially hostile. Monsieur met the 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 205 

minister in the court of the Louvre, and re- 
sponded to his obeisance by turning his back on 
Richelieu. Marie also made a razzia in her house- 
hold, and dismissed en masse every person related 
to the minister, or supposed to be favourable to 
his policy : moreover, she sent to demand from 
Richelieu his key of office as superintendent of 
her household ; 68 and commanded him to restore 
to her the Hotel du Petit Luxembourg a gift 
which she had made him in the palmy days of his 


1 Galerie des Personnages Illustres de la Cour de France, t. 4. Charles 
had given his wife four ladies of honour the Duchess of Buckingham, 
the Marchioness of Hamilton, and the Countesses of Denbigh and Car- 
lisle, with whom the French ladies were perpetually at feud. 

2 " Les dames et les autres etrangeres reoivent ordre de se preparer 
a retourner en France dans vingt-quatre heures. Le Roi les va voir a 
1'hotel Sommerset, leur declare sa volonte, et leur fait quelques pre- 
sents. On les embarque au plutot. Henriette, desolee, ecrit en France. 
Personnages Illustres, t. 4. 

3 Charles d'Angennes, Seigneur de Fargis. He was ambassador in 
Spain from the year 1620 to 1624. 

4 Fran9oise de Silly, wife of Philippe Emmanuel de Gondy, General 
des Galeres, subsequently priest of the Order de 1'Oratoire. He died 
in 1662. 

5 " Le Cardinal (de Richelieu) donne des rendez-vous a Madame de 
Fargis chez le Cardinal de Berulle, a Fontainebleau et ailleurs, de peur 
de faire trop d'eclat si c'etait chez lui-meme ; et aussi a cause que 
Berulle passoit pour un beat." Tallemant, t. 2. 

6 Catherine Le Voyer de Lignerolles, wife of Rene du Bellay, Seigneur 
de la Flotte Hauterive ; her daughter, Renee du Bellay, was the mother 
of Marie de Hautefort. 

7 " Elle eblouit, seduisit, entraina I'imp6tueux et aventureux Charles 
IV." Cousin, Vie de Madame de Chevreusa 

8 Henry Duke of Lorraine had two daughters, co-heiresses, Nicole and 
Claude. Nicole married Charles IV., her cousin, eldest son of the Count 
de Vaudemont, third brother of the duke her father. Claude married 
Fran9ois, younger brother of Charles IV., and their posterity continued 
the ducal line of Lorraine. Claude was the mother of the famous Duke 


Charles V. of Lorraine, who never possessed his duchy, then confiscated 
by the French. He became the brother-in-law of the Emperor Leopold. 

9 Bassompierre : Journal de ma Vie. " En ce temps Madame accoucha 
d'une fille, centre 1'attente et desir de leurs Majestes et de Monsieur, qui 
eussent plutot demand6 un fils ; et elle, etant demeuree malade de sa 
couche, mourut peu de temps apres." Mem. de Mademoiselle de Mont- 
pensier, t. i. Madame and Queen Anne had lived in much mutual cold- 
ness, and dislike. " Madame se regardoit comme la future reine," and 
exacted obsequious homage. 

10 Anne Louise Marie d'Orleans, la Grande Mademoiselle. 

11 Jeanne de Harlay, Marquise de St. George. 

12 " Je lui fis entendre qu'on ne le recevrait pas, et envoyai Montague en 
toute diligence vers lui." Bassompierre, Journal. " Buckingham pre- 
tend se servir de 1'occasion des brouilleries qu'il cause lui-meine, afin de 
voir la Reine Anne d'Autriche, dont il se declarait 1'amant." Mem. du 
Due de Rohan. 

13 " Puisqu'on refuse de me recevoir en France comme un ambassadeur 
qui veut porter la paix, j'y entrerai malgre les Frangois, en general 
d'armee qui porte la guerre ! " retorted the Duke of Buckingham. 
Mem. du Due de Rohan. 

14 " La Reine me commanda d'ecrire au Due, pour lui faire savoir que 
ea venue ne lui sera pas agreable." Bassompierre. 

16 Bassompierre, Journal de ma Vie ; Tallemant, Vie du Due d'Orleans ; 
Le Vassor, Histoire du Regne de Louis XIII. 

16 Hume, Reign of Charles I. ; Siege de La Rochelle, Archives Curieuses, 
t. 3, deuxieme serie. 

17 Tallemant Des Reaux ; Le Cardinal de Richelieu. 

18 " Cette chambre etait fort doree ; le plancher etait couvert de tapis 
de Perse, et il y avait une espece d'autel ou 6tait le portrait de la Reine, 
avec plusieurs flambeaux allumes." 

19 The Rochellois, who had received no previous hints of this expedition, 
refused to admit the English succours into their town, on pretence that 
they could not take such a material resolution without the concurrence 
of the other Protestants, with whom they were associated ; but in reality 
they were afraid of their allies, suspecting that Soubise and Blancas had 
agreed to betray the place into the hands of the English. Hume. 

9 Tallemant, Vie du Cardinal de Richelieu. 

21 Siege de La Rochelle, Archives Curieuses. Hume, Reign of Charles I. ; 
Bassompierre, Journal de ma Vie. 

22 Walter, second eon of the first Earl of Manchester, a Roman Catholic, 
and subsequently abbot of St. Martin de Pontoise. Montague possessed 
much influence in the councils of France under Marie de' Medici and 
Anne of Austria. He died, 1670, at the abbey of St. Martin, and was 
interred in the church of 1'Hopital des Incurables, Paris. 

23 La Porte, Mem., p. 304. 

24 Page 304 et seq., Memoires, La Porte, Pettitot, vol. 54. 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 207 

25 Bassompierre, Journal de ma Vie ; Siege de La Rochelle, Archives 
Curieuses. Aubery, Mem. pour servir a 1'Histoire de M. le Cardinal de 
Richelieu. " Le Roi donna ordre expres au Due d'Angouleme et aux 
Marechaux de Bassompierre et de Schomberg, d'obeir au Cardinal 
comme a sa propre personne." Richard, Vie du Pere Joseph. 

26 It has been asserted that Anne of Austria was compelled by the King 
and by Richelieu to exert her influence over Buckingham, for the welfare 
of her country, by writing a letter to the Duke, in which she commanded 
him not to set sail before a period which she indicated. 

27 Hume ; Thomson's Life of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham ; Le 
Vassor, Hist, de Louis XIII. ; Rapin, History of the Reign of Charles I. 

28 Buckingham often spoke of his conquests over royal ladies in terms 
highly irreverential. Madame de Chevreuse told the celebrated co- 
adjutor archbishop of Paris, De Retz, that the Duke said to her one day, 
" J'ai aime trois reines, et j'ai ete oblige de les gourmer (to cuff them) 
toutes trois." " De vivre avec la reine (Anne d'Autriche) d'une maniere 
un peu galante et rude, a deux faces, de 1'humeur dont je connois la 
reine," said Madame de Chevreuse. 

9 The charms of the Duchess de Chevreuse had much power over 
Richelieu. Madame de Motteville says, " que ce ministre, malgre la 
rigueur qu'il avait cue pour elle, ne 1'avait jamais hai'e ; et que sa 
beaute avait eu des charmes pour lui." Motteville, p. 62, t. i. 

30 Capefigue, Vie d'Anne d'Autriche Archives de Simancas, 471. 
MS. quoted by M. Capefigue. 

31 Journal de Cardinal de Richelieu, qu'il a fait durant le grand orage 
de la cour, ez annees 1630 a 1644. Tire des Memoires qu'il a ecrit de sa 
main. Amsterdam, 1664. 

32 Philip IV. and Elizabeth de Bourbon, eldest daughter of Henri 
Quatre and Marie de' Medici. 

33 Journal de ma Vie, Bassompierre, annee 1629. Aubery, Mem. pour 
1'Histoire du Cardinal de Richelieu. The Queen-mother, when she first 
saw the Cardinal after his return, asked after his health. " Je me porte 
mieux que beaucoup de gens qui sont ici ne voudroient ! " replied 
Richelieu. Marie, surprised, then turned the conversation by a jest on 
the Cardinal de Berulle. "Je voudrois bien," interposed Richelieu, " etre 
aussi avant dans vos bonnes graces, comme est celui dont vous vous 
moquez." En quittant Marie de' Medici, Richelieu alia chez le Roi, et 
lui demanda permission de se retirer du ministere. 

34 Marie de' Medici was offered, but refused, the regency of the realm 
during the King's absence, in order to follow her son, and more effectu- 
ally subvert the influence of Richelieu. 

35 Journal du Cardinal de Richelieu, qu'il a fait durant le grand orage 
de la cour es annees 1630 jusques a 1631. " La Reine dit a Bullion 
qu'elle attendoit son temps, auquel le Roy ouvriroit les yeux et les 
oreilles ; et qu'elle mourrait plutot que de voir le Cardinal. Vaultier a 
aussi dit, que la Reine esperoit que Dieu la vengeroit." 


36 Tallemant, Vie du Cardinal de Richelieu, Hist. 66. 

37 Vittorio Siri, Mem. Recondite, t. 3. Bassompierre. 

38 Henriette Catherine, 16gitimee de France, daughter of Henri IV. and 
Gabrielle d'Estrees. 

39 Renee de Lorraine, daughter of the Duke de Mayenne, chief of the 
League. Her husband, the Duke d'Ornano, was a prince of the house of 
Sf orza Santa Fiore. 

40 Dreux du Radier, Vje de la Reine Anne d'Autriche ; Siri, Mem. 
Recondite ; Aubery, Mem. du Cardinal de Richelieu. 

41 "Elle avoit les mains parfaites, et ne les regardoit pas sans une 
secrete complaisance." Monville, Vie de Mignart, who painted the 
portrait of the Queen in 1659. 

42 Recit du Maladie du Roy a la ville de Lyons, par le Rev. P. Souffran, 
son Confesseur ordinaire. Lyons, Vermonet, 1630. Le Vassor, Hist, 
de Louis XIII. 

43 " Monsieur le Cardinal de Lyons dit la messe dans la chambre, et le 

44 " Ces paroles attendrirent si fort le coaur de ceux qui etoient presents, 
que tous, la Reine, messieurs les Cardinaux, et autres officiers de sa 
maison, se jettant a genoux, pleurants et sanglottants, crierent : ' C'est 
a nous, Sire, de vous demander pardon. Pardonnez-nous, Sire ! ' " 
Recit du Pere Souffran. " Ego testis oculatus et auritus," testifies the 
reverend Jesuit. 

45 Claude Due de St. Simon, born 1606 ; married Diane de Budos, by 
whom he had one daughter, married to the Due de Brissac ; for his 
second wife, M. de St. Simon espoused Charlotte de 1'Aubespine, who 
was the mother of the celebrated Due de St. Simon. 

46 A young cavalier of Burgundy, who succeeded to brief favour after 
the death of De Luynes, whose lineage appears to have been almost 
unknown. The reason of his disgrace is thus recounted by Malherbe : 
" Un jour le Roi par caresse, lui jeta quelques gouttes d'eau de fleur 
d'orange au visage dans la chambre de la Reine. Barradas se mit dans 
une telle colere, qu'il sauta sur les mains du Roi, lui arracha le petit 
pot ou etoit 1'eau, et le lui lanca aux pieds." 

47 Recit du Pere Souffran. 

48 Bassompierre : "On rapporte qu'il y eut une grande assemblee a ce 
sujet, chez Madame de Fargis ; et que le Cardinal entendit tout au 
moyen d'une surbacane, et que chacun subit plus tard le traitement qu'il 
voulait faire eprouver au ministre." Notice sur Richelieu ; Mem. de 
Richelieu, depuis 1610 jusqu'a 1620. 

49 " Cette princesse jeta de si hauts cris, et espandit tant de larmes, 
quand je lui dis cela, qu'elle pensa s'evanouir ; et je ne pus parachever ce 
que je voulois dire." Recit du Rev. Pere Souffran. 

60 Preface des editeurs de la premiere edition des Memoires de Bassom- 
pierre. Cologne, 1665. 

61 Bassompierre is said to have hinted to the Cardinal that he might 

1630] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 209 

obtain his desire by prompt application to M. de Villeroi, Governor of 
Lyons, through M. de Chateauneuf, cousin -german to Villeroi, and the 
Cardinal's devoted adherent. 

62 Recit du Rev. P. Souffran, who terminates his interesting narrative 
with the wish that the King's unexpected recovery " serve a 1'amende- 
ment de cette cour, qui est maintenant pleine de bonne volonte ; mais 
connoissant son inconstance je crains que, venient filii usque ad partum, 
et non est virtus pariendi." 

53 "Maison de Madame de Chaponay." Bassompierre. 

54 " Un emploi au-dessous d'elle," says Tallemant des Reaux. 

55 " Marie de' Medici descendit au couvent des Carmelites du Faubourg 
St. Jacques, avant d'aller au Luxembourg. On crut que la perte du 
ministre f ut encore concertee la, entre les deux reines, et Marillac, Garde 
des Sceaux. Les apologistes de ces princesses, soutiennent qu'on ne 
s'occupa que de deVotion chez les Carmelites ; et que les deux reines, 
entrees dans le monastere, n'eut pas un long entretien avec Marillac," 
etc. etc. Galerie des Personnages lllustres de la Cour de France, 
pendant les regnes de Henri IV. et de Louis XIII., t. 4. 

56 Journal de M. le Cardinal Due de Richelieu. The Cardinal relates 
with considerable complacency all the violent speeches made by the 
Queen-mother. One day she exclaimed to Bullion, secretary of state, 
" Je me donnerois plutdt au diable, que je ne me vengeasse ! " Another 
day, Marie/, conversing with a Jesuit of the court, le Pere Chrysostom, 
said that she hated the Cardinal, " pour 1'etat qu'il avoit mis la France." 
The Jesuit replied, " que tout le monde estimait le contraire." " Le 
peuple est une bete ; il ne faut pas prendre garde de ce qu'il dit," replied 
her Majesty angrily. " Elle dit au roi que j'etais un grand menteur ; et 
que je lui avait fait signer des papiers pour d'autres." Journal de 

57 Tallemant des Reaux, Hist, de Louis XIII. 

58 Journal de Richelieu sur les orages de la cour, es annees 1630-1644. 
" Que dites-vous la, Madame ? La colere vous emporte trop loin," ex- 
claimed the King. " Vous m'affligez si sensiblement que je ne me 
remettrai jamais du chagrin que vous me causez." Galerie des Per- 
sonnages lllustres de la Cour de France, t. 4. 

59 Bassompierre, Journal de ma Vie. Louis is said by Bassompierre to 
have exclaimed with dismay, on seeing his minister, " Le voici ! " 

60 Galerie des Personnages lllustres, etc. etc. ; Histoire du Cardinal de 
Richelieu ; Aubery ; Le Vassor, Histoire de Louis XIII. ; Leti, Teatro 
Gallico, t. 1, in 4to ; Dreux du Radier, Vie de Marie de' Medici. 

61 Louise-Marguerite de Lorraine-Guise. After the death of the Prince 
de Conty, in 1614, she is supposed to have made a secret marriage with 

62 Galerie des Personnages lllustres, t. 4. The Due de St. Simon, in his 
Memoirs, relates : " II est souvent arrive a mon pere d'etre reveille en 
sursaut en pleine nuit par un valet de chambre qui tiroit son rideau, 



une bougie a la main, ayant derriere lui le Cardinal de Richelieu, qui 
s'asseyoit sur le lit, en prenant la bougie, s'ecriant quelquefois qu'il 
etoit perdu, et venoit au conseil et au secours de mon pere, sur des avis 
qu'on lui avoit donnes, ou sur les prises qu'il avoit cues avec le Roi."- 
Mem. t. 1, chap. iii. 

63 " Je ne m'arreterai point a la fameuse Journee des Dupes," writes the 
Due de St. Simon, " ou mon pere eut le sort du Cardinal Richelieu entre 

les mains, parceque je 1'ai trouvee dans (Siri ?), toute telle que mon 

pere me 1'a racontee." Tome i. chap. iii. The name of the historian 
quoted by St. Simon cannot be deciphered in the MS. of his Memoires. 
Vittorio Siri, however (Mem. Recondite), states that he received every 
detail of La Journee des Dupes from the lips of M. de St. Simon. 

64 Galerie des Personnages Illustres de la Cour de France, sous les regnes 
de Henri IV. et Louis XIII., vol. 4, p. 114, et seq. " Le bagage du 
Cardinal etait deja en chemin sous 1'escorte de quelques soldats, et ses 
mulets allerent jusqu'a trente-cinq lieux au-dela de Paris, sans entrer 
dans aucune ville de peur qu'ils ne fussent arretes, et que le peuple ne 
s'avisat de piller le tresor qu'ils porterent." 

65 " Les Dues de Montmorency et Crequi, avertis sous mains par St. 
Simon, vont a Versailles ; mais Bassompierre fut une des plus grandes 
dupes de cette fameuse Journee." 

66 Journal du Cardinal de Richelieu. 

67 " Parceque le dit Cardinal avoit trop de temps a etre chez elle en 
attendant le conseil qu'on ne tiendroit pas toujours des lors que le Roi 
seroit entre ; ce qu'elle ne vouloit pas, pour 1'aversion qu'elle avoit 
contre luy ; et la peine que ce luy etoit de le souffrir, et encore rien qui 
luy appartient." 

68 Marie aggravated this extreme mark of displeasure by sending as her 
messenger a simple valet de chambre, with a verbal message ! 



MADAME DE FARGIS, meanwhile, continued to 
assail the Cardinal de Richelieu, to upbraid him 
for his ingratitude, and to flay his reputation by 
her sarcasm. According to Richelieu, she was 
accessory to all the peril and annoyances which he 
experienced ; exasperating her mistress, Queen 
Anne, against him, and proving herself the 
steady ally of M. Vaultier, and the agent of the 
exiled princes in their attempts to convulse the 
court. Meantime it was said that the liaison 
which Madame de Fargis retained with the Count 
de Cramail, and with Beringhen, first valet de 
chambre to the King, was open to grave suspicion ; 
so much so as to render her removal from the 
household of the Queen advisable. The King, 
moreover, could not endure the presence of a per- 
sonage who had acted in accord with his consort 
throughout her late negotiations with Monsieur ; 
his Majesty, therefore, listened greedily to the 
defamatory stories in circulation and thereupon 
resolved on the dismissal of de Fargis. 1 At the 
same time, Richelieu resolved to forbid the 

frequent interviews holden between Anne and 



the Spanish ambassador. Boutillier was therefore 
despatched to Mirabel to deliver a formal order 
from the King forbidding the Marquis from entree 
to the Louvre except on state festivals ; 2 also it 
was intimated that for the future when the am- 
bassador wished for audience of Queen Anne such 
privilege was to be solicited in the prescribed way, 
notice being given to her Majesty's chamberlain 
three days previously. The abbess of Val de 
Grace, moreover, received a notice not to admit 
persons within her convent during the abode 
there of Queen Anne, and to forward to the 
minister a list of all applicants for audience. The 
ambassador, in a state of extreme irritation, 
sought an immediate interview with King Louis 
to ask reparation for so notable an affront. The 
King coolly replied, " M. PAmbassadeur, you are 
cognisant of the intrigues afloat at my court 
which deprive me of tranquillity. You ought not, 
by your frequent audience of her Majesty, to 
have provoked comment, or to have seemed to 
sanction and encourage such disorders. It is not 
my intention to revoke my mandate. I will 
thank you to inform me whether the King your 
master would have suffered for a single day at 
his court the cabals and disquietudes which for 
years have convulsed mine ? " 3 Richelieu then 
added that M. de Barrault, his Majesty's am- 
bassador in Spain, was compelled to adhere to the 
recognised etiquette in his visits to her Catholic 
Majesty sister of King Louis, and that during 
the last four months he had never failed to present 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 213 

himself twice in the week to salute her Catholic 
Majesty and had not been admitted to audience. 
Intelligence of these proceedings reached the ear 
of Anne, who now passed most of her time at the 
Luxembourg, in the society of the Queen-mother, 
and was often many days without seeing her 
husband. Mirabel paid a furtive visit the follow- 
ing day to the Val de Grace whilst Anne was 
attending mass in the convent chapel, and suc- 
ceeded in obtaining brief audience of her Majesty, 
who was attended by de Fargis, as she quitted the 
convent. On the 27th Anne sent for M. Boutil- 
lier, under-secretary of state. The interview is 
thus related by the pungent pen of Richelieu in 
his Diary : 4 " The Queen sent for M. Boutillier, 
to say that she was informed that some persons 
were rendering bad offices to Madame de Fargis 
and that it was intended to dismiss her, that she 
had, therefore, sent for him to say to me that the 
greatest pleasure that I could do her was to pre- 
vent this ; that until now she had been the victim 
of oppression, but she desired that I should know 
she would no longer endure such ignominious 
treatment, and that she was not so miserable and 
insignificant a personage as not to be able some 
day to resent her wrongs." 5 Boutillier replied, 
that he had received no official intimation that 
the exile of Madame de Fargis was resolved upon. 
The Queen retorted : "I know it from trust- 
worthy sources : let it suffice." Monsieur also 
visited Richelieu to intercede for Madame de 
Fargis at the request of the Queen who was 


" stirred with marvellous anger at the insult about 
to be offered to her." Intercession, however, 
proved useless ; Louis and his minister were 
resolved upon the exile of the frivolous and 
intriguing woman whose counsels led her mistress 
astray. Richelieu was, doubtless, moved to this 
decision by pique at the conduct of de Fargis, 
who had obtained her nomination to the royal 
household by professions of devotion to his 
interests. " On the 30th of December," writes 
Richelieu, " de Fargis received an order to leave 
the court, in the most considerate and favourable 
manner possible, as she was to ask for permission 
to resign. The Queen testified great indignation 
against the Cardinal. She said several times, in 
the presence of Madame d'Angouleme and of 
Madame la Princesse, ' that, as for the order 
which had been given to the ambassador of Spain, 
it was for the King of Spain her brother to resent 
and avenge it as would be seen, but the exile of 
Madame de Fargis was her affair ; and that all 
concerned in it might be assured that she would 
never relax in her displeasure.' Moreover," con- 
tinues Richelieu, " the fury of the Queen was 
unappeasable, for she exclaimed in the presence 
of little Lavaux, ' No, never will I pardon M. le 
Cardinal ' " 

" January 3, 1631. The Queen went to visit 
the Queen-mother, where she remained a long 
time ; on her return her eyes were red and 
swelled. She bitterly complained of the indig- 
nities to which she was subjected, especially that 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 215 

his Majesty threatened to dismiss her apothe- 
cary, Michel Danse : the said Michel Danse 
having observed to her Majesty that he knew why 
M. le Cardinal wished to dismiss him it was to 
have opportunity to poison her so that the King 
might espouse Madame de Combalet ! The Queen 
responded again with a menace, adding : ' No es 
mas tiempo de habler con el Cardenal, pero bien de 
hazer ! ' 

" January 5. The Spanish ambassador waited 
on M. le Cardinal to notify that her Majesty had 
applied to him to intercede for her apothecary ; 
the said Cardinal responded 6 6 that he would 
mention the request to the King who was master 
and lord.' 

" January 6. M. de Chaulnes visited the Car- 
dinal with the King. After his Majesty had de- 
parted the said de Chaulnes informed the Cardinal 
that his sister, Madame de Bouillon, 7 met the 
Queen at the Carmelite Convent, and that her 
Majesty made bitter comment on her position 
and treatment ; upon which the said Dame de 
Bouillon replied, c that perhaps it was her Ma- 
jesty's own fault, by living on bad terms with the 
King and with those persons in whom his 
Majesty confided.' Her Majesty replied, with 
warmth, ' No ! M. le Cardinal wishes to divorce 
me from the King, my lord, and send me back 
to Spain. 58 The same day, M. le Cardinal de la 
Valette went to pay his respects to her Majesty, 
and while in discourse he gently observed that 
her Majesty should not so bitterly resent the past, 


neither ought she to threaten so unreservedly. 
The Queen replied, c I fear nothing ; they have 
done the worst against me that they can. I know 
what my conduct in future shall be, and they have 
no power to prevent me. I repeat, I have nothing 
to fear ! I need patience only and time will do 
the rest.' The Queen then paused, and glancing 
uneasily at the Cardinal de la Valette, hastily 
added, ' I perceive that, perhaps, I talk too 
much : I will say no more.' 

" January 7. The King has had intelligence 
that the Spanish ambassador has been all this 
afternoon shut up with the Queen at Val de 
Grace ; also that de Fargis was lodging with le 
Pere de Gondy close at hand, and that a person 
named Bordier has been going between the said 
ambassador, the Queen and de Fargis, in defiance 
of the strict orders given by his Majesty that 
the said ambassador should not see the Queen 
without leave. The ambassador quitted Val de 
Grace at dusk hour, and whilst he was there his 
coach waited in an adjacent street. 

" The King desiring this same evening to go to 
the play, her Majesty refused to accompany him, 
and simulated faintness in order to be able to 
excuse herself. 

" January 8. The King expressed again the 
same desire, and sent to ask the Queen his wife to 
accompany him to see a comedy ; her Majesty 
refused to go, although M. de Bonnevil 9 gravely 
represented the matter. 

** The Cardinal de la Valette informed the Car- 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 217 

dinal that on a certain day the two Queens, as 
they retired from the court circle, said (alluding to 
his Eminence), 6 Nous avons bien a faire de luy 
donner plaisir tandis qu'il nous procure du deplai" 
sir, et de la peine ! ' 

" January 20. The prioress of Val de Grace 
sent secretly to inform M. le Cardinal par le R. 
de P. (sic), that Montagu 10 in disguise had talked 
at the grate with the Queen ; also that many 
persons whom they did not know now spoke there 
to her Majesty ; and that the last time that she 
visited the convent a letter was given to her at the 
grate, which her Majesty read and then burned ; 
the writer was supposed to be Madame de 
Fargis." X1 

This entertaining Journal, written by the Car- 
dinal, reveals the irritating espionnage exercised 
over the words and actions of the young Queen. 
Anne's puerile plots to displace the powerful 
minister recoiled upon herself and covered her 
with obloquy. Her position at the court of 
France, over which her predecessors had ruled so 
imperiously, was humiliating to a great princess. 
Her personal liberty even was fettered, and St. 
Germain, the Luxembourg and the Val de Grace, 
were the only places which she had permission to 
visit at pleasure. The court assembled in the 
splendid saloons of the minister, and while 
Queen Anne moped in a corner of the Louvre, 
Madame de Combalet received the homage of the 
great ladies of the capital. In defiance of the 
orders of the minister, Madame de Fargis lingered 


in Paris, from whence, however, she made pre- 
cipitate retreat to Jouarre on learning that a 
packet of letters which she had formerly written 
to some personage in Lorraine 12 had been seized 
on the person of one M. de Senelle, ex-apothecary 
to the King, whom she had sent to Nancy to 
recover possession of these papers which she now 
deemed it expedient to destroy. At Jouarre, de 
Fargis had an interview with the Duchess de 
Chevreuse. Marie apparently greeted the fugi- 
tive with sympathy and listened to her plaints 
against the Cardinal, with whom, however, the 
Duchess was now reconciled through her friend 
the Lord Keeper de Chateauneuf . From Jouarre> 
de Fargis travelled to Nancy, and from thence 
she was imprudent enough to despatch letters to 
the young Queen and to other high personages, 
repeating her slanderous accusations against the 
minister. Scarcely had her messenger passed the 
frontier of Lorraine than Richelieu's emissaries 
seized and despoiled him of his despatches which, 
were at once transmitted to Paris. 

" Amongst these papers," writes the Cardinal, 13 
" were found letters addressed to the Queen and 
others for M. le Comte de Cramail, Mademoiselle 
du Tillet and the Marquise de Sourdis. These 
letters contained mention of high crimes, and 
discussed advantages to be derived from the death 
of the Cardinal. They also made allusion to 
the death of the King, and mentioned the old 
project of marrying the Queen to Monsieur. 
They stated that the Queen-mother opposed the 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 219 

marriage of Monsieur with a princess of Mantua 
to please the Queen, as his Majesty's health was 
apparently greatly on the decline. They testified 
to intimate correspondence between the writer, 
the Queen-consort and Monsieur, and gave 
advice to the said Queen Anne to do her utmost 
against the Cardinal. De Fargis also wrote to 
M. de Cramail, to get up petitions against the 
Cardinal and to forward them to the Queen. De 
Fargis, moreover, said to M. de Cramail * that she 
would send the necessary tokens to the individual 
indicated ; but it would be requisite that this man 
should be especially faithful as she herself was. 5 
All these said letters were shown, and identified to 
be in the handwriting of de Fargis, by the persons 
to whom they were addressed." 

The Duchess de Chevreuse, meantime, paid a 
brief visit of a few days to Paris and was per- 
mitted to see the Queen without restriction, 
which concession diminished the acrimony of 
Anne's resentment. Her Majesty sent the 
Duchess to the hotel of the minister to intercede 
for de Fargis, and likewise she persuaded Mon- 
sieur, who was then staying at the Luxembourg 
with Queen Marie, to speak to the King on the 
same subject. Louis silenced Monsieur's loqua- 
city, adding bitterly, " that in a few hours her 
Majesty would be made aware of the justice of the 
proceedings against a personage every way so con- 
temptible and unworthy." The Cardinal replied, 
" that the exile of the said Dame de Fargis being 
approved even by the Marquis de Mirabel, and 


ordered by his Majesty Louis XIII., he could in no 
way interfere." 14 The day but one following, as 
Anne was preparing to depart for the Val de 
Grace, to grant a stolen interview to Mirabel, 
Boutillier, under-secretary of state, appeared to 
demand audience of the Queen on behalf of the 
Cardinal de Richelieu, the Lord Keeper de Cha- 
teauneuf, and the ministers of state de Schomberg 
and d'Effiat, who presented themselves at the 
portal of Anne's audience chamber before her 
Majesty could command herself sufficiently to 
reply to their message. Anne's usual placid de- 
meanour faltered somewhat as she took her seat 
and prepared to listen to the communication 
about to be made in such formal state. Richelieu 
then blandly informed her Majesty of the arrest of 
Senelle and of another envoy of the Countess de 
Fargis, and laid the letters captured from these 
persons on the table for Anne's inspection 
" which we did," relates his Eminence, " with all 
possible respect." The Queen then identified the 
writing and letters of de Fargis, but said much 
against the said de Fargis, for the wicked thoughts 
that she suggested respecting the marriage be- 
tween Monsieur and herself in case of the demise 
of his Majesty. She said " that she had con- 
ceived such an aversion for the person of Mon- 
sieur that she did not think that she could ever be 
brought to consent to such an alliance." The 
Cardinal then drew her Majesty's attention to a 
paragraph in one of the letters of Madame de 
Fargis to the Count de Cramail, in which she ex- 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 221 

horted the latter, " to forward as many petitions 
as possible to the Queen against Richelieu." 
" Madame," observed the Cardinal, " truth is 
everywhere to be obtained. I pray you there- 
fore, do not seek so far for grievances against me, 
but if your Majesty has aught to complain of tell 
me my fault." " Monseigneur, I must be very 
malicious to say anything against you, not having 
cause." 15 The audience terminated with a ceremo- 
nious farewell, previous to which Richelieu ap- 
prised the Queen that the Marquise de Senece had 
been appointed by the King to replace Madame de 
Fargis as first lady of the palace. Anne received 
the communication in silence, but after the de- 
parture of the minister her tears flowed, and she 
hurriedly retired to her oratory and appeared no 
more in public during the day. 

The court, meantime, continued to be a very 
focus of intrigue : pleasure and festivities were no 
longer sought by the courtiers but were replaced 
by the evil excitements of petty plotting, scandal 
and slander. Each man and woman of the court 
was attached to one or other of the hostile parties, 
and either rallied round Marie de' Medici at the 
Luxembourg, Anne of Austria at the Louvre, 
Monsieur at the Hotel d'Orleans, or Richelieu at 
the Palais Cardinal. Jealousy, suspicions and a 
lawless excitement relative to the issue of the 
political feuds prevailing, quenched the wit, th 
gaiety and the magnificence of the courtiers. In 
these days of cabal, frivolous stories acquired a 
disastrous degree of importance, a depreciatory 


whisper sufficed to blast a promising career, and 
to inscribe a name on the terrible black list of the 
Cardinal. The spirit of Marie de' Medici quailed 
at the contest before her ; and yet she rejected 
with disdain the overtures of the minister, while 
weeping in the solitude of her palace at the 
obloquy which had befallen her, and at the 
fatal omens le which she descried of approaching 
calamity. The Duke of Orleans, who was watched 
with gloomy suspicion by King Louis, one day 
courted the smiles and friendship of Richelieu, 
and on the next furiously declaimed against his 
power, and vowed to support his mother to the 
death. Reassured by the sympathy of her 
younger son, Marie, during January of the year 
1631, took the fatal resolve of making one more 
effort to dislodge Richelieu. Stories were circu- 
lated by her Majesty's command, depreciating the 
honour and fame of the minister ; ludicrous inci- 
dents were invented and industriously detailed to 
undermine his influence, in which ridicule Anne 
and Marie joined. Marie had appointed Riche- 
lieu, in the former days of his favour, lord-steward 
for life of her household, and had presented him 
with the Hotel du Petit Luxembourg, a mansion 
joining her own palace, as his official residence. 
This office she had commanded him to resign, 
also possession of le Petit Luxembourg, which 
was then inhabited by the Cardinal's niece, 
Madame de Combalet. Richelieu audaciously 
disregarded the mandate, alleging that the office 
of lord-steward was permanent ; as for the Petit 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 223 

Luxembourg, Queen Marie had promised him an 
indemnity of 30,000 livres if, at the command of 
the King, or from any other motive, she was com- 
pelled to resume her gift, which otherwise was 
to be considered a donation given and accepted 
for life. Marie appealed to the King, and offered 
to pay the indemnity, but Louis decided that the 
hotel belonged to his minister, and that the Queen 
could not thus arbitrarily annul an appointment. 17 
Thus thwarted, Marie injudiciously sought sup- 
port from Monsieur, who entered into the quarrel 
with acrimony so much so, that meeting the 
minister one day in public, he again passed 
him without salutation or any notice whatever. 
Meantime, the friends of Queen Marie held almost 
open communication with M. de Soissons and 
other exiled princes. State secrets oozed out in a 
mysterious manner at the courts of Madrid, 
London and Nancy. Couriers were continually 
passing to and from those countries bearing de- 
spatches for the Queen-mother, for Queen Anne, 
or for Monsieur, the contents of which were never 
disclosed. The clandestine visits of Anne to her 
community at the Val de Grace became more 
frequent than ever, and the Cardinal obtained 
information that she constantly there granted 
interviews to M. de Mirabel and Madame de 
Fargis, who had had the audacity to visit Paris 
in disguise ; and to one Croft, 18 who acted as the 
agent of the English government, and to whom 
Queen Anne was accused of betraying any state 
secrets she might become possessed of relating to 


the Huguenot subjects of the realm. There can 
be little doubt that Anne, in her anger at the 
coercion to which she was subjected, did impart 
much information to the envoys of foreign states. 
Dazzled by the promise of future power and con- 
sideration, guaranteed to her by her ambitious 
mother-in-law and by Monsieur, she eagerly 
entered into their miserable plots to overthrow 
Richelieu. Matters were brought to a crisis by a 
rude refusal on the part of the President le Jay to 
pay a pecuniary mandate of considerable amount 
drawn on the treasury by Queen Marie ; also by 
the independent act of the Cardinal, who bestowed 
the government of the Pays d'Aunis with La 
Rochelle without previously consulting M. d'Or- 
leans, which was a breach, as Monsieur alleged, 
of their late treaty of amity. Monsieur conse- 
quently waited on his Eminence one morning, 
attended by a numerous suite all having pre- 
viously been concerted with the Queens : " Your 
Eminence will doubtless feel surprise at my visit," 
began Monsieur, in a tone which Richelieu shrank 
not from calling insolent in his account of the 
interview to the King. " As long as I believed 
that you were inclined faithfully to serve my in- 
terests, I was willing to remain your friend ; now, 
as I perceive that you fail to perform that which 
you promised, and have therefore broken faith 
with me, I am here to withdraw my promise to 
aid and to patronise you." 19 The great minister 
inclined before the young Prince, and with an air 
of deep respect, " begged to be informed in what 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 225 

manner he had failed to give satisfaction to his 
royal Highness ? " " Monsieur, you have failed 
in all your engagements relative to the Duke of 
Lorraine ; you have also done all in your power to 
throw discredit and to attribute loss of influence 
to Queen Marie your benefactress and to myself." 
" Monseigneur," replied Richelieu, " have not I 
promised to consider the claims of M. de Lorraine, 
when the said prince shall invite me so to do by 
his envoys ? As for yourself, your Highness re- 
ceiving all, and more than you demand, can have 
no just cause of complaint." Monsieur replied 
that further argument was unnecessary ; upon 
which his Eminence made profound obeisance. 
The Duke next observed that he was intending to 
retire to Orleans, where, in case of need, he should 
" know how to defend himself." This notifica- 
tion was also received by the Cardinal with low 
reverence ; and his Highness then departed, making 
signs to his cavaliers to close round him, so that 
Richelieu might be prevented from conducting 
him to his coach. Monsieur then repaired to the 
Luxembourg to hold final conference with the 
Queen-mother on the order and method of the 
seditious risings they contemplated in the pro- 
vinces. As her quota towards the fund requisite 
to organise the demonstrations, Marie gave 
200,000 francs, and jewels to a large amount. She 
also delivered to Monsieur the diamonds which 
had belonged to his late wife ; 20 which, by 
the King's command, had been intrusted to 
her guardianship for her infant grand- daughter 


Mademoiselle, whose nursery was in the adjacent 
palace of the Tuileries. Monsieur was also in- 
formed, by another " exalted personage," that 
the Spanish Government had paid in a large sum 
to his credit in the bank at Brussels, to be applied 
to purposes heretofore agreed upon. The exhor- 
tations and commendations of his mother and 
sister-in-law raised the Duke's opinion of his 
prowess and power, and persuaded him that 
their great enemy must disappear before his first 
hostile manifesto. Letters were then signed and 
despatched to the exiled Princes, to the Duke de 
Montmorency, to the chieftains of Rohan and to 
the Duke de Bouillon, whose possession of the 
independent principality and fortress of Sedan 
rendered him an important ally in any seditious 
rising. Monsieur next wrote to the King his 
brother assurances of personal zeal and devoted 
loyalty ; this missive he despatched by his 
equerry Chaudebonne as he entered his coach to 
quit Paris ; for Gaston wisely deemed his liberty 
in danger, if, after the warlike notification he had 
made in the morning at the Palais Cardinal he 
spent another night in Paris. The same night 
Marie feigned to be overwhelmed with consterna- 
tion. On learning the flight from Paris of M. 
d'Orleans, she despatched a gentleman of her 
household, named Villiers, to the King to explain 
her dismay at " this ill-advised step of her mis- 
guided son " ; the shock of which had caused her 
almost to faint 21 on learning that Monsieur had 
actually quitted the capital. From the lips of his 

1631] ANNE OP AUSTRIA 227 

minister, however, and by the unerring pages of 
the Cardinal's famous Diary, Louis had been 
initiated step by step in the intrigue, and had 
been brought round to the opinion, that his 
mother was ready to sacrifice himself and his 
realm in the pursuit of her revenge and ambition. 
The following morning Louis visited the Queen- 
mother at the Luxembourg, and a scene of 
mutual reproach and violence ensued, during 
which Marie was compelled to acknowledge that 
she had given the Montpensier diamonds to her 
son for purposes which she pretended to ignore. 
She nevertheless betrayed her influence over Mon- 
sieur at this crisis, by offering to effect his return 
to Paris, provided that the King granted him 
carte blanche respecting his marriage either with 
Marie de Gonzague or with the Princess Mar- 
guerite of Lorraine, and gave him the investiture 
of the fortresses and governments of PIsle de 
France, Soissons, Coussi, Charny, Laon and Mont- 
pellier. Louis absolutely refused ; adding, " that 
he doubted not Monsieur would soon be brought 
to reason and to obedience." His Majesty then 
requested the Queen to retire for an interval from 
court, as his government was unhappily so dis- 
tasteful, and suggested that her dower castle of 
Moulins would be an appropriate residence. Louis, 
moreover, commanded her to withdraw her sup- 
port from the exiled Princes, and to remain abso- 
lutely neutral in the pending contest excited by 
her agents. The King then took his leave, before 
her Majesty had recovered from the first effects of 


her surprise and fury on hearing such proposi- 
tions. The next day Marie sent her confessor, le 
Pere Souffran, 22 to decline obey ing the commands 
of her son, " as her proposed sojourn at Moulins 
was only a subtle snare of the Cardinal to entice 
her from Paris, that her person might be seized 
and her liberty endangered." 2S A council was 
therefore summoned, when it was decided to give 
her Majesty the alternative of signing a document 
in which she engaged herself by a solemn promise 
not to undertake, abet or encourage risings in the 
realm, and to withdraw protection, friendship 
and communication from all persons exiled by the 
King for political offences. Marie returned the 
document accompanied by a written refusal ; as 
she said, " experience had proved to her that the 
opponents of M. de Richelieu were considered as 
the foes of the King ; and that she was not dis- 
posed to sacrifice her friends and dependents to 
the evil wrath of the said minister." A second 
council was then assembled, at which Richelieu 
spoke, after he had been commanded expressly 
so to do by Louis. With the eloquence and 
precision in facts for which he was renowned, 
Richelieu obeyed. He represented " that the 
Emperor, the Kings of Spain and England, and 
the Dukes of Savoy and Lorraine, jealous of the 
glory of Louis, and unable to mar the prosperity of 
France by open warfare, sought to effect their 
object by troubling the kingdom by secret in- 
trigue and seduction : that considerable sums 
had been subscribed for that purpose by Spain 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 229 

and England ; while a contingent of troops had 
been promised by Germany. Sire, the Duke of 
Lorraine and his kindred of Guise have dared to 
brave your authority and that of our venerated 
Parliament. The malcontents are supported by 
the approval of her Majesty your consort and 
by Queen Marie a fact incredible almost and 
unparalleled in the annals of history. Monsieur, 
therefore, will never make submission while he is 
supported by the Queen-mother, and as long as 
this Princess remains at court she is formidable, 
inasmuch as the power of procuring the dismissal 
of your minister is attributed to her. In the 
midst of such intrigues and insubordination, order 
becomes impossible sedition will increase, and 
on your first indisposition, Sire, the Queen-mother 
will render herself master of your person and 
state. Your faithful servants cannot defend you 
happy, indeed, will they be if they can shield 
themselves from the vengeance of two Princesses 
whose anger we know to be implacable." Riche- 
lieu then proposed the arrest of Marie de' Medici ; 
" a decree which it would be advisable to execute 
with every forbearance and honour possible, but 
with every precaution and resolution ; as, if the 
affair be attempted and fail, the condition of the 
realm will be worse than before." Every metaphor 
of deprecation, regret and condolence is abun- 
dantly employed by the skilful minister in this 
oration, which nevertheless terminates by ex- 
horting his Majesty "to be brave and politic, 
and to remember that an able surgeon, when 


severing a diseased limb, is careless of the amount 
of blood which he sheds." Should Louis, never- 
theless, in his wisdom judge it expedient to 
tolerate the present order of affairs, Richelieu 
emphatically demanded release from the toil and 
perils of office. All the members of the council 
present applauded this harangue. Louis lay back 
thoughtfully in his chair, with a face expressive of 
blank consternation ; and in reply to the en- 
treaties of the lords present, promised to advise 
privately with his minister and to take a definite 

When news of these troubles reached England, 
Charles I. blamed the blind violence and obsti- 
nacy of Marie de' Medici. " The Queen your 
mother is in the wrong," said King Charles to 
his consort Henrietta Maria. " The Cardinal de 
Richelieu has rendered glorious services to the 
King his master. These intrigues remind one of 
an accusation levelled by the Roman people 
against Scipio, who listened calmly and then ex- 
claimed : ' I remember only, fellow-citizens, that 
on this day I defeated the Carthaginian army. 
Romans ! let us repair to the Capitol and return 
thanks to the Gods.' If I had been, therefore, in 
the place of the Cardinal, I should have contented 
myself with observing to your brother : ' Sire, 
within two years La Rochelle has fallen ; thirty - 
five Huguenot towns have capitulated ; Casale 
has been twice relieved ; Savoy and the half of 
Piedmont have been conquered. Sire, these 
successes, the result of my care and labour are 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 231 

the guarantees which I offer to you for my ability, 
my loyalty and my fidelity.' Where, then, 
Madame, would have appeared, in the face of 
these great triumphs, the paltry complaints of 
Queen Marie ? " 24 

To accomplish the purpose meditated by the 
Cardinal great address was required. The King 
shrunk from violent measures 25 against his 
mother, and again sought to move her gener- 
ous forbearance. Finding persuasion fail, Louis 
ordered a departure of the court for Compiegne, 
at the suggestion of Richelieu, who comforted 
his Majesty by inspiring a hope that the Queen- 
mother might be more accessible when away from 
Paris, if indeed Marie consented to leave the 
Luxembourg, which she had vowed never again 
to venture. 

The young Queen received a command which 
she dared not disobey, to repair to Compiegne 
attended by Madame de Senece, by Madame de la 
Flotte and by Marie de Hautefort, whom the 
Cardinal, by every species of cajolerie, was trying 
to win over to his interests. The court arrived at 
Compiegne about the 17th of February. The King 
was joined en route at Senlis by Marie de' Medici, 
who, remembering the result of the abandonment 
of her son on the memorable Journee des Dupes, 
now hastened with her accustomed precipitation 
to help her enemy in consummating the coup 
ffetat which he had plotted. A prudent and 
politic princess would still have extricated herself 
from the dilemma, and have converted the 


visible abasement into which she had fallen into 
a triumph of magnanimity. Marie de' Medici, 
however, headstrong and short-sighted, attempted 
to subdue her enemy by sullen pertinacity. Riche- 
lieu still hesitated to offer final defiance to his late 
benefactress, while the King, with tears drawn 
forth by his own lugubrious forebodings, be- 
sought his minister to try once more to move 
the compassion and clemency of the Queen. In 
obedience to this order, Richelieu entered the 
chapel of the old castle of St. Germain on the 
Sunday following, and meeting Queen Marie as 
she was leaving the altar after receiving the Holy 
Sacrament, he fell at her feet and conjured her to 
forgive him his transgressions. 26 Marie haughtily 
retreated ; when the Cardinal, rising, approached 
the altar whereon the Sacred Elements were ex- 
posed, and taking the cup in his hand made a 
solemn vow that in nothing had he willingly or 
maliciously offended her Majesty, but that he 
still continued in the mind to serve her as his best 
benefactress and mistress. The Queen eyed the 
Cardinal for a few minutes in silence, and a softer 
expression stole over her face ; she, however, 
finally turned away and without vouchsafing 
a word quitted the chapel. When Louis was 
informed of the failure of this attempt at 
conciliation he rose with sudden impulse 
and signified his assent to the measures proposed 
by Richelieu. 

A rumour, meantime, had been spread by the 
adherents of Queen Marie that her Majesty 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 233 

intended to leave Compiegne speedily, "as it was 
not her intention to share the deliberations of the 
council, nor longer to sanction by her presence 
the infamous mandates of M. de Richelieu." Louis 
therefore signed the requisite mandates necessary 
for the detention of the Queen-mother, and the 
arrest of her most zealous adherents. It was 
determined, moreover, that same night to execute 
the project, by leaving Marie at Compiegne 
under the charge and surveillance of the Marshal 
d'Estrees and his regiment of guards, then on 
duty in and about the palace. The design was 
well considered, feasible, and avoided violence or 
show of disrespect to the unhappy Princess. 
D'Estrees was one of the most polished of the 
courtiers, a nobleman of wit, refined manners 
and savoir-faire. He unhesitatingly undertook the 
office pressed upon him ; he promised to Richelieu 
unwearied vigilance and fidelity, and assured the 
King that no effort on his part should be wanting 
to reconcile the Queen to her position and to 
induce her to make overtures likely to prove 
satisfactory to his Majesty and the realm. One 
by one the gentlemen in attendance on the 
King were summoned and instructed to meet 
their royal master at midnight in the Capuchin 
monastery of Compiegne, under an injunction 
of strict secrecy. 

Anne of Austria, meantime, retired at her usual 
hour unsuspicious that any event of moment im- 
pended. Louis had too little faith in her loyalty 
and discretion to impart his design ; neither, it is 


to be feared, was he greatly concerned at the 
fright likely to be inflicted by the sudden revela- 
tion of so startling an event. Anne had passed 
the evening in the apartments of Marie de' Medici 
and had returned therefrom much depressed. In 
the middle of the night the Queen and her ladies, 
Mesdames de Senece and de la Flotte, were 
aroused by a loud knocking at the door of the 
antechamber. The blows were repeated with 
greater energy and voices were heard without. 
Anne opened her curtains in affright, and called 
Madame de Senece, who directed Mademoiselle 
Filandre, a femme de chambre, to inquire who the 
intruders were, and their business. 27 " It is the 
King, the King ! ?:i exclaimed Anne, fearfully ; 
" open to his Majesty ! 5: The sound of male 
voices and the ring of arms now reached the ears 
of the eager listeners. Daylight just glimmered ; 
and all the Queen's ladies and women, pale with 
fright, crowded round their royal mistress. ;< A 
thousand fearful thoughts then agitated the mind 
of the Queen," relates Madame de Motteville. 
" She had every reason to distrust the King her 
husband ; and, as she confided to me, she be- 
lieved that some dreadful event was about to 
happen to her : the least that she expected being, 
that she was to be banished from the realm. 
Looking upon the next few minutes as the su- 
preme moments of her fate, the Queen prepared 
herself for the emergency, and summoned all her 
courage. She had a firm mind and a resolute will ; 
and I doubt not, judging from what her Majesty 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 235 

told me when relating these particulars, that the 
first shock being over, she would have received 
with the utmost resignation and patience the fate 
Heaven had destined her to endure." The Queen's 
suspense was at length relieved by the return of 
Mademoiselle Filandre, with the intelligence that 
Monseigneur the Lord Keeper Chateauneuf de- 
sired to speak to her Majesty on behalf of the 
King. Anne rose from her bed, and putting on 
the robe de chambre presented by Madame de 
Senece, who afterwards described herself as " plus 
morte que vive," ordered M. de Chateauneuf to be 
admitted. Chateauneuf bowed before his young 
mistress as she tremblingly advanced with flushed 
cheeks and in utter disarray. " Madame," said 
he, "I have to make known to your Majesty the 
orders which I have received from the lips of the 
King our master. To insure the welfare of this 
realm, his Majesty finds himself compelled to 
leave his mother at Compiegne under the sur- 
veillance of the Marshal d'Estrees. It is therefore 
his Majesty's command, that you attempt not 
an interview with her said Majesty, the Queen- 
mother, but that you immediately hasten to the 
church of the Capuchin convent where his Ma- 
jesty expects you." 28 Chateauneuf then withdrew, 
before the emotion of the Queen permitted her to 
reply. The lord-keeper, however, managed to 
whisper an injunction into the ear of the Marquise 
de Senece to hasten the preparations of her young 
mistress unless she wished to see her involved in 
the same disgrace as her mother-in-law. Anne 


soon recovered her accustomed coolness and de- 
cision, and with many anathemas on the Cardi- 
nal's audacity and tyranny, she refused to leave 
the palace without a parting interview with Marie 
de' Medici. Time was elapsing, and the King's 
orders had been precise that Anne should not see 
the Queen-mother but hasten to join him in the 
church of the Capuchins. Madame de Senece, 
knowing the wayward perverseness of her mistress, 
and anxious to save her from a direct act of 
disobedience in a juncture of such importance, 
proposed that Mademoiselle Filandre should be 
despatched on a journey of discovery to the 
Queen's apartments, from whence she should 
bring a message from Marie, in case her Majesty 
still remained ignorant of the coup d'etat, express- 
ing a desire to see Queen Anne. The apartments 
of the Queen-mother were silent and undisturbed. 
Filandre made her way to the bed of Caterina 
Selvaggio, chief tirewoman, and whispered an 
agitated entreaty that Queen Marie would send to 
request an interview with her daughter-in-law, 
as her Majesty had something to impart and 
dared not leave her apartments unsummoned. 
This ruse succeeded ; Marie, ever on the alert, 
sent Caterina to summon Queen Anne under 
pretext that she had had an agitating dream 
and found herself indisposed. Anne flew to the 
apartments of Marie, followed by Madame de 
Sendee carrying a portion of her mistress's 
attire. 29 Marie was sitting up in bed, clasping her 
knees, with a face of deepest woe. Anne threw 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 237 

herself in the arms of the unhappy princess, sob- 
bing forth the words,^" Oh ! ma mere, ma mere I 
am to leave you I have not an instant to explain 

the King expects me at the Capuchin church ! ' : 
" Ma fille, am I to die ? am I a prisoner ? Speak ! 
The King, does he desert me ? What is to become 
of me ? " Anne then signed to Madame de Senece 
to retire out of hearing, and while she finished 
dressing, she recounted all that had befallen her, 
with the order signified by Chateauneuf. With 
many tears the princesses then embraced and 
separated. 30 

King Louis received his consort in the choir of 
the Capuchin church. His Majesty was attended 
by the Cardinal minister, by Chateauneuf, by the 
abbot of the Capuchins and by a swarm of cour- 
tiers, many of whom had been roused from their 
beds to join the King and scarcely yet com- 
prehended their position. Two ladies also were 
present Madame de la Flotte and her lovely 
grand-daughter. The King briefly recapitulated 
his reason for the arrest of the Queen his mother. 
' Madame," continued his Majesty, addressing 
his consort, " the indiscretions of Madame de 
Fargis having caused her removal from your 
service, I present to you in her stead Madame de 
la Flotte Hauterive ; and for second dame d'atours, 
Mademoiselle Marie de Hautefort. For both these 
ladies I request your favour." 31 Anne had hitherto 
steadily declined to permit any lady to fulfil the 
functions of the exiled Madame de Fargis ; 32 she 
was, however, now compelled to put the best face 


on the matter, as the King was evidently in no 
humour to be trifled with. " Elle les recent toutes 
deux faisant la meilleure mine du monde," relates 
Madame de Motteville. Anne, however, still 
clung to her de Fargis, who like herself was an 
adherent of the Queen-mother, of Spain and of 
the French malcontents, and she viewed her new 
ladies, especially Mademoiselle de Hautefort, not 
only as her rival in the King's favour, but as an 
enemy and a spy in the pay of the Cardinal. 

Marie de Hautefort was the daughter of Charles, 
Marquis de Hautefort, and of Renee du Belley. At 
this period she had accomplished her eighteenth 
year. Her beauty was less dazzling than that of 
Madame de Chevreuse, but of a nobler type. The 
expression of her features was serious and 
thoughtful ; she was pious, ambitious, sedate in 
manner and reserved to a surprising degree for a 
damsel of her age so early introduced at the court 
of France. When Mademoiselle de Hautefort 
spoke she did so advisedly ; her language was 
well chosen and perfectly expressed her ideas. 
The poor but illustrious family from which Marie 
sprang had little to bestow on a younger daughter 
of their race and she had been destined for the 
cloister. Louis, however, had now resolved that 
Mademoiselle de Hautefort should be drafted into 
the household of the young Queen, as he found 
indescribable consolation in her repose of manner, 
decorous discourse and sweet smiles. Marie, on 
her part, professed respectful devotion for Louis 
Treize, and exalted him into a hero whose 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 239 

domestic misfortunes inspired profound sympathy. 
The two, however, had never met in private, for 
their interviews were holden in a small cabinet 
adjacent to the saloon in which Marie de' Medici 
received the court. The King with a triste ex- 
pression on his sallow, pensive face, sat and sighed 
by the object of his admiration, who, serenely 
gracious, entertained him with the on dits of con- 
ventual gossip, or related her early reminiscences 
of rural life, in which his Majesty seemed to take 
deep interest. 

The King and Queen, after their salutations in 
the grey twilight of this February morning, com- 
manded mass to be said before they quitted the 
chapel. Louis seized the opportunity to indicate 
that a fresh influence had dawned over the court. 
The maids of the Queen, according to custom, sat 
and knelt on the ground during mass, the ladies of 
honour having alone the privilege of cushions and 
stools. The King, observing this, rose, and taking 
the velvet cushion of his own prie-Dieu, sent it 
to Mademoiselle de Hautefort with a gracious 
gesture. Marie blushed, for she felt that the eyes 
of all persons present were watching her. She, in 
her turn, looked anxiously at Queen Anne, who 
signed to her to take the cushion. Marie obeyed, 
but modestly laid it by her, and when mass was 
concluded she rose, and with a deep obeisance 
returned the cushion to the King. 33 Louis con- 
tinued his journey with the court to Senlis. There, 
many victims were sacrificed to the hate and to 
the fears of Richelieu ; arrests perhaps rendered 


necessary by the catastrophe of Marie's detention 
at Compiegne. An hour after his arrival in 
Senlis, M. Vaultier, Marie's obnoxious physician 
and friend, was on his way to the Bastille under 
escort. Lettres de cachet were despatched by M. 
de la Ville-aux-Clercs to the Princesse de Conty, 
Marguerite de Lorraine-Guise, the intimate com- 
panion of the Queens, and the wife of Bassom- 
pierre, which exiled her to the castle of Eu, 
permitting her only six hours to set out from 
Paris. On the 24th of February, Bassompierre, the 
brilliant and popular trifler, was arrested, osten- 
sibly as a partizan of Marie de' Medici, but as it 
was surmised to avenge the counsel which he had 
given at Lyons in 1630, to imprison Richelieu for 
life. It was also debated in council to arrest the 
Duke d'Epernon and the Marshal de Crequi. The 
Duchesses d'Elboeuf, de Rohan, d'Ornano like- 
wise received an order to retire from Paris. All 
things seemed now at the feet of the victorious 
minister ; he possessed the ear of the King, and 
directed at will the resources and alliances of the 
realm. The enemies which remained to be over- 
thrown Richelieu prepared to do battle against 
in the full conviction of eventual triumph. 

Queen Marie was at first paralysed by grief and 
amazement at her detention. For hours, it is re- 
corded, she wept with passionate excitement, 34 and 
threatened the authors of her disgrace with future 
retribution. From the hour of her arrest Richelieu 
never intended to promote her reconciliation with 
Louis, and from Paris and the court she was for 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 241 

ever to be exiled so long as the Cardinal retained 
power. Nevertheless Richelieu deemed it politic 
to temporise the conscience and the filial feel- 
ings of King Louis might prompt him to annul the 
act accomplished after so many relentings and 
doubts. It is certain that Marie was urged, nay 
implored, to leave Compiegne and take up her 
abode at Moulins, unfettered by restrictions of any 
kind except her parole not to leave the town 
without the permission of her son. The letters 
addressed to his mother by Louis in this sorrow- 
ful crisis of their history are forbearing and 
modest. His first letter after their separation, 
written at the beginning of the following month 
of March, contains the following passage : 35 " The 
continual excuses which it has pleased you to 
assign against taking up your abode in your house 
at Moulins render it necessary for me again to 
remind you how requisite it is for the welfare of 
my realm, that you should yield to the entreaties 
that I have aforetime made and make again. You 
would be there accommodated more at your 
pleasure and mine, as you would not be sur- 
rounded with unpleasant facts as at Compiegne. 
Neither, Madame, is it true that the plague is 
raging at Moulins nor that your house there is out 
of repair ; nevertheless, as I have told you before, 
you can, if you choose, stay at Nevers. I am 
writing on the subject to the Marshal d'Estrees ; 
you will therefore, if it pleases you, give credit 
to anything which he may impart to you in my 
name." In answer to this letter, Queen Marie 



writes to inform her son, that indisposition has 
hitherto prevented her from setting out to 
Moulins : she then reproaches him bitterly for his 
abandonment of her ; avers that she has been 
always a good and conscientious mother, and 
that the reward which she now reaps for count- 
less privations and devoted zeal for the interests 
of his Majesty and the realm, is, that she is 
sacrificed to the vengeance of her bitter foe ! 
Finally, her Majesty asserts that her health is not 
in condition to undertake so long a journey ; that 
her nerves are shaken ; and that she may as well 
meet death, if such be her son's will, at Com- 
piegne as in a lone castle, badly drained, where 
she would be in the power of M. le Premier, who 
coveted her life and was ready to sanction any 
unhallowed act of violence. 36 Driven thus into a 
corner by her enemy the Cardinal, Marie de' 
Medici had not the tact to dissimulate her resent- 
ment and depit ; her protests against the outrage 
to which she had been subjected resounded 
throughout the realm and at the courts of London, 
Madrid and Brussels. The Queen drew up a 
violent diatribe against the Cardinal, which she for- 
warded to the Parliament of Paris. The members, 
however, prudently transmitted the document to 
the King with its seals unbroken. The Marquis de 
Mirabel meantime, instigated by Anne of Austria, 
asked audience of King Louis on behalf of his 
Catholic Majesty, Don Philip IV., to intercede for 
the Queen-mother, and to request permission to 
visit her Majesty at Compiegne. Louis wrathfully 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 243 

refused permission. " Sire, apparently then her 
Majesty is a prisoner under arrest ? 5: " Mon- 
seigneur, nobody but ignorant people or people 
perversely malignant will so assert," answered 
the King, impatiently. "I find it, however, 
strange that the King of Spain should interfere ; 
foreign princes have no right to intervene in such 
matters. Remember, M. PAmbassadeur, that 
when the ambassador of Charles IX. asked per- 
mission to see Queen Elizabeth de Valois, a 
daughter of France, he could not obtain his desire. 
I will not recur, Monsieur, to the sequel of that 
unhappy history ; suffice for the present, that you 
have no reason to take amiss my decision in this 
matter ! " " The King spoke thus," relates the 
Cardinal in his Journal, " because the Queen his 
mother had boasted to his Majesty that the 
Spanish ambassador was privy to all her intrigues 
for the ruin of the Cardinal." 37 

Louis continued his correspondence with his 
mother from Dijon, where he had arrived at the 
head of a corps d'armee in pursuit of Monsieur, 
who on receiving the intelligence of his mother's 
arrest, proclaimed a levy of troops over all the 
lands of his appanage, and fled to Nancy after 
publishing a hostile manifesto against Richelieu. 
His Majesty wrote thus from Dijon : 


" MADAME, I have no occasion to enter into ex- 
planations with you relative to the reason and 


just causes which have compelled me to separate 
myself from you for an interval, for nobody under- 
stands such better than yourself ; also the efforts 
I have made to save both yourself and me from 
such annoyance. You are aware that remaining 
at my court, offended and discontented as you 
have for some time declared yourself to be, pre- 
vented me from providing remedy to put down 
the intrigues which there abound, and failing to 
subdue which, my realm and my person are in 
danger. Nevertheless, all this need not prevent 
me from feeling and testifying for you the respect 
and the friendship which you can expect from a 
good son, although my duty to my subjects and 
to my crown is esteemed by me as my first earthly 
calling. Having always received from me number- 
less proofs of regard, I feel astonished that you 
should imagine that I am capable of conceiving 
against you violent resolutions : believe me, 
Madame, that such thoughts have never entered 
my head, nor have they been concerted by any of 
my servants. For what end or aim you persist 
in impressing upon the world that your ruin is 
resolved I cannot imagine, when all the evil which 
you have hitherto received is separation from 
myself a fact which you have yourself brought 
about by opposing and alienating all persons who 
please me and are likely to serve me and my 
realm. I hear also, with extreme displeasure, 
that you are still delaying your departure from 
Compiegne. If indisposition is the cause of your 
delay I shall experience a double annoyance, but 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 245 

I do not hear that your illness is serious enough to 
prevent you from travelling. I request you 
therefore to set out, for your departure is im- 
portant to my crown and will check the rumours 
which you have spread that I have made you a 
prisoner. At Moulins moreover, you will have 
no person near you likely to offend you or to 
curtail in any way your freedom. I doubt not 
therefore, Madame, that you will promptly comply 
with my desire, the which accomplished, you 
shall always receive the truest tokens of regard 
and honour from, Madame, 

" Your majesty's humble and obedient son, 

" Louis." 

Marie replied in tones of indignant reproach ; 
she denies that she had ever troubled the realm, 
and asserts that M. le Cardinal never desired re- 
conciliation and was not sincere in his overtures 
to be restored to her good graces. " Do me the 
favour, if it pleases you, to believe that it is out 
of my power to comply with your Majesty's com- 
mands to leave this place and to journey towards 
Moulins. I beg you to reflect, that having re- 
ceived the treatment which I have, I possess good 
cause for the apprehensions which smite me and 
which prevent me from repairing to Moulins, 
from which place I might be seized and put in a 
boat on the Rhone, and so, against my will, be 
transported on board your Majesty's galleys, 
which are assembling (at Marseilles) for Italy. 
Italy, it is true, is the land of my birth, but as I 


brought from thence into France all the wealth 
which appertained to me, there remains for me, 
even in my own country, neither honour, riches 
nor refuge, except by the favour of distant re- 
latives who have never seen me, and who would 
have great right to decline to receive me in their 
dominions, seeing that my own son could not 
tolerate me nor suffer me to end my days within his 
potent realm." 39 The unhappy princess continues 
thus throughout a long letter of three pages, and 
her despair everywhere transpires, as the prompt- 
ings of her own vindictive temper convinced her 
that Richelieu would never permit her reconcilia- 
tion with the King, or share his power with one 
whom he had so mortally offended. 40 The hopes 
of the Queen for liberty and revenge centred in 
her second son, the heir-presumptive. Monsieur 
had safely arrived in Lorraine, pursued by the 
victorious arms of his brother to the very walls of 
Nancy. Richelieu, nevertheless, found it re- 
quisite to dissimulate in order to achieve his final 
purpose, which was to drive Marie de' Medici to 
a voluntary flight from the realm, by practising 
on her rash and impulsive temper and on her 
dread of his craft and enmity. 41 In this design he 
found a ready ally in Pere Joseph, who had 
managed to render himself agreeable to the Queen 
and was not suspected by her. The King had 
evidently misgivings, and perhaps relentings, in 
favour of his mother, nor was it probable that 
Louis could ever be induced to sign against her 
a decree of exile or of imprisonment in a state 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 247 

fortress. The Cardinal perceived that the very 
tenure of his power depended on the dissensions of 
the royal family : on the absence of his haughty 
and intriguing patroness ; in the humiliation of 
Queen Anne of Austria ; the disgrace of M. d'Or- 
leans ; the banishment of the Princes of the blood 
royal and the discontent of such formidable 
vassals of the crown as Bouillon, Guise, Rohan, 
Epernon and others. Le Pere Joseph, therefore, 
wrote to Marie, offering his good offices to recon- 
cile her with the minister, and sent his missive 
by a humble Capuchin brother. In that clever 
satire, " Le Catolicon Franais," which professes 
to reveal the mental craft of the statesmen of 
this period, Richelieu is made thus to argue : 
" Whilst I diverted that good lady (Marie de' 
Medici) by divers journeyings to and from Com- 
piegne, I built up and cemented by Pere Joseph 
the old suspicions that I had infused on both 
sides ; telling the King that Monsieur was the 
elder born in his mother's affection ; and to the 
Queen, that her son who piqued himself on his 
powers of dissimulation meant to snare, entrap 
and hold her captive." Marie de' Medici, mean- 
time, had been herself busily weaving an intrigue 
by which she hoped to break her bonds and taste 
the delights of revenge. Marie de Beuil, Countess 
de Moret, once a mistress of Henri Quatre, had 
espoused the son of the Marquis de Vardes, 
governor of the neighbouring fortress of La 
Capelle, and resided with her husband in that 
stronghold. The countess found means to 


communicate secretly with the Queen and offered 
to receive her in La Capelle provided she could 
escape from Compiegne. Marie eagerly embraced 
the overture ; taking the precaution, however, to 
write to the Archduchess Isabel, asking for tem- 
porary refuge at Brussels, in case any accident 
after leaving Compiegne should frustrate her 
design. The Queen, therefore, escaped the sur- 
veillance of her jailors at ten o'clock on the night 
of July 10th, attended only by La Mazure, lieu- 
tenant of her body-guard. 42 Her fears had been 
strongly excited during the preceding day by the 
report of d'Estrees, that the Marshal Schomberg 
was on his way to Compiegne at the head of 1200 
horse to convey her to Marseilles, where she was 
to be put on board a ship bound for Leghorn. 
There is no doubt that the subtle Richelieu, aware 
of the Queen's intrigues with Madame de Vardes, 
employed gentle pressure to urge her departure 
from Compiegne, and had taken care to remove 
all obstacles. At the end of the street of Com- 
piegne, the Queen found a coach and six, provided 
by Madame de Fresney, niece of the Bishop of 
Leon, who took her uncle's equipage without his 
knowledge or assent a freedom which nearly 
cost the bishop his see. 43 The Queen passed the 
river Aisne at Choisy, relays of horses awaited 
her along the road, and the venture appeared 
to prosper beyond her most sanguine hopes. 
Madame de Vardes, however, failed to meet her 
Majesty at the appointed place a league from La 
Capelle. After an interval of suspense a messen- 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 249 

ger appeared, who announced that the old Mar- 
quis de Vardes had suddenly entered La Capelle, 
and after arresting his son for his traitorous 
correspondence with the Queen-mother, had sent 
Madame de Vardes and the ladies privy to the 
plot to deliver up the fortress, under strong escort 
to Paris to await the stern pleasure of the Car- 
dinal. Richelieu received daily advices from 
Compiegne, all of which he jotted down in his 
Journal. Aware, therefore, of the design of the 
Queen to entrench herself in La Capelle, he had 
given notice to the Marquis de Vardes 44 to circum- 
vent the project by his own opportune arrival. 
The unfortunate Marie, therefore, not daring to 
return to Compiegne, took the road with the 
utmost precipitation to the town of Avesne, where 
she was received with ostentatious honour by the 
Marquis de Crevecceur. A messenger was de- 
spatched to Brussels to inform the Infanta Dona 
Isabel of the Queen's arrival. The Prince d'Epinay, 
governor of the province of Hainault, received 
commands to attend her Majesty to Mons, where 
the Infanta repaired for an interview. Marie, 
again fatally swayed by her resentments, suffered 
herself to be escorted by the Spanish ambassador, 
the Marquis de Aytona, whom she subsequently 
deputed to compliment and thank Dona Isabel. 
The frantic anger of Louis XIII. against his 
mother needed no further impetus after her im- 
prudence had been expatiated upon in council by 
the Cardinal de Richelieu. In reply to the letter 
despatched by Marie, the King wrote : " Madame, 


my cousin the Cardinal de Richelieu gives me 
daily numerous proofs of devotion, fidelity, affec- 
tion and sincerity. He pays a religious defer- 
ence to my commands, and the faithful care 
he gives to the welfare of my realm and my own 
person vouch for his truth. You will therefore 
permit me, Madame, to observe, that the act 
which you have just committed and the intrigues 
in which you participate, have enlightened me as 
to your past intentions and put me on my guard 
against future attempts. The respect, Madame, 
which I ought to bear ypu prevents me from 
adding more to this epistle." 45 

Some officious person at this season remarked 
to Anne of Austria, that, at least, M. le Cardinal 
showed her more indulgence and respect than he 
had vouchsafed to Queen Marie. Anne assumed 
her most icy manner and replied with scornful 
gesture, " There can and shall be no comparison 
between the Queen-mother and myself, her rank 
is not such as mine ; she has not the influence and 
support which I possess and which I have the 
right to expect." 46 

The triumphant Richelieu consummated his 
victory by the issue of a proclamation of outlawry 
against all the followers of the Due d'Orleans. The 
names of the proscribed traitors were the Count de 
Moret, natural brother of the King ; the Dukes de 
Bellegarde, d'Elboeuf, de Rohan ; the Presidents 
le Coigneux and de Payen, and M. de Puylaurent, 
le P. Chanteloube, 47 confessor to Marie de' Medici ; 
and Mousignot, private secretary to Monsieur. 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 251 

When this edict was sent to the Parliament to be 
registered, the members modified the decree 
against the adherents of the heir-presumptive, by 
entering on the register what was called un arret 
de partage ; which placed on record the names of 
the members protesting against the decree. The 
King therefore commanded the attendance of the 
High Court in the great gallery of the Louvre. 
Louis commanded the registers to be laid before 
him, and with his own hand he tore therefrom 
the leaf upon which the act had been inscribed 
under protest. The King then caused a decree 
of the privy council to be inserted, which pro- 
hibited any debate in the Chambers upon matters 
relating to state affairs topics which appertained 
only to the ministers and sworn counsellors of 
the crown. 

Judicial proceedings were next instituted 
against the Countess de Fargis, who was supposed 
to be lingering in the neighbourhood of Paris in 
disguise. Such was the terror inspired by the 
late proceedings of the King and his minister, that 
the friends of Anne of Austria failed in their 
allegiance to her service and caprice. The Abbess 
of the Val de Grace, 48 stirred by a significant hint 
from the Palais Cardinal that seditiously inclined 
sisterhoods had been dissolved and their members 
draughted into more loyal communities, hastened 
to send information to the Cardinal that two 
suspicious personages, thought to be Croft and 
Montagu, had asked at the gate of the convent to 
speak with her Majesty ; moreover, that a letter 


had been delivered into the hands of the Queen by 
an unknown person as her Majesty entered the 
nunnery upon her first visit after the return of the 
court from Compiegne. The personages mentioned 
in the letters of de Fargis taken from M. Senelle 
were arrested and subjected to severe interro- 
gatories. Amongst these persons were the Marquis 
de Crequi and the Count de Cramail, M. Senelle 
and Mademoiselle du Tillet. This last lady de- 
posed that she had twice forwarded letters from 
the accused to M. de Cramail ; also that two days 
after the return of the court from Compiegne, 
Anne had sent for her to take charge of a letter 
which her Majesty desired secretly to forward to 
de Fargis, but that the Queen had decided finally 
to send it by a special messenger. "I feel no 
surprise that Madame de Fargis has been dis- 
missed from the Queen's service ; the mystery 
is, what influence could ever induce M. le Cardinal 
to sanction the nomination of une femme si 
decriee to the first office in her Majesty's house- 
hold ! " 49 was the malicious comment of Made- 
moiselle du Tillet, in allusion to the notorious 
intrigues which once subsisted between de Fargis, 
Cramail, Richelieu and the disgraced Lord- 
Keeper de Marillac. As the countess never 
surrendered to take her trial in obedience to the 
citation of the criminal court sitting at the 
Arsenal, judgment was allowed to go by default. 
The award of the court declared la Dame de 
Fargis d'Angennes guilty of high treason and 
sentenced her to decapitation, which decree was 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 253 

performed on an effigy of the countess in the 
Place du Carrefour de St. Paul, November 8th, 
1631. M. Senelle, upon whom the letters of the 
countess were found, was condemned to the 
galleys for life ; Vaultier to perpetual imprison- 
ment in the Bastille. 50 The Marshal de Marillac, 
generalissimo of the Italian army, towards whom 
Richelieu bore inveterate hate, was arrested and 
put upon his trial upon frivolous charges of mal- 
versation during the construction of the citadel of 
Verdun, by which he had derived illicit profit ; 
and of mal-administration of the King's moneys 
forwarded for the payment of the army under his 
command. The true crime of Marillac was his 
offer at the memorable secret conference at 
Lyons, during the King's illness, to slay the ob- 
noxious Cardinal minister with his own hand. 
The Lord-Keeper Chateauneuf presided at the 
trial which took place, against all precedent, in 
the private mansion of Richelieu at Ruel. On the 
8th of May sentence of decapitation was pro- 
nounced upon Marillac ; the crime of this old and 
faithful servant of Henri Quatre being his devoted 
attachment to the widow of his late master, and 
the power which his probity, virtue and affa- 
bility enabled him to exercise over the army under 
his command. " A page ought not to be flogged 
for the misdeeds for which I am arraigned ! For 
forty years I have served two great kings : all 
that they can accuse me of are trifling inac- 
curacies in accounts for lime, straw, hay, wood 
and stone ! 5: The following day the head of 


Marillac fell. 51 So great was the horror and 
irritation of Queen Marie when she heard of this 
murder, that she is said to have made a solemn 
vow that if ever she returned to France and 
regained her lost power, the head of Richelieu 
should be severed, without form or process, on the 
spot upon which the virtuous and good marshal 
suffered. The ex-Lord Keeper, brother of Maril- 
lac, survived his brother only four months ; he 
died at Chateaudun, crippled from the dampness 
and unhealthiness of his prison, and over- 
whelmed with grief at the ruin of his house. 

Richelieu, meantime, despatched letters and 
missives in every direction, to express his dismay 
at the arrest and flight of Marie de' Medici, to- 
wards whom he positively avers that no harm or 
disgrace was intended, except a temporary exile 
to her dower castle of Moulins. 

In one of these epistles addressed to the Car- 
dinal de la Valette, Richelieu thus expresses his 
regrets : " It is with the most incredible and 
smarting regret that I announce to you the resolve 
which his Majesty found himself obliged to take 
at Compiegne, to request the Queen his mother to 
retire for a time to Moulins. I would wish, at the 
price of my blood and at the forfeiture of my life, 
to have rendered this separation unnecessary, 
although, please God, its duration will be brief. If 
it had pleased Almighty God to have granted my 
prayers my last moment would have preceded 
this alienation, for which I can never be con- 
soled, seeing a Queen whom I have so long revered 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 255 

and served reduced to this condition. But the 
sway of evil and termagant spirits had too long 
dominated over the court. During the war in 
Italy, they did all they could to produce a failure 
of that campaign, since which Monsieur has 
fled from court. The King on many occasions 
entreated the Queen his mother to open her eyes 
upon these woes and to arrest their progress, but 
her Majesty was not pleased to comply ; nor 
would she enter the council chamber, saying that 
she did not wish her name to be used as an 
authority for the indispensable measures there 
resolved. The King, finding her inexorable in 
this resolution, wisely decided that if she declined 
to permit her influence to be used in support of 
his government, her presence in Paris was highly 
adverse to the welfare of his realm as declaring 
herself malcontent and remaining at court gave 
to many personages boldness and freedom to pro- 
claim themselves so likewise." 52 A few days later, 
the Cardinal wrote to the Commander de la Porte, 
uncle of M. de St. Simon, to announce the de- 
parture of Marie from Compiegne. In this letter 
he says: "Believe me, there is nothing in the 
world which we would not have done to persuade 
the Queen to renounce her alliance with Monsieur 
and with the realm of Spain. We offered to con- 
fide to her the government of Anjou, and to con- 
firm her Majesty's sway over other places already 
conferred ; but she steadily refused all honour- 
able terms and requisite precautions which 
we proposed." 53 " The Queen," said Richelieu, 


" treated in the same manner persons who 
brought her an atrocious calumny or a pure 
truth. She kept the secret of all, and received true 
friends and false ones with the same cordiality. 
Every one, therefore, fearlessly palmed upon her 
bad coin mingled with good. I lost my hold on 
the Queen-mother," continues he, " by not putting 
down evil cabals when they first cropped out. To 
save one's self, one must seize the initiative. It is 
better in such circumstances to do much rather 
than little, provided precaution goes only the 
length of exiling from court all personages who, 
being able to perpetrate evil, inspire suspicions by 
imprudent or malignant conduct and censure." 54 
Having thus punished his late opponents, exiled 
the Queen-mother and suspended a threatening 
scourge over the head of his sovereign's wife, 
Richelieu next offered admonition to his royal 
master. Imbued with a thorough persuasion of his 
own administrative capacity and the weakness of 
the King, Richelieu caused the following maxims 
to be laid before Louis by the Capuchin Joseph ; 
in which, article by article, he prescribed the 
manner in which he chose to wield the arbitrary 
power he had usurped : 


A great Prince ought to have a council of state 
to advise with on the affairs of his realm. 


It is necessary for a King to have a prime 
minister ; and this prime minister must have 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 257 

three qualities, to wit, to possess no other 
interest than that of his Prince, to be able and 
faithful, and to be a member of Holy Church. 


A Prince ought to love his prime minister with 

perfect affection. 


A Prince ought never to dismiss or degrade his 
prime minister. 


A Prince ought to confide implicitly in his 
prime minister. 


A Prince ought always to grant free and con- 
stant access to his presence to his prime minister. 


A Prince ought to invest his prime minister with 
sovereign authority over the people of the realm. 


A Prince ought to heap honours and riches on 
his prime minister. 


A Prince ought to regard his prime minister as 
his richest treasure. 


A Prince ought to put no faith in reports and 
accusations against his prime minister ; he ought 
not to take pleasure in such slander, but on the 
contrary rigorously punish him by whom his 
minister is falsely accused. 



A Prince ought to make plenary revelation to 
his prime minister of all slanders and accusations 
hurled against the said minister ; even when the 
King may have solemnly promised secrecy. 


A Prince ought not only to love his realm, but 
his prime minister also ; after them, his kindred 
and relatives. 


A Prince ought to forestall calamity by wise 


A Prince is not to be blamed for using just 
severity in governing his realm. 


A Prince ought carefully to prevent his kingdom 
from being governed by women and favourites. 

The audacity of these fifteen maxims wrung a 
grim smile from Louis XIII. He, however, care- 
fully put the paper by, in the presence of the wily 
Capuchin ; and desired the reverend father to 
assure himself that he had perfect faith in the 
fidelity, ability and resource of M. le Cardinal. 


1 The Queen-mother seems also to have acquiesced in the propriety of 
this dismissal : " La reine-mere vint au conseil ou Ton resolu la liberte 
de M. de Vendome, et 1'eloignement de Madame de Fargis." Journal 
de Richelieu. 

2 " On resolut, aussi, de mander au Marquis do Mirabel que le roy 
desiroit qu'il vescut en France comme les ambassadeurs de F ranee font 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 259 

en Espagne ; et qu'il ne vint plus au Louvre sans audience, et ne pensat 
plus n'y sa femme d'avoir libre entree, laquelle ils avaient usurpee 
jusques a present." Ibid. 

3 Ibid. 

4 " Mecontent de la Reyne Regnante centre M. le Cardinal." Richelieu 
always speaks of himself in the third person. Ibid. 

5 " La petite Lavaux a dit au cardinal que la colere de la reine avoit 
ete jusqu'au point de dire : Je ne luy pardonnerai jamais non jamais ! ' ' 

6 Journal du Cardinal de Richelieu es Orages de la Cour, &c. &c. 

7 Sister of the brothers De Luynes. The Duchess, when Madame de 
Vernet, had been dismissed for her share in the disorders of tho 
court when at Amiens. She had subsequently married the Duke de 

8 " La Reine a encore tenu ce meme langage a M. de Chaulnes (Honore 
de Luynes) le 2 Janvier, 1631, a ce qu'il dit a M. le Cardinal." 

9 One of the four secretaries of state, and often sent by the King to 
expostulate with Queen Anne. 

10 Walter Montague, then a monk of St. Martin de Pontoise, and 
greatly in the confidence of the Queens. 

11 Journal du Cardinal de Richelieu. 

12 Probably to Madame de Chevreuse. 

13 " Ces lettres parlaient de la morb du Roi advenant, de faire e"pouser 
la reine a Monsieur. Elle ecrit au Comte de Cramail qu'elle envoyait 
des memoires a la reine contre le Cardinal. Les lettres tesmoignent 
un veritable amour entre elle et le Comte de Cramail." Journal de 

14 " Le Marquis de Mirabel dit a Bonne vil, quoique pique de la defense 
d'entrer au Louvre, qu'il cut voulu qu'on eut oste" Madame de Fargis il 
y a longtemps." Ibid. 

15 " Elle repondit, qu'elle serait bien me"chante de dire quelque choe 
contre lui ; n'en ayant aucun sujet." Ibid. 

16 " II arriva, comme la reyne se couche a minuit, une grosse et grande 
bougie qui dure jusqu'a neuf ou dix heures du matin, s'eteignit sur les 
quatre heures du matin. La reyne envoya querir le dit Censure pour 
lui demander si cela ne signifioit qu'elle dut perdre ? " " On dit que la 
reine a di verses prophecies, qui lui disent que dans la fin de 1631 elle 
sera aussi heureuse et grande que jamais ! " Ibid. 

17 " Louis declara que le Petit Luxembourg demeureroit a Richelieu, 
II f allut encore que la Reine Marie deVorat encore le chagrin d'apprendre 
qu'on faisoit des changements dans son palais au gre du Cardinal et de 
sa niece, qu'on y batissoit des bains, et qu'on y touchoit meme a la 
maitresse muraille du Grand Palais." Galerie des Personnages Illustres 
de la Cour de France. 

18 Sir Herbert Croft, who, espousing the faith of Rome, became a lay- 
brother of the Benedictines of Douay, 1607. Croft died April 1632 


leaving four sons and three daughters, born in wedlock previous to his 
profession. Croft and Montague were heart and soul devoted to the 
interests of Anne of Austria. 

19 Journal de Richelieu Retraite de Monsieur. 

20 Journal du Cardinal de Richelieu. The duke had an interview with 
the Princess de Conty, which lasted three hours. The same evening 
these illustrious ladies, Mesdames de Conty, de Mouay, and the Duchess 
d'Ornano, conversing together, betrayed their suspicion of the flight of 
Monsieur, which Richelieu states that they could only have learned 
from Queen Anne. " Je gage que Monsieur n'aura pas le cceur de 
publier qu'il est sorty a cause du traitement qu'on fait a la Reyne sa 
mere," said Madame d'Ornano. " Si fera, que je croy," replied Madame 
de Conty. "II le fera," continued the princess ; " j'en suis asseuree ; 
et je vous dis que la Reyne savoit bien sa sortie." This conversation 
Richelieu remembered. 

21 " Que peu s'en etoit fallu qu'elle ne fust evanouie quand Monsieur 
luy avoit mande qu'il s'en alloit de la cour." 

22 Jean Souffran, Jesuit, confessor to Marie de' Medici and to Louis XIII. 
He followed the queen in her exile, and died at Flushing in 1641. 

23 Mem. Recondite. Mem. du Cardinal de Richelieu. Notice des 
Editeurs. MSS., Bibl. Imp., Lettres de Marie de' Medici. F. Colbert. 

24 Galerie des Personnages Illustres de la Cour de France, t. 4. 

25 " Le roy parlant du conseil qu'il prit pour ce regard dit a tout le 
monde, que la necessite de ses affaires ne lui pouvoit permettre d'en 
prendre d'autre." 

28 Mem. du Cardinal de Richelieu. Loti, Teatro Gallico. " La Reine- 
mere," writes Bassompierre, " fut encore sollicitee par le Roy de 
s'accommoder avec le Cardinal. Mais comme elle est tres entiere et 
opiniatre, et que la plaie etait encore r6cente, elle n'y put etre portee." 

27 M6m. de Motteville, t. 1. 

28 Mem. de Motteville. Le Vassor, Hist, de Louis XIII. Journal de 

29 " La Reine prit seulement une robe de chambre, et toute en chemise 
passa chez la Reine sa belle-mere, qu'elle trouva dans son lit assise sur 
son scant. Elle tenoit les genoux embrasses, ne sachant que deviner de 
ce mystere." Motteville, t. 1. 

30 Motteville, t. 1 ; MS. Beth. B. Imp., Fontanieu. 

31 Motteville, t. 1. Victor Cousin, Vie de Madame de Hautefort. 

32 Madame de Senece" was first dame du palais to Queen Anne. 

33 Cousin, Vie de Madame de Hautefort, p. 10. 

a4 Bassompierre states, " Que leslarmes de la Reine-mere ne couloient 

pas, mais se dardoient hors de ses yeux." 

35 MS. Bibl. Imp. Fontanieu, 262, p. 126. Madame de Guercheville 

remained as lady-in-waiting on the Queen. She had also her favourites, 

Oaterina Selvaggio, and M. Fabroni and his wife. 

* MS. Bibl, Imp. Fontanieu, 262, p. 131. MS. Dupuy, Bibl, Imp., 49. 

1631] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 261 

The King sent the secretary of state, Ville-aux-Clercs, to inform his 
mother, " Qu'elle avait liberte de sortir, et de se promener lorsque le 
temps le voudroit permettre." Also, that M. Vaultier, her physician, 
should return to her when she had obeyed the command of the King to 
retire to Moulins. Aubery, Mem. pour servir a 1'Histoire du Card, de 
Richelieu. Lettre de Ville-aux-Clercs. 

37 Journal du Cardinal de Richelieu. " L'ambassadeur tesmoigna au 
Roi, et ensuite a tant d'autre personnes, le deplaisir qu'il avait de ce 
refus, et qu'il etait sur le point d'en faire une plainte publique au 
Nonce, et aux autres ambassadeurs, mais il s'etait retenu par les 
persuasions de son secretaire." 

38 MS. Bibl. Imp. Fontanieu, 262, p. 131. 

39 Marie de' Medici a Louis XIII. ; Bibl. Imp., MS. Font., 262, p. 135. 

40 " Q^e Queen pertinaciously demanded that her physician, Vaultier, 
should return to her. The King promised that he should meet her at 
Moulins. Meantime, however, Marie was informed of his committal to 
the Bastille. The King consented that two of the Queen's women should 
return to the Luxembourg, to pack up her wardrobe and rich effects. 
Also that Calignon, her secretary, might visit, and arrange her 

41 The King seems animated by the most perfect good faith throughout 
his correspondence during Marie's detention at Compiegne. His Majesty 
appeared willing to make any concession, short of permitting the Queen- 
mother to return to Paris. Finding that Marie's objections to Moulin 
were not to be overcome, he offered her the choice of the castle of Angers 
or of any other chateau in that government. He proposed that she 
should occupy the castle of Blois ; he offered to dismiss her guards and 
to provide that everywhere the Queen should be treated as " souveraine 
dame, mere, et reine." Louis wished his mother to quit Compiegne, to 
contradict the reports that he had arrested and confined her to that 
palace. Marie, with her usual obstinacy, protested that nothing should 
induce her to leave Compiegne, except to rejoin his Majesty in Paris. 
" Elle a envoy6 querir des soyes pour travailler a des ouvrages, a present 
que les jours sont grands," wrote d'Estrees to the secretary, Ville-aux- 

42 Information faite par M. de Nesmond, Maitre des Requetes, sur la 
sortie de la Reine-mere de Compiegne. Aubery, Mem. pour servir a 
1'Hist. du Card, de Richelieu, 

43 Ibid. The bishop was tried for high treason ; suspended from his 
episcopal functions ; and was restored only after the decease of the 
Cardinal. Urquefort, L'Ambassadeur et ses Fonctions, livre 1, p. 112, 

44 Ren6 Dubec, premier Marquis de Vardes. The marquis married 
Helene d'O. His son, Ren6 II. du nom, espoused Jacqueline de Benil, 
Countess de Moret ; and their eldest son, the third Marquis de Vardes, 
Count de Moret, was the celebrated cavalier of Louis XIV., captain of 
the Swiss and body guards. 


45 Lettre de Louis XIII. a Marie de' Medici. Bibl. Imp. MS. Font. 264. 

46 Journal do Richelieu. 

47 Le Pere Chanteloube was banished, or rather fled, to Brussels, to 
avoid arrest for an alleged connivance in a plot to carry off Madame de 
Combalet. " Afin de mettre le cardinal a la raison, quand elle auroit 
ce qu'il aimoit tant. Mademoiselle de Rambouillet etait avec elle : elle 
alloit voir Madame de Rambouillet." The plot was real one of Marie 
de' Medici's insane expedients to annoy the Cardinal. 

48 M. de St. Etienne married Marie de Tremblay, sister of Father 
Joseph. The Abbess of the Val de Grace was a sister of M. de St. 
Etienne, and therefore honoured with marks of gracious notice by the 
famous Capuchin. 

49 Journal du Cardinal de Richelieu. Amsterdam, 1664. 

50 Ibid. 

51 Vie du Marechal de Marillac. Bayle Diet. Tallemant des Reaux. 
Bassompierre. Mem. du Sieur de Pontis ; the which contain a full 
detail of the trial and execution of the unfortunate marshal, as de 
Pontis was the officer charged with the guard of Marillac after his arrest. 

52 Aubery, Mem. pour 1'Hist. du Cardinal de Richelieu, t. 5. 

53 Ibid. 

54 Memoire donne au Roy par le Cardinal de Richelieu apres que la 
Reyne-mere 1'eut eloigne de sa maison, touchant les cabales dans la 
cour. Aubery, t. 5, p. 266. "II ne faut pas croire, Sire, qu'on puisse 
avoir des preuves mathematiques des conspirations et des cabales ; elles 
ne se connoissent ainsi que par 1'evenement, lorsqu'elles ne sont plus 
capables de remedes," writes the politic minister. 



AFTER the return of Anne of Austria from Com- 
piegne, her restless spirit subsided. Everywhere 
the policy and the will of Richelieu were domi- 
nant : alliance with him conferred power, and 
opposition to his fiats, disgrace and ignominy. 
The palace swarmed with his spies, and even in 
the retirement of her bedchamber, Anne knew 
that the Cardinal's wary eye tracked her actions 
and analysed her motives. But one fact foiled 
the will of the Cardinal and that was her own 
indomitable hate and enmity. Had the Queen 
joined her interests to those of Richelieu had 
she smiled on the minister and declared her- 
self favourable to his policy and to his power 
the aspect of Anne's daily life would probably 
have been transformed from a lot of obscurity and 
persecution to the most brilliant and powerful 
position ever occupied by a queen-consort of 
France. The proposition had been more than 
once made to her by the Cardinal through Mes- 
dames de Chevreuse and de Fargis. 1 Often, Riche- 
lieu was heard to lament the division subsisting 
between himself and Queen Anne, and to laud 
rapturously her beauty, wit and sagacity ; while 



he pathetically deplored that these rare gifts 
should be employed in plots against the govern- 
ment, in upholding rebel vassals of the crown, 
and above all, in supporting M. d'Orleans in his 
criminal attempts to inflict upon France the curse 
of civil war and foreign invasion. The hidden 
motives of this disloyalty and indifference to the 
interests and glory of her adopted country, the 
Cardinal discerned in the uncertainty of the King's 
life, and in the hope which ever animated the 
childless Queen that on the death of Louis XIII. 
she might a second time ascend the throne as 
the consort of the brother and successor of her 
husband. Actuated by this wicked foresight, 
Anne, Richelieu averred and with much apparent 
truth, sacrificed her conjugal and queenly duty, 
and made no effort to conciliate her husband or 
to efface from his suspicious mind the impression 
cast thereon by the revelations consequent on the 
trial of Chalais. No relations could be colder than 
those subsisting between Louis and his consort 
during the winter and the spring of the years 
1631-2. The King avoided his wife in private ; 
while in public, ceremonious etiquette divided 
them. Anne never set foot within the King's 
apartments ; all her communications with his 
Majesty passed through the hands of Richelieu, 
and were generally imparted to the minister by 
the Spanish ambassador or by Madame de 
Sendee. When Louis visited his palaces of Com- 
piegne, Fontainebleau, Versailles or Vincennes, 
notice was given to her Majesty, who made pre- 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 265 

paration to follow the King, or accepting the 
alternative generally offered, she retired to St. 
Germain and lived there in strict privacy. Anne 
now received a liberal allowance for her privy 
purse : at this period the sum amounted to ten 
thousand pounds yearly, which she disposed of at 
will, and upon which no demand was made for 
expenses connected with her household. 

With the people of Paris Anne was popular ; 
there was a fascination in her smile and manner 
which made the Parisians greet her with en- 
thusiasm ; besides, they half resented her shabby 
equipages, and the absence of pompous appareil, 
and of the attendants, which had formed the 
escort of the queens her predecessors. The Queen 
was never attended by more than three ladies ; 
and the edict, given after the trial of Chalais, 
suspended the functions of the noblemen of her 
household excepting when the royal pair made a 
joint progress. The people, therefore, cheered 
their young Queen on her dreary progresses to the 
convents of Val de Grace and the Carmelites of 
the Rue St. Jacques, despite her well-known 
mutinous defiance of the will of her liege lord 
Louis XIII. and the law of his minister. The 
Queen was, nevertheless, compelled to dissimu- 
late her discontent ; utter isolation might lead to 
her banishment from the capital, could Louis be 
persuaded that her presence had little influence 
on the assembling at the Louvre of the few great 
personages in the good graces of the Cardinal, 
who composed the court. She had, therefore, 


summoned Mirabel to the Val de Grace who 
obeyed her behests at the risk of being arrested, 
conducted to the frontier and dismissed the realm 
to request him to wait upon Richelieu and hint, 
in the name of his Catholic Majesty, that "the 
latter regretted his Eminence did not frequent the 
lever or the saloon of Queen Anne his sister, as 
such intimacy could not fail to be productive of 
happy results and might give M. le Cardinal 
opportunity for friendly counsel." 2 Richelieu 
thanked the ambassador for his obliging dis- 
course, but gave no intimation as to whether he 
purposed to act in accord thereto. Probably the 
Cardinal preferred to trust to the good offices of 
Madame de Chevreuse to bring about a better 
understanding between the Queen and himself, 
rather than to venture alone into her Majesty's 
presence. The approaching return of Marie de 
Rohan to court excited in the bosom of the power- 
ful minister hopes which were never realised. 
He professed profound admiration for the clever 
and witty Duchess ; he wished for her friendly 
alliance, and if the scandalous chronicles of this 
reign are to be believed, he desired of her some- 
thing more in addition. Marie, wearied of her 
enforced sojourn at Dampierre, and anxious to 
share the power of her friend Chateauneuf, be- 
fooled the Cardinal by professions of admiration, 
and by promises of converting Anne of Austria 
from his foe to a devoted ally/ The adoration 
which King Louis began to lavish on Mademoi- 
selle de Hautefort, any comment upon which his 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 267 

Majesty fiercely resented, began to inflict un- 
easiness on the minister. Anne had already 
thrown the glamour of her fascinations over her 
young dame d'atours, and showed no jealousy of 
her influence with the King ; while Marie de 
Hautefort bravely informed Richelieu, " that she 
loved and revered her royal mistress, and could 
not blame her Majesty if, when surrounded by 
neglect and persecutions, she had recourse to the 
sympathy and aid of her brother King Philip." 
One of the most remarkable faculties possessed by 
the Queen was the power of commanding the 
affectionate attachment of her principal ladies; 
those who most disapproved of her intrigues when 
they entered her service, never afterwards be- 
trayed her to the minister. The gentle manners 
of the Queen, her apparent helplessness, her affec- 
tionate condescension, the interest she showed 
in the personal affairs of her friends and the 
tearful softness of her blue eyes, were powerful 
weapons against the ascendency of the Cardinal 
within the precincts of the palace. 

Meantime, the sombre and imperious admira- 
tion of Louis XIII. filled the mind of Marie de 
Hautefort with foreboding. Amongst the beauti- 
ful women of the era of Louis XIII., Marie de 
Hautefort stands prominent, as one of the most 
noble, heroic, and virtuous. Firm in her prin- 
ciples and devoted in her friendship and duty to 
the Queen her mistress, Marie seems to have con- 
fided to Anne her misgivings* Endowed with a 
heart worthy of a queen or of a heroine, Marie at 


first beheld with complacency the homage of her 
King, and accepted with elation the assiduities 
of Richelieu. For her sake and to obtain the 
coveted interview, Louis daily repaired twice and 
thrice to the apartments of the Queen, where 
Mademoiselle de Hautefort was often summoned 
from a conference with her Majesty to become the 
recipient of the sighs and plaints of the King. 
Anne comforted and reassured her friend ; the 
King professed sentiments purely Platonic ; he 
wanted, he said, the solace of friendship and con- 
fidential intercourse ; he liked to cavil at his 
minister ; above all he desired faithful, exclusive 
attachment. Marie, inspired with genuine com- 
passion for the dreariness of a life of emotions 
so repressed, accepted, with the secret sanction 
of the Queen, the office of comforter. Anne gloried 
in the hope that in this liaison she descried the 
future germ of her enemy's downfall. The King's 
bashful shyness in his intercourse with Marie 
allayed the most prudish suspicion. It is related 
that one day Louis abruptly entered the Queen's 
closet, when Anne was sitting tete-a-tete with her 
dame d'atours, who with heightened colour was 
reading to her Majesty a note, which on the 
entrance of the King she hastily folded. A dark 
shadow gloomed over the King's brow, and he 
peremptorily demanded to see the letter so hastily 
hidden. Treason to his realm might afford a 
daily pastime to Anne of Austria, while treason 
against his attachment might give delight to 
Marie de Hautefort for Louis had been informed 



by his minister of the admiration professed by the 
Due de Liancour and the young Prince de Mar- 
sillac 3 for the lovely young dame d'afamrs. By 
some historians, the letter is said to have been 
written by Richelieu, and that it contained offers 
of a reciprocal friendly alliance ; others state 
that the epistle congratulated Mademoiselle de 
Hautefort on her favour, and ended by a demand 
for protection from some cringing courtier. True 
to herself, however, Marie refused to gratify the 
curiosity of the King, and to end the debate she 
hid the note in her bosom. 4 Anne, meantime, 
looked on with mocking derision, especially when 
she beheld the confusion of the King and his 
hesitation to draw the note from its hiding-place. 
Her Majesty, however, presently seized the hands 
of Mademoiselle de Hautefort and laughingly 
exhorted the King " to take the note whilst she 
thus held its owner captive." Louis blushed, 
stammered, advanced and retreated ; and at 
length, taking up from the hearth a small pair of 
silver tongs, he tried to possess himself of the 
note which was visible beneath the transparent 
lace which covered Marie's bosom. The peals of 
laughter which this extraordinary device drew 
from the Queen, and the blushing confusion and 
deprecatory looks of Marie, fairly drove Louis 
from the apartment. 5 The ladies then hastened 
to destroy the letter, just in time to forestal a 
formal summons for its surrender by the under- 
secretary of state, Machault. " Mademoiselle de 
Hautefort is of tall stature and fine figure, her 


eyes are blue, large, open and full of vivacity ; 
her nose is aquiline, her mouth small and rosy, 
while her smile displays teeth, white and even as 
pearls. Two little dimples gave a grace to the 
lovely mouth and cheeks. The colour of her hair 
is blond cendre, of which she has an abundance, 
falling in ringlets around a beautiful and stately 
throat. In her aspect there is altogether so much 
dignity, gentleness, and grace, that it excites 
sentiments of tenderness, awe, and esteem." Such 
is the description given of the charms of the young 
dame d'atours by a contemporary. 6 The heavy 
assiduities of Louis were often felt as insupport- 
able restraints by one so gifted and charming, 
who beheld all the cavaliers of the court van- 
quished by her fascinations, but nevertheless 
withheld from offering personal homage, daunted 
by their dread of exciting the resentment of the 
sovereign. Madame de la Flotte, however, did 
not fail to remind her grand-daughter that the 
homage of Louis XIII. had enabled her adorers to 
discern many a captivating grace hitherto undis- 
covered, when Marie was the humble fille d'honneur 
of the exiled Queen-mother. When the Louvre rang 
with the praises of Mademoiselle de Hautefort 7 
and the courtiers celebrated the charms of 

Hautefort la merveille ! 


Tous les sens de Louis, 
Quand sa bouche vermeille 
Lui fait voir un souris ! 

the Cardinal deemed it time to provide an anti- 
dote, which he summoned in the form of the 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 271 

Duchess de Chevreuse, and in the promotion to 
a more distinguished position in the royal house- 
hold of another fair young maid of honour, Louise 
Angelique Motier de la Fayette. Richelieu felt 
that if the Duchess was on his side, he had nothing 
to fear from the probable combination of the 
Queen and La Hautefort. He relied on the 
sagacity of Marie de Rohan 8 to resume her old 
ascendency over the heart of Anne of Austria, 
and to drive into obscurity the presumptive girl 
who had dared to aspire to royal favour and to 
the confidence of the Queen. After five years of 
exile Madame de Chevreuse, therefore, re-appeared 
permanently, as she hoped, on the scene of her 
ancient triumphs, much to the dismay of her 
husband, who during her enforced residence at 
Dampierre, had been revelling in luxurious ease, 
troubling himself seldom with the wishes or the 
fate of his consort. Madame de Chevreuse, as the 
widow and sole heiress of the late Constable de 
Luynes, had brought her second husband immense 
wealth in jewels, lands and rich effects. The Due 
de Chevreuse was recklessly extravagant : being 
in want of a coach, he was once known to com- 
mand fifteen to be built that he might select the 
most comfortable. His donations to dissolute com- 
panions were immense. The Duke, nevertheless, 
knew how to uphold his dignity as became a scion 
of Lorraine-Guise and greatly disapproved of his 
wife's proceedings. The return of the Duchess, 
therefore, was an event which he deprecated, the 
more especially, as, under the cloak of her new 


favour with Richelieu and the Lord-Keeper 
Chateauneuf, Madame de Chevreuse commenced 
a suit against her husband for profligate expendi- 
ture during her absence, and demanded a separa- 
tion de corps et de biens which she easily obtained. 
Monsieur de Chevreuse, therefore, retired from the 
Hotel Luynes, while the Duchess complacently 
established herself alone in that splendid mansion 
and prepared for the career before her. Anne 
received her old friend with open arms ; and 
this cordiality ought to have aroused Richelieu 
to examine the sincerity of the professions of the 
Duchess. Madame de Chevreuse became a daily 
visitor at the Louvre, though Louis refused to 
reinstate her in her old apartments within the 
palace and evidently regarded her presence as an 
unwelcome intrusion. The court, nevertheless, 
during the next few months, was joyous and 
gallant. Richelieu and his master required the 
splendour and excitement of a few brilliant festi- 
vals to neutralize, in degree, the gloom everywhere 
prevalent, and to divert public attention from 
politics and from the discontent manifested in the 
provinces at the exile of the Queen-mother and 
of the heir -presumptive. " The court was very 
agreeable at this period," recounts Mademoiselle : 9 
" the attachment of the King to Madame de 
Hautefort contributed greatly to our pleasure, as 
his Majesty tried to find her daily diversion. 
Hunting was the greatest of the King's recrea- 
tions ; and we often accompanied his Majesty. 
Mesdames de Hautefort and St. Louis, d'Escars 

1687] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 273 

and de Beaumont attended me. We were attired 
in our respective colours, and rode palfreys richly 
accoutred. To shade our complexion from the 
sun, we all wore hats ornamented with a great 
quantity of drooping plumes. The hunt always 
was made to take the direction of some great 
house, where we found a sumptuous collation 
prepared. When we returned the King usually 
entered my coach, sitting between me and Ma- 
dame de Hautefort. When his Majesty was in 
good humour, he conversed very agreeably. At 
this period he permitted us to speak of the Car- 
dinal de Richelieu ; and as a sign that he was not 
displeased at our comments, he joined in our con- 
versation. As soon as we returned to the Louvre 
we repaired to the saloon of the Queen, where I 
took pleasure in waiting upon her Majesty whilst 
she supped, her maidens handing the dishes. 
Three times a week we had the diversion of music, 
and the King's musicians attended. The airs 
played and sung were generally composed by the 
King : he also wrote the words of the songs, 
which had always Madame de Hautefort for their 
theme. The humour of the King at this period 
was so gallant, that at the country collations 
which he gave us, he sometimes declined to take 
his place at table but waited upon the ladies, 
though we were aware that this civility had but 
one object. He took his repast after we had 
finished, but pretended not to pay more attention 
to Madame de Hautefort than to any one of us, so 
anxious was his Majesty to conceal his gallant 


devoirs. Nevertheless, if any dispute happened 
between them, all our diversions were immediately 
suspended ; and if the King came during this 
interval into the Queen's saloon, he spoke to no 
one, neither did any person dare to address his 
Majesty. He retired into a corner and there sat, 
yawned and slept. The King's melancholy aspect 
chilled everybody, and during this interval 
between the quarrel and reconciliation, he con- 
soled himself by putting down on paper all that 
he had said to Madame de Hautefort with her 
replies, and so true is this fact, that after his 
Majesty's death copious minutes were found 
amongst his private papers detailing at length all 
the quarrels he had had with his mistresses, to 
the eternal praise of whom, be it avowed, as also 
to his Majesty's honour, he never loved any but 
the most virtuous and discreet of women." Louis 
had the greatest horror of profligate liaisons : and 
though alienated from the Queen, he was rigidly 
faithful to her. " Mademoiselle de Hautefort told 
me," writes Madame de Motteville, " that the de- 
corum of the King was such that he seldom talked 
to her on any subjects but about his dogs, his 
birds and hunting. I have seen her, with all her 
wisdom and virtue, relate with derision the fright 
the King was in when with her alone, and that 
at such periods he scarcely dared approach near 
enough to discourse with her." On occasions, 
however, when the King and Mademoiselle de 
Hautefort were alone, Marie spoke earnestly 
respecting the Queen and besought the King to 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 275 

become reconciled to her, and the subject of their 
frequent disputes, to which Mademoiselle alludes, 
was the zeal which Marie displayed for the cause 
of her royal mistress. Louis confided his sus- 
picions and stated his conviction that Anne was 
the accomplice of Chalais, and that he owed his 
life and crown to the vigilance of Richelieu. " The 
Queen hates me she intrigues against my realm 
she is Spanish at heart she is perpetually 
plotting against my happiness." This conviction 
nothing could ever shake. " Madame," continued 
Louis, " mark my words you love and support 
an ungrateful woman. Wait, and see how one 
day she will repay your services ! " Marie de 
Hautefort, like many others, believed fervently in 
the Queen with her sweet smiles and gentle 
seductions. Anne was mistress of the arts of per- 
suasion, and the disgraces which followed her per- 
sistent petty treasons seemed the more to endear 
her to her adherents. Perhaps her power lay 
in the unpopularity of the King. The penalties, 
moreover, with which her deviations were visited, 
lay open to the comment and pity of the court, 
while the cause of this severity was often con- 
cealed by the express command of Louis, who 
shrank from the publication of his domestic 
miseries. Anne persuaded her friends that her 
clandestine correspondences with Spain were inno- 
cent, and that her stolen conferences with the 
Spanish ambassador and with Gerbier, Montagu 
and Croft, Catholic agents of Queen Henrietta of 
England, were legitimate. She was persecuted : 


her Majesty, therefore, appealed to the sympathy 
of her brother King Philip and to that of Marie 
de' Medici and of Monsieur, and disregarded the 
tyrannical orders of the minister to be silent and 
submit. The word of Anne of Austria, as Riche- 
lieu often observed, could not be depended upon. 
Her Majesty, it was true, rarely perjured herself, 
but her modes of evasion and equivocation were 
so diverse and ingenious that she seldom avowed 
what she wished to conceal, even under the most 
rigid examination ; or promised exactly that which 
she knew she had no intention to fulfil. If Anne 
could have accepted her lot and her uncongenial 
consort with resignation, her court might have 
been brilliant and joyous, despite the absence of 
the great personages disgraced by the policy of the 
minister. Beautiful women, such as the Duchesses 
de Montbazon, 10 de Chevreuse, and the Princess 
de Guemene, 11 adorned the court circle ; the wit 
of the Marquise de Sable, and of the Prince de 
Marsillac, of Madame de Rambouillet and of the 
Princesses Marie and Anne de Gonzague-Nevers, 
gave verve and animation ; the rich heiress of the 
elder branch of Rohan, the grand-daughter of 
Sully, was a prize sufficient to excite a piquant 
emulation amongst the younger courtiers ; while 
the charms of Anne's maidens, Hautefort and 
Lafayette and de Chemerault, and the grace and 
repartee of Mademoiselle de Vendome, all might 
have contributed to the renown of the court. 
Moreover, there stood in close proximity to the 
throne Marguerite de Montmorency, Princess de 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 277 

Conde, in the bright zenith of her charms, and 
still encircled by the halo of the mad passion of 
Henri le Grand. Besides her, was her daughter 
Anne Genevieve de Bourbon, lovely like her 
mother, of strong intellect, apt at political in- 
trigue, in the which she had been nurtured, but 
shrinking at this very period from sharing the 
grand ancestral home, name and mature years of 
the Due de Longueville. By Madame de Conde 
was her son after M. d'Orleans, heir of the crown 
afterwards known as the great Conde, whose 
powerful arm first shook and then established the 
throne of the future Louis Quatorze. The eagle 
eye of Richelieu had marked this noble heir of the 
Condes, and with unfaltering faith in his own 
fortunes and ability, he had resolved on the first 
fortunate contingency some opportunity when 
the dark jealousy of Louis Treize had been roused 
against the princes of his blood to unite the 
young Due d'Enghien with his niece, Claire 
Clemence de Maille-Breze. Mademoiselle de Breze 
was one of the playfellows of Mademoiselle in her 
nursery at the Tuileries : she was excessively 
petite in stature, and wore high-heeled shoes, 
which entailed upon her many a fall while dancing 
the leste courante with the merry princess, who 
seems to have amused herself heartily with the 
terrors of the timid child. One day Mademoiselle 
ordered a ballet to be performed in honour of the 
return of her father, Monsieur, to Paris, in which 
she and her maidens performed. During a scene 
of the ballet, a number of caged birds were 


liberated, and a linnet, after flying about the 
apartment, nestled into one of the deep plaits of the 
ruff worn by Mademoiselle de Brze, who screamed 
with fright and fainted as the bird fluttered about 
her neck. It was to propitiate Madame de Conde 
that Richelieu caused that wondrous doll's house 
to be constructed, the first that had ever been 
seen in France, at a cost of 2000 crowns and 
presented it to Mademoiselle de Bourbon. 12 The 
trusty friend and equerry of Anne of Austria, de 
Rochechouart, Chevalier de Jars, had also re- 
ceived a pardon and a recall from his banishment 
in England, where he had remained ever since the 
memorable embassy of the Duke of Buckingham 
to Paris, having been convicted of carrying to 
London certain missives addressed to the am- 
bassador by his royal mistress. The Christmas of 
1631 passed away in this negative state of tran- 
quillity, when, with the public declaration of the 
marriage of Monsieur with Marguerite, 13 sister of 
the Duke of Lorraine, occurred the rising in Lan- 
guedoc on behalf of Monsieur and of his mother 
the exiled Queen, and the news that Spain was 
preparing to invade France at the summons of the 
heir-presumptive. The gallant Due de Mont- 
morency, seduced by the promises and entreaties 
of Monsieur, and misled by his statements of the 
forces he could muster in support of his revolt, 
promised to receive the Duke in Languedoc, and 
to place the fortresses and towns therein in the 
possession of the rebel forces. The Duke pledged 
himself to Montmorency to enter France at the 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 279 

head of 2000 men levies which he purposed to 
raise in the Netherlands with funds placed at his 
disposal by the Queen his mother who had dis- 
posed of her jewels for this purpose, and by the 
aid of the treasury of Spain. Moreover, the Duke 
of Lorraine had engaged to join their army with 
a reinforcement of 1500 men, while a powerful 
body of Spanish troops was to appear on the 
frontiers of Savoy, to aid in the overthrow of the 
usurping minister, and thus to achieve the salva- 
tion of France, the reunion of the royal family 
and the liberation of the King. Unhappily 
some private sources of discontent rendered 
Montmorency an easy dupe to the sophistry of 
Monsieur. 14 He allied himself with the Duke, 
promised to take up arms in his cause, and to 
open to him a high road through his government 
of Languedoc. Having agreed to the convention, 
Montmorency effectually closed against himself 
the avenues of mercy in the breast of the sus- 
picious Louis, by sending the Count de Grammont 
to assure the King of his fidelity, and that the 
rumours current of his alliance with Monsieur 
were unfounded. Three days afterwards, Monsieur 
made his appearance at Lodeve, at the head of an 
undisciplined band, half Walloon, half Spanish, 
officered by a few French adventurers and mal- 
contents, ready to throw for the same lot as 
Monsieur. With such an army of adventurers, the 
Duke hesitated not to endanger the lives of cava- 
liers like Montmorency, Elboeuf, Moret, and M. de 
la Valette, the husband of his half-sister, Gabrielle 


de Bourbon; and to make the risk still more 
fatal, he entered France three days before the 
period agreed upon and while Montmorency was 
at Lunel. All true patriots throughout the realm, 
much as they deprecated Richelieu's harsh treat- 
ment of the mother, brother and wife of his 
sovereign, rose to repulse the invaders. Marshal 
Schomberg was despatched with an army to bar 
Monsieur's advance on Orleans and to offer battle 
to the rebels, while the Marshal de la Force 
entered Languedoc by the Pont St. Esprit, at 
the head of a second division. The marriage 
of Monsieur with Marguerite de Lorraine was 
solemnly declared null and void, by a mandate of 
the privy council and by edict of the Parliament, 
while Louis himself, accompanied by Queen Anne, 
departed for the scene of conflict. 

Before the arrival of his Majesty, the fight of 
Castelnaudari had put down the rebellion, by the 
capture of Montmorency on the battle-field and 
by the total rout of the rebels by the troops under 
Schomberg. Monsieur fled from the field without 
making effort to retrieve the fortune of the day or 
to save the lives of the brave men deluded to their 
ruin by his representations. The Duke sought 
refuge in Beziers, himself secure from the punish- 
ment due to his rebellion, by his position as heir- 
presumptive. A great example of royal justice, 
nevertheless, was needed; and it was decreed 
that the brave and chivalrous Montmorency should 
suffer the death of a traitor on the scaffold as a 
wholesome warning to the Due de Bouillon, to 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 281 

Soissons and other seditious subjects at large. 
Monsieur, therefore, was informed that pardon for 
his late enterprise might be obtained, on condition 
that he abandoned Montmorency and other noble 
captives taken at Castelnaudari to the penalty 
they had incurred, and promised for the future 
"to love and to support the Cardinal-minister." 
All this Gaston promised with alacrity ; his craven 
spirit cowered beneath the threats of Louis and 
his minister who were now on their way to 
Toulouse, followed by the Princesse de Conde who 
journeyed thither to intercede for her gallant 
brother. On the 27th of October, Montmorency 
was brought under escort by the Marshal de 
Breze to Toulouse ; and a commission was con- 
stituted, headed by the Lord-Keeper Chateauneuf , 
to try him for treason. On the morrow the Duke 
appeared before his judges. On the 30th of Octo- 
ber, 1632, sentence was pronounced, and during 
the afternoon of the same day Montmorency ex- 
piated his crime on the scaffold. Incredible exer- 
tions had been made to save his life. Monsieur 
sent special messengers three times to implore his 
pardon. Madame de Conde knelt at the feet of the 
Cardinal imploring his mercy, having been refused 
admittance to his Majesty's presence. The Dukes 
d'Epernon and de Chevreuse, the Cardinal de la 
Valette 15 and the Papal Nuncio Spada, implored 
that the doom of death might be averted. Louis 
gloomily replied to all supplications : " The fate 
of M. de Montmorency remains with the Parlia- 
ment of Toulouse, his judge ! " In former years, 


the Duke had subscribed himself the devoted 
admirer and servant of Anne of Austria ; and 
now, in Montmorency's great extremity, the Due 
d'Epernon requested audience of her Majesty to 
implore her intercession. Anne turned very pale ; 
she hesitated, but at length promised to speak to 
M. le Cardinal. Around the arm of the Duke, when 
the sleeve of his habit was cut on the field of battle 
to enable the surgeons to dress his wounds, a 
bracelet was found containing the portrait of the 
Queen. The Marshal de Breze, the officer to whom 
Montmorency surrendered, took the bracelet, 
which he sent to his kinsman, Richelieu. " The 
King," says Anquetil, " who was before disposed 
to show mercy to the Duke, became inflexibly 
resolved on his death, when he was informed by 
his minister that a portrait had been taken from 
the person of the Duke, the original of which 
respect forbade him to name ; but a portrait, 
nevertheless, which deeply interested the King." 16 
Whether Anne was aware of this circumstance 
cannot be ascertained ; she, nevertheless, ven- 
tured to appeal to Richelieu, who in his conduct 
to the Queen mingled a certain gallantry even in 
his fiercest repulses, and when she condescended 
to petition, it had often prevailed. Perhaps the 
thought of the brave hearts and noble reputations 
wrecked by her levity may have inspired Anne 
with courage on this occasion. The Duke de Belle- 
garde owed the disfavour which had terminated 
in exile to her smiles ; Buckingham had perished 
by the hand of an assassin when arming in her 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 283 

behalf and as some believed, by her secret com- 
mand, for the invasion of her adopted country ; 
Montmorency was about to perish on a scaffold ; 
the Due d'Orleans, betrayed in the first instance 
by her beauty and alleged regard into treasonable 
conspiracy against the state, remained a perpetual 
dishonour to the crown to which his birth rendered 
him heir-presumptive, and lived an alien from 
France. Upon Mesdames de Vernet, de Chevreuse, 
de Fargis, ruin had fallen for their faithful devo- 
tion to Anne of Austria ; while exile, death and 
imprisonment had been, besides, the fate of numer- 
ous less known agents in her intrigues. Anne, 
therefore, took courage, and resolved to make an 
attempt to save the life of Montmorency. More- 
over, the Queen often asserted that she possessed 
power over the inclinations of the Cardinal- 
minister, and that her supplications, when she 
condescended to make such, would prevail over 
the most important state interests. This assertion, 
which was frequently made by Anne, is not devoid 
of probability. Richelieu's anger at her underhand 
proceedings seems ever prompted by secret depit ; 
while the vexatious persecutions by the which he 
avenged himself, appeared rather to bespeak mor- 
tification and an irritable impatience at not being 
able to command submission and confidence. 
Richelieu listened to Anne's pleadings for the life 
of Montmorency in silence and tears. " Je plains 
M. de Montmorency ; mais il ne pent eviter la mort, 
ou une prison perpetuelle" said he. Her Majesty 
then asked the Cardinal whether intercession with 


the King would avail, as she was resolved to 
petition le Roi Monseigneur. " Madame," replied 
Richelieu significantly, " it is quite possible that 
your prayers will make a great impression on the 
mind of the King your consort, they might even 
induce him to grant your petition ; nevertheless, 
Madame, I should recommend your silence, for the 
violence which his Majesty might lay on his own 
wishes and resolves, would be likely to bring about 
a return of the serious illness under which the King 
laboured at Lyons. You understand, Madame ! " 17 
Anne comprehended that she had received a tacit 
interdiction, and that if she scorned his prohibi- 
tion the Cardinal intended to warn the King that 
her entreaties to him to revoke his resolves had 
been taken in defiance of the apprehensions ex- 
pressed by Richelieu concerning the royal health 
the inference thereby to be deduced being 
that Anne cared more for the rescue of Mont- 
morency than for the health of her consort. Louis 
suffered many relentings and much mental 
emotion, before he suffered the strong hand of 
Richelieu to guide his own for the signature of the 
Duke's death-warrant. Strict justice, doubtless, 
clamoured for the head of Montmorency ; but 
Monsieur ought not to have escaped retribution 
for invading France at the head of a foreign force 
levied by funds provided by Queen Marie and 
increased by contributions from the Spanish 
exchequer. 18 If Monsieur had possessed military 
talent, or even common sagacity and punctuality, a 
frightful civil war might have ravaged the kingdom. 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 285 

This formidable invasion had been neutralised 
only by the childish impatience of Monsieur 
who arrived at Lodeve three days earlier than the 
time fixed for the outbreak of hostilities. " As a 
private individual," said the King, " I would fain 
save M. de Montmorency, but I should not act 
as a king if I suffered my people to be invaded and 
myself to be defied by rebels. I may not exercise 
compassion ; my duty is stern but it is in- 
exorable." 19 

The death of the Marshal de Montmorency was 
first resolved in a private council, at which were 
present only the King, the Cardinal, his shadow 
the Capuchin Joseph, and Chateauneuf, lord- 
keeper. The crime of Montmorency was the more 
unpardonable, inasmuch as M. d'Orleans had been 
received in Languedoc with, and by the tacit con- 
sent of, the States of the province, on the demand 
of the Marshal an aggravation of his treason 
which merited direst expiation. The matter was 
afterwards laid before the privy council. Richelieu 
opened the debate by demanding that Justice 
should be permitted to take her course, that a 
commission should be empannelled to try M. de 
Montmorency, and that the sentence of the judges 
should be confirmed. No person present dared to 
plead in defiance of the opinion of the Cardinal. 20 
The blood of Montmorency haunted, ever after- 
wards, the unfortunate King. Madame la Prin- 
cesse left no pause of forgetfulness to any person- 
age who had promoted the catastrophe of her 
brother's overthrow. Her enmity to the Duke of 


Orleans, who so dishonourably abandoned Morit- 
morency to his fate, never relaxed. The Lord 
Keeper Chateauneuf, the presiding judge at the 
trial of the Marshal, ere long felt the effect of the 
vengeance of the Conde family, which refused to 
be propitiated by the gift of a great part of the 
confiscated possessions of Montmorency, including 
Chantilly, Ecouen, Marlou and other magnificent 
domains. 21 The mental and personal gifts of the 
Due de Montmorency, so highly lauded by most 
contemporary historians, are more soberly dis- 
cussed by Tallemant des Reaux, the Brantome of 
the seventeenth century. " The last Due de Mont- 
morency," writes Tallemant, 22 " became master 
of his revenues at the age of nineteen. Although 
his eyes squinted somewhat, the Duke was a 
handsome man. He was an adept in the use and 
practice of the most refined and agreeable gestures, 
and spoke rather by his arms than with his tongue. 
He sometimes commenced a compliment and was 
obliged to stop half way, so that often it was as 
much as one could do not to laugh. He did not 
talk nonsense, but he had little wit and no readi- 
ness of diction. He was brave, rich, gallant, 
liberal, a good dancer, a graceful rider, a hospitable 
host to men of wit and learning, many of whom he 
engaged in his service and who furnished him with 
verses and sentiments. He gave away to the poor, 
he was beloved by all the world and adored by his 
own people. He was very generous. One day the 
Duke overheard a gentleman exclaim, ' If I could 
find any person who would lend me 20,000 crowns 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 287 

for two years, my fortune would be made ! ' 
Montmorency lent the sum. At the expiration of 
the two years, the gentleman honourably offered 
the money. ' Go, monsieur,' said the Duke ; ' by 
keeping your word you have sufficiently repaid 
me. I present to you this sum with all my heart.' 
During his passion for Madame de Sable, the Duke 
one day sent her deeds, making donation of an 
estate worth 40,000 livres annually, which how- 
ever the Marquise declined to accept. Mont- 
morency fell desperately in love with Queen Anne 
of Austria, but Buckingham and his English 
lords counteracted that passion." 

The executions over, consequent on the defeat 
of Castelnaudari, and the awards announced, 
Louis departed for Versailles, sick and dismal in 
mind and body and anxious to revert to confiden- 
tial discussions with Mademoiselle de Hautefort. 
Monsieur was permitted to repair to Orleans, 
gratified by the assurances given him by the 
Capuchin Joseph, " that his Majesty pardoned his 
treason, but could on no account acknowledge 
the legality of his marriage with Marguerite de 
Lorraine." The Duke's penitence was always very 
evanescent and his fears of Richelieu acute ; he 
therefore speedily again took occasion to retire 
to Brussels, on the plea that after the execution 
of the Due de Montmorency his honour forbade 
him to remain a placid spectator of the " perfidi- 
ous perfidies " of M. le Cardinal de Richelieu, 
which tended to the ruin of the kingdom and of 
the royal dynasty. Louis, on his departure from 


Toulouse, left Queen Anne in the safe custody of 
his minister, who conducted her, attended by the 
Duchess de Chevreuse and the Marquise de Senece, 
to Bordeaux. Much against her will, the Queen 
had been compelled to accompany her consort 
to the scene of warfare in the West, but the risk 
had been considered too great to suffer Anne to 
remain alone in the capital while the kingdom 
was menaced by a Spanish invasion both in 
Languedoc and Picardy. The ambassador Mirabel, 
it was true, was withdrawn from Paris, in con- 
sequence of the close alliance now subsisting 
between France, the Protestant princes of Ger- 
many, and Sweden, to cripple the imperial power 
of Ferdinand II. and to promote the downfall of 
Spanish predominance in the councils of Europe. 
Anne, nevertheless, was strongly suspected of 
making communications to her brother through 
one Gerbier, an attache of the English embassy. 
Moreover, it had been ascertained that she had 
sent for Senor Navas, Spanish charge d'affaires, 
then resident in Paris, who was introduced at dusk 
hour into an apartment of the Salles des Bains at 
the Louvre. The Queen addressed Navas as she 
passed out attended by Madame de Chevreuse on 
her way to the grands appartements and said only, 
though significantly, the words : " Take care of 
yourselves ; I know that there is a traitor amongst 
you who betrays to M. le Cardinal all that passes." 
This intimation was given just before the rising in 
the South and excited much suspicion. Richelieu 
from that moment watched Madame de Chev- 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 289 

reuse, Chateauneuf and others who under colour 
of devotion to his interests might be carrying on 
a double game. Chateauneuf was always present 
when the minister communicated to Louis the 
cancans, as well as the more important facts 
gleaned by his secret police. Anne, therefore, 
in consequence of these reports, had not been 
suffered to seek her accustomed refuge at St. 
Germain during the King's progress to the South. 
In answer to some inquiries made by Richelieu 
Madame de Chevreuse, nevertheless, had boldly 
replied that, " having asked her Majesty whether 
she might assure the King that her correspondence 
and conduct were such as his Majesty approved, 
Queen Anne had frankly replied in the affirmative. 
The Duchess, therefore, informs M. le Cardinal 
that she believes the Queen has no relations with 
Spain, with Monsieur, with the Queen-mother or 
with any person." 23 

After his return to Paris, Richelieu set himself 
to elucidate the mystery which tormented him, 
and by the aid of his trained spies to investigate 
more closely the life of Madame de Chevreuse. 
During the sojourn of Anne and her court at 
Bordeaux, the Cardinal had been severely indis- 
posed from the fatigue and agitation of the late 
trials so much so that for some hours his case 
was thought desperate. The Queen, however, had 
not thought proper to suspend her evening recep- 
tion, and the Cardinal was informed that the 
beautiful Duchess and her friend Chateauneuf had 
danced together merrily, and had even been 


overheard to make sundry uncomplimentary allu- 
sions to the sick minister. Such levity seemed ill to 
accord with the expressions of devotion proffered 
by Madame de Chevreuse, or with the gratitude 
so fluently professed by M. de Chateauneuf for his 
elevation to the high office of Lord-Keeper of the 
Great Seal of France. The King retired to St. 
Germain after giving his minister a splendid 
welcome back to Paris, where he brooded over 
his regrets for the death of Montmorency, and 
nursed his returning indignation against the 
Queen, upon whom he mentally resented every 
fresh aggression on France made by her Spanish 
kindred. The Queen, again established amid the 
solitudes of the Louvre, summoned her little knot 
of intimates. These personages were Mesdames de 
Chevreuse, de Senece, 24 de Montbazon, de Haute- 
fort, de la Fayette, Madame de la Flotte, the 
Princess de Conde, the Lord-Keeper Chateauneuf, 
the Chevalier de Jars, the Count de Biron, 
Montagu and many personages of inferior rank 
who in former reigns would not have been ad- 
mitted to les petites entrees of the Queen of France. 
A precious document, 25 found by M. Victor Cousin 
in the archives of the French Foreign Office that 
rich mine of historical wealth now unfortunately 
closed to the public recounts the surgings of the 
great Cardinal's wrath against his suspected foe, 
Chateauneuf, as daily he added one fact to 
another, until, exasperated by such ingratitude, 
Richelieu ordered his arrest, February 1633, and 
the seizure of the papers and effects of the un- 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 291 

happy Lord-Keeper. The true cause of this arrest 
was occasioned by the mad jealousy of Richelieu, 
who found that he had been deceived and flouted 
by the beautiful woman whose professions of love 
and fidelity had disarmed his suspicion. Madame 
de Chevreuse had all along been the ally, and it 
must be added the mistress, of Chateauneuf, over 
whom she exercised such sway that the political 
secrets of the Cardinal, of necessity confided to the 
Lord- Keeper, had been betrayed to the Duchess 
and by her confided to Anne of Austria. Far, 
therefore, from having performed the conditions 
of her recall from exile, the Duchess had fomented 
and had been the soul of every hostile intrigue 
" indeed the world seemed too small to hold this 
intriguing and turbulent pair." " Chateauneuf," 
writes the Cardinal in his Memoir, " mingled in all 
the cabals of the court ; particularly he took part 
with our factious ladies, the principal of whom 
was the Duchess of Chevreuse, whose conduct and 
evil spirit had often displeased the King, as she 
never failed to join the cabals raised against his 
crown ; but more than this, she appeared always 
as a dangerous leader of parties." Richelieu com- 
mences the recital of his private grievances against 
Chateauneuf from a very early period. " During 
the predominance of the Marquis d'Ancre, le Sieur 
de Chateauneuf was on bad terms with the Cardinal 
de Richelieu. When the Cardinal believed himself 
to be dismissed ( c Journee des Dupes '), the said 
Sieur de Chateauneuf did all he could against 
him." In this curious document, the names of the 


persons mentioned are indicated by ciphers: 
number 9 stood for Madame de Chevreuse. 
Richelieu accuses Chateauneuf of gross perfidy ; 
of being on the side of Monsieur and the Queen- 
mother, while taking office under his ministry ; 
of betraying state secrets to Madame de Chev- 
reuse and even to Queen Anne ; of keeping up 
a private and traitorous correspondence with 
England, of which the Cardinal had been warned 
by Weston, the English ambassador in Paris, who 
declared that the Lord-Keeper constantly cor- 
responded with Queen Henrietta Maria, and gave 
pernicious advice to her Majesty upon religious 
questions ; 26 that her Britannic Majesty had been 
heard several times to express disgust at the 
policy of the Cardinal in supporting the Protes- 
tant princes of Germany against the Emperor ; 
adding, " that M. le Garde des Sceaux did not 
share in such councils, but that he was her 
especial friend and servant, and that France 
would be much better governed after the death of 
M. le Cardinal." Richelieu also accuses Chateau- 
neuf of duplicity in the affair of M. de Mont- 
morency ; stating that the Lord-Keeper told 
M. de Chaudebonne, the confidential agent of 
Monsieur and others, that he had desired to save 
the life of the duke and had vainly made inter- 
cession when, on the contrary, M. le Garde des 
Sceaux had been the first to propose the execution 
of the said duke, and had told the Cardinal that 
he would never consent to so pernicious a use 
of the royal clemency ; that he had, moreover, 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 293 

proposed that execution should be done by mandate 
of the council ; and had angrily deprecated the 
resolve taken to try Montmorency before a 
regularly constituted court ; that Chateauneuf 
had betrayed to Madame de Chevreuse the fact of 
the marriage of Monsieur with Marguerite de 
Lorraine, when it greatly imported to the royal 
service that the accomplishment of such should 
be held secret. Chateauneuf had also tried to 
discredit the Cardinal de Richelieu with the Jesuit 
Order. He was also in frequent correspondence 
with the exiled rebels with Monsieur and Queen 
Marie all in defiance of his oath of fidelity to the 
King and of the duties and responsibilities of his 
office. This paper the Cardinal drew up for his 
own special use, and it does not seem to have been 
produced against the lord-Keeper. On the 25th 
of February, 1633, Chateauneuf was arrested at 
St.-Germain-en-Laye on leaving the palace after 
an audience of the King, and conducted under a 
strong escort to his chateau at Ruffec, in Limousin. 
The day following his house in Paris was searched 
by the under secretaries of state, Bouthillier, 
Bullion and Chavigny, who seized his papers, 
which filled several large coffers, and conveyed 
them to the abode of M. de Bullion. On the 29th 
of February, the papers were sorted and analysed 
and forwarded to Richelieu, who discovered what 
he suspected a large packet of letters addressed 
to Chateauneuf by the Duchess de Chevreuse, 
partly written in cipher, the key to which, how- 
ever, was found in an ebony cabinet, which had 


been also conveyed from the house of the Lord- 
Keeper, on the supposition that important papers 
were concealed in its secret recesses. Amongst the 
spoil captured were fifty-two letters from Madame 
de Chevreuse ; thirty-one from Montagu, which 
treated of foreign alliances and conspiracies for 
the overthrow of Richelieu's power ; twenty-nine 
letters from the Chevalier du Jars, who seems to 
have acted as a busy agent of M. d'Orleans in 
France during the late risings, and as his royal 
highness's servant in every mischievous intrigue 
for the subversion of the government ; thirty- one 
letters from the Queen of Great Britain ; and one 
paper of verses all which were immediately 
placed in a portfolio and forwarded unopened to 
King Louis at St. Germain. Numbers of letters, 
also, were found from Lord Holland, M. de Puy- 
laurents, favourite-in-chief of Monsieur, from the 
Duke de Vendome and the Count de Biron all 
bitter opponents of the Cardinal. 27 The correspon- 
dence of Madame de Chevreuse with the Lord- 
Keeper was the booty which Richelieu panted to 
peruse, and to gain possession of which he had 
instituted these summary proceedings. The rage 
and mortification of Richelieu are not to be 
described when he discovered by this correspon- 
dence that the woman whom he admired, and 
whom he had restored to her former proud 
position, was faithless, and pitilessly ridiculed his 
weakness to his fortunate rival. What was worse, 
the Cardinal saw himself designated in their cor- 
respondence under a sobriquet too insulting and 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 295 

indecent to find place in these pages. " 28 28 
(Madame de Chevreuse) saw 22 (the Cardinal) 
to-day, when with 24 (the Queen). He paid 24 all 
the compliments imaginable before 28, to whom 
he affected to speak coldly and indifferently ; but 
she treated him in her accustomed manner, and 
feigned not to perceive his humour. In reply to a 
jest hazarded by the Cardinal, Madame de Chev- 
reuse rallied him, even to the point of speaking 
slightingly of his power. The Cardinal seemed 
astonished rather than angry, and changed his 
tone to one of civility and great courtesy. I know 
not whether it was that he did not wish to show 
anger in the presence of the Queen, or whether he 
did not desire to quarrel with Madame de Chev- 
reuse. I am to see the Cardinal to-morrow at two 
o'clock. Be assured that Madame de Chevreuse 
will have left this world when she ceases to belong 
to you." 29 In another letter Richelieu stumbled 
on the following observations : " I (Madame de 
Chevreuse) have no news lately from the Cardinal. 
If he is as glad not to hear of me as I am not to 
hear from him, he is now highly content, and I 
delivered from a persecution from which time and 
my own good wit may free me. The tyranny of 
the Cardinal momentarily increases. He storms 
and raves because 28 (Madame de Chevreuse) does 
not call upon him. Twice I have written to him 
compliments of which he is unworthy a thing 
I should never have done but for M. de Chevreuse, 
who tells me that is the way to buy peace. The 
favour of the King has raised his presumption to 


a pitch which cannot be surpassed. He thinks to 
daunt me, and would fain persuade himself that 
there is nothing that I would not do to appease 
him, although I prefer to perish rather than to 
make submission. The pride of the Cardinal is 
intolerable to me. He said recently to my husband 
that my humour was unbearable to a sensitive 
person like himself, and that he had resolved to 
render me in future no especial attention, as I 
was not capable of conferring either friendship or 
confidence. I confide this only to you. Do not 
apprise M. de Chevreuse that you know this. He 
has quarrelled with me, being intimidated by the 
insolence of the said Cardinal, and because I 
would not endure such obloquy. I have that 
opinion of your courage and affection that I wish 
you to know everything that concerns me. I so 
entirely trust you that I deem my interests as safe 
in your hands as in my own. Love me with 
fidelity, and believe that, despite of persecution, 
I will ever show myself worthy thereof." Again 
the Duchess wrote : " To-night the Cardinal sent 
me a letter by express, to implore me to grant 
him two things : the first was, not to speak to 
M. de Biron, and the second, never to admit 
you (M. de Chateauneuf). My resolve to demon- 
strate my affection for M. de Chateauneuf is 
stronger than any consideration for the Cardinal. 
I have therefore excused myself to the said 
Cardinal, on the plea that my affairs with M. de 
Chevreuse compel me to see M. de Chateauneuf." 
The Duchess sends with this letter a valuable 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 297 

diamond to her lover ; she exhorts him to be 
firm as the precious gem she sends him, and to 
shine like its lustrous rays, a light amid darkness. 
Again she writes in the third person : "I believe 
that M. de Chateauneuf is absolutely devoted to 
Madame de Chevreuse. Madame de Chevreuse 
promises eternal fidelity to M. de Chateauneuf. 
If all the world turn against M. de Chateauneuf, 
Madame de Chevreuse will love and esteem him 
worthily. If he loves her as he states, Madame de 
Chevreuse will satisfy him, for all the powers of 
earth cannot make her change her resolve. She 
swears to you that this is fact, and commands you 
to believe it and to love faithfully." The Duchess 
kept this vow. To the day of his death she was 
faithful in her attachment to the Lord-Keeper 
through weal and woe, refusing to participate in 
any future triumphs after the death of their 
enemy, Richelieu, unless shared by him. Chateau- 
neuf had passed his fiftieth year, he was plain in 
person, without courtly grace or wit. Amid all 
her aberrations, Madame de Chevreuse never 
abjured her one great redeeming attribute 
fidelity. Bitter must have been Richelieu's reflec- 
tions as he perused this correspondence, and 
probably pictured the mocking lip and wicked 
merriment of the beautiful syren whom he feared, 
and whom, because he so feared, he wished to 
bend to his toils. " The Cardinal's mad vagaries 
are wonderful ! ?: continues the impracticable 
Duchess. " He sent for Madame de Chevreuse, and 
made strange complaints. He declared that she 


was perpetually sparring with him in the presence 
of Lord Jermyn, in order that the said lord might 
return to his country and recount how little 
respect she bore him. He said he knew that 
Madame de Chevreuse and M. de Chateauneuf 
understand each other ; and that she also receives 
M. de Biron, though all the world knows that the 
said Biron is in love with her a proceeding M. le 
Cardinal is resolved no longer to tolerate. Madame 
de Chevreuse is in better health, and more resolved 
than ever to esteem M. de Chateauneuf as she has 
promised him." " Chateauneuf," writes Tallemant, 
" etoit un homme tout confit en galanterie. I have 
seen him ride on horseback by the Queen's coach, 
on the side occupied by Madame de Chevreuse, 
attired in a splendid satin robe, and displaying 
his horsemanship. The Cardinal was devoured 
with jealousy, especially as it was suspected that 
the Garde des Sceaux was also an admirer of the 
Queen." The thunder of the minister's wrath soon 
fell on these unhappy triflers. The very nature of 
the correspondence seized in the dwelling of M. de 
Chateauneuf precluded his public arraignment for 
treason. The King's sister, Henrietta Maria, was 
compromised, and Richelieu shrank from public 
ridicule, such as would have befallen him on the 
publication of the letters of Madame de Chev- 
reuse and from the unsparing revelations likely 
to fall from the lips of the Duchess if put upon her 
trial by the side of Chateauneuf. Orders were 
despatched to remove the ex-Lord-Keeper to the 
citadel of Angouleme, where he was subjected to 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 299 

severe incarceration and privations, for what the 
Cardinal called " un mauvais procede" and totally 
debarred from communication with the world. 
Having thus avenged himself on his faithless 
friend, Richelieu proceeded next to exile the 
Duchess de Chevreuse, with all startling formali- 
ties. In the dead of the night, an officer of the 
royal guard, foflowed by a troop, entered the 
court-yard of the superb dwelling of the Duchess. 
An instant interview was demanded de par le roi. 
Madame de Chevreuse appeared and was pre- 
sented with a lettre de cachet, which exiled her to 
Dampierre, where she was to remain under sur- 
veillance. Five hours only were allowed her to 
make preparation for departure from the capital. 30 
Escorted by a guard of soldiers, Madame de 
Chevreuse reached her destination before the 
Queen heard of her exile. 

The minor personages, meanwhile those with- 
in the reach of the minister's vengeance paid the 
penalty of their patron's misdemeanour. Arrests 
were made on all sides : a fear came over the 
people of Paris that another dire conspiracy had 
transpired. The Chevalier du Jars was arrested, 
thrown into the Bastille, tried before the infamous 
Judge Laffemas, popularly called le bourreau du 
Cardinal, tortured, condemned to decapitation for 
holding intelligence with Monsieur, and for trea- 
sonable collusion with the enemies of the realm. 
On the scaffold with his head on the block, the 
unfortunate man, waiting for the headsman's 
swift blow, was informed that the King's gracious 


clemency had commuted his punishment into in- 
carceration for life in the Bastille. 31 The Chevalier 
fainted away, and suffered ever afterwards from 
partial paralysis of the limbs. The brother of the 
Garde des Sceaux, the Marquis de Hauterive, 
escaped in disguise to the coast, put off from 
France in a fishing smack and was landed in 
Holland after undergoing extraordinary perils 
and privations. The Count de Leuville, the 
young son of Hauterive, was seized and conveyed 
to the Bastille by command of Richelieu ; while 
every relative, however distant, of the ex-Keeper 
of the Seals was banished from the capital. The 
depit amoureux of the Cardinal could scarcely 
avenge itself more rigorously, especially after 
Queen Anne received commands from the lips of 
her royal consort to cease all correspondence with 
the exiled Duchess on pain of incurring his signal 

Anne, deeming that she had been treated with 
very little deference in the matter, and that some 
communication was due to her dignity before 
her chief lady of honour was summarily deposed 
and exiled, listened to her husband's prohibition 
with that icy composure which Louis said, " was 
always a sure indication that the Queen intended 
to follow her own pleasure." It was now the 
Queen's habit, when in Paris, to retire during a 
part of every day to the Val-de-Grace. In the 
oratory stood a box in which Anne placed any 
correspondence she wished to despatch secretly, 
and in which she found the letters sent to her 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 301 

privately under cover to the abbess, or that had 
been boldly left for her at the gate. The touriere 
was the Queen's devoted servant, and received all 
letters, which she gave to the abbess, who at the 
same time confided to her any which had been 
written by the Queen and left at the convent to be 
despatched. Letters from the King of Spain, 
from the Empress Marguerite her sister, from the 
Infant Don Ferdinando, from Queen Henrietta 
Maria, from the Queen-mother, and from Mon- 
sieur, thus came to Anne privately and unknown 
to the King. At this period the energies of 
France were almost spent in maintaining the 
national honour. War was raging in Germany, 
and every political betrayal might cause events of 
momentous import ; and French soldiers were 
meeting on the field of battle the combined hosts 
of Spain and the Empire. From the Val-de- 
Grace Anne, therefore, communicated with the 
Duchess de Chevreuse, and for some weeks they 
interchanged a secret but active correspondence. 
Madame de Chevreuse, furious against the Car- 
dinal, was ready to sacrifice anything for ven- 
geance. Dampierre, the place of her exile, was 
then a dreary and half-furnished chateau. 32 M. 
de Chevreuse cherished a great distaste for the 
place, which, during the reign of Henri Quatre, 
had likewise been his prison, to avenge the 
audacity of his homage to the favourite, the 
Marquise de Verneuil. Richelieu had managed to 
infuse an additional sting in his punishment by 
sending the Duchess to her husband's castle of 


Dampierre, from whom, when in the plenitude of 
her power and pride she had obtained a separa- 
tion. Correspondence at length failed to satisfy 
the Queen and her friend ; they determined to 
meet, in defiance of the minister and his man- 
dates. One day, therefore, Marie disguised her- 
self in the coarse garb of a peasant woman, and 
stealing from the castle on foot actually arrived 
at the Val de Grace at vesper hour. Anne was in 
her oratory, and the two friends fell into each 
other's arms to weep and lament their persecu- 
tion and to devise fresh snares to entrap their 
common enemy. " Madame de Chevreuse," writes 
Tallemant, " was exiled to Dampierre, from 
whence she came to visit the Queen, in the 
disguise of a dirty vagrant, at the hour we call 
entre chien et loup." This meeting occurred twice, 
according to the statement which, at a subsequent 
period, the Queen was compelled to make on oath. 
Other chroniclers, however, relate that the clan- 
destine interviews between Anne and her friend 
were frequent and were, for an interval, enjoyed 
with impunity. 

The audacious defiance of his command, never- 
theless, at length came to the knowledge of the 
Cardinal, and was by him communicated to King 
Louis. A few hours later a coach, escorted by a 
company of musketeers, drove into the court- 
yard of the castle of Dampierre, and Madame de 
Chevreuse was directed to enter the vehicle. In 
vain Marie expostulated and petitioned for delay ; 
she was compelled to submit, and on being shown 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 303 

the instructions given to the commanding officer 
of the escort, even to congratulate herself on the 
leniency with which she was treated. The Con- 
stable de Luynes had bequeathed the domain and 
chateau de Milly to his widow. The castle was a 
few miles from Tours, and stood in the midst of a 
vast forest. Before the high altar of its chapel 
was the tomb of the late Constable. To this 
lonesome abode Richelieu now consigned the 
Duchess ; one waiting-woman only was permitted 
to share her capitivity, her actions were sub- 
jected to strict surveillance, and all pecuniary 
expenses incurred by the inmates of the chateau 
were to be defrayed and regulated by the Due de 
Chevreuse ! In vain Marie, frantic with im- 
potent rage, defied, and even threatened, her foe : 
so vigilantly was the surveillance maintained by 
the officer on guard that, for an interval, the 
restless intrigante was thoroughly caged. 

King Louis XIII., during these events, gave the 
Cardinal no less cause for dissatisfaction. His 
Majesty's platonic friendship with De Hautefort 
prospered not : if the latter spoke to any cavalier 
of the court, if she smiled while Louis felt sad, if 
she yawned with irrepressible ennui during their 
evening's discourse, sombre suspicion enveloped 
the King's mind, and petulant repinings ensued. 
" This young lady," relates Tallemant, " wishing 
to marry and secure a position, suffered the 
King's attentions impatiently. She was very hand- 
some ; but during eight days the King agreed 
well with her, and during a subsequent eight days 


he quarrelled with her." Louis vainly tried to 
detach Mademoiselle de Hautefort from her duty 
and affection for the Queen, whom Marie reso- 
lutely supported. He forbade her to accompany 
her mistress to the Carmelites or to the Val de 
Grace ; but as this injunction was never officially 
communicated, Marie chose to treat the King's 
wishes with disregard. She likewise showed her- 
self impenetrable to the overtures of the Cardinal, 
and frequently spoke in derisive terms of his 
designs, while she dared to amuse his Majesty 
by the repetition of the scandals current in Paris 
respecting certain private incidents in the life of 
the great minister. A cabal in the household was 
therefore formed, under the auspices of Richelieu, 
to dethrone a personage so self-willed and dis- 
interested, and to attempt to enlist the royal 
sympathies for Louise de la Fayette, another of 
her Majesty's maidens, who, in addition to a 
pretty face, was an accomplished singer. Ac- 
cordingly, the Due de St. Simon, the Bishop of 
Limoges, uncle of Mademoiselle de la Fayette, the 
Duke d'Halluyn, 33 Madame de Senece, and 
Mesdemoiselles d'Aiches, de Vieux-Pont, and de 
Polignac, and M. Sanguin, maitre d'hdtel to the 
King, and to whom Louis showed much friendly 
regard, united in lauding the perfections of la 
Fayette. St. Simon and the Cardinal feigned 
anger and vexation at the impertinent indepen- 
dence displayed by la Hautefort, and con- 
fidentially advised the King to punish her by 
appearing to transfer the honour of his notice to 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 305 

la Fayette. 34 The King approved, and promised 
to follow the counsel of his friends. The same 
evening la Fayette was desired by the Cardinal to 
take her harp and to sing a song composed and 
set to music by his Majesty. The delight and 
astonishment of the King were extreme, the 
beautiful voice of la Fayette had never before 
charmed the court-circle during his dreary and 
decorous flirtation with la Hautefort. From that 
evening Louis devoted himself to la Fayette. The 
timid blushing girl, brimful of sentiment and re- 
verence, proved to be a more congenial companion 
than the stately and imperturbable la Hautefort, 
who had condescended to listen to the royal 
plaints but who by no means deemed it requisite 
to sympathise therein. Louis Angelique Motier 
de la Fayette was the only daughter of Jean de 
la Fayette, Seigneur de Hautefeuille, and of 
Marguerite de Bourbon Busset, 35 who was de- 
scended from an illegitimate branch of Bourbon 
Montpensier. Her great grandmother, Suzanne 
de Bourbon Busset, Madame de Miossin, was the 
faithful friend of Queen Jeanne d'Albret, and the 
governess of Henri Quatre. In family influence, 
therefore, Mademoiselle de la Fayette surpassed 
Mademoiselle de Hautefort. Her uncle was the 
Bishop of Limoges, a prelate well known at the 
court. She was also cousin-german to the Mar- 
quise de Senece, lady-in-waiting to the Queen ; 
and second cousin of the famous Capuchin Joseph 
de Tremblay. The governess of the Queen's 
maids, Mademoiselle de Polignac, was also a near 



relative. With such connections at court persons 
placed, all of them, in influential positions it has 
been a subject of wonder that the sagacity of 
Richelieu did not rather induce him to withdraw 
from the notice of his royal master a lady so 
powerfully supported. Mademoiselle de la Fa- 
yette is described as possessed of many personal 
attractions : she was a brunette with shining 
eyes, rather embonpoint in figure, without much 
dignity of carriage, shy and sedate in manner 
and speech, given to sentiment, poetry and 
meditation, and preferring a secluded life to 
courtly gaieties. She had also been destined from 
her early youth to a cloister ; her father was poor 
and proud, and despairing of finding for his 
daughter an alliance suitable co her birth he had 
encouraged the longings of the pensive girl for 
seclusion. In her seventeenth year, Louise was 
presented to the Queen by Madame de Senece, 
and enrolled amongst Anne's maids of honour. It 
is supposed that the determination of Louise 
sooner or later to embrace a religious life, inspired 
her with that indifference to censure and dis- 
regard of worldly interest which distinguished her 
career. Her regard for the King soon deepened 
into the purest and most enthusiastic attach- 
ment; she entered into Louis' fears and heart- 
quakings at the power of his minister, she 
soothed and encouraged him while maintaining 
inviolable silence on all that he confided to her 
ear, she interested herself as far as might be in 
his pastimes ; and above all she sympathised in 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 307 

his resentment against Anne of Austria, and to 
please the King confined herself to the merest 
routine of duty in her relations with her royal 
mistress. The interviews between Louis and la 
Fayette were generally holden in the little cabinet 
opening from the Queen's state reception-room ; 
there the pair met to weep and confer. The 
utmost decorum prevailed during these meetings ; 
not a wanton thought, it is said, ever troubled the 
serenity of the King or brought a blush to the 
fair cheek of his confidente. " Le Roi Louis 
XIII.," said the sarcastic Christina, Queen of 
Sweden, " n'aime que Vespece en femmes il est 
entoure de dames d'une sagesse et continence re- 
connues ! " As for Louis, la Fayette was the idol 
before whom he offered heart-felt adoration : 
" Angelique etait sa joie et sa couronne!' If a 
thought, however, arose that might sully her 
purity, the King, it is stated, summoned his 
confessor and expiated such unholy desire by 
penance. He seems to have devoutly believed 
that Providence had set the seal of election on the 
brow of Louise, and that eventually a cloister 
would shield her from his love and from the 
world's perils. Meantime it was his duty to 
respect and watch vigilantly that no alloy of 
illicit love might mar the merit of such a sacrifice. 
Notwithstanding the repute which Louis le 
Chaste had obtained, there were found persons 
who disbelieved in such self-denial, and urged the 
King to console himself for the indifference and 
misconduct of Anne of Austria by following the 


example of his father. These counsels at length 
made impression on the King, and yielding to 
the temptation he one day abruptly proposed to 
Mademoiselle de la Fayette an establishment at 
Versailles and the rank of a duchess. With horror 
and misgiving la Fayette listened to the King's 
solicitation, and so edifying, it is recorded, were 
her admonitions that Louis consented to a tempo- 
rary suspension of their daily interviews to expiate 
his error. " It was to la Fayette that the King 
confided his chagrins relative to the Cardinal de 
Richelieu," relates Madame de Motteville. " That 
girl had an upright heart, and though she was 
aware that this confidence would probably be 
fatal to her interests, she kept the King's secret, 
and confirmed him in his aversion to the minister ; 
for she perceived that he was dishonoured by his 
compliance with the will of the Cardinal. The 
said Cardinal did all in his power to gain her over 
to his side, as he did to all persons possessing 
influence with the King ; but la Fayette showed 
more courage than those courtiers who had the 
mean cowardice to carry to the Cardinal an exact 
account of what the King said to them. A woman 
showed a firmer and more noble spirit ; but la 
Fayette had courage to defy the turns of fortune, 
by her resolution eventually to enter a cloister. 
The King, therefore, discovering that she was 
trustworthy, virtuous and beautiful, esteemed 
and loved her, and I know that he entertained 
thoughts of her far above the usual feelings of men. 
The same prudence which induced this generous 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 309 

woman to refuse alliance with the Cardinal de 
Richelieu prompted her to live on tolerable terms 
with the Queen. An attachment so perfect could 
not fail to give contentment to the King and dis- 
pleasure to the Queen, who, however, was now 
accustomed to the misfortune of not being beloved 
by the King her husband. La Fayette confessed 
her attachment to the King, and as they loved 
each as the other desired, their bliss ought to have 
insured the happiness of their lives." Richelieu, 
however, saw further into human nature than 
good prosing Madame de Motteville; he per- 
ceived that he had every evil to dread from the 
supremacy of la Fayette. The King, it was true, 
naively betrayed the impressions inspired by the 
observations of his mistress to his minister, avow- 
ing them to be such ; but he maintained their 
propriety and justness with characteristic obsti- 
nacy. The moment, therefore, that la Fayette 
ceased to resist and to rebuke the inclinations of 
the King her ascendency would be omnipotent, 
and from Versailles she might dictate the edict of 
his dismissal from power. As yet Mademoiselle 
de la Fayette had abstained from interfering in 
political matters. " La Fayette ne fait ni bien, ni 
mat" was the report hitherto given by Chavigny 
to the Cardinal de la Valette and others, of the 
doings in the palace. In vain Richelieu tried to 
neutralise La Fayette's favour by the same artifice 
which had succeeded for the downfall of Made- 
moiselle de Hautefort. Louis would not look at 
another of Anne's maidens, and listened in 


gloomy silence to Richelieu's laudation of any one 
amongst the fair bevy. The sole avenue, there- 
fore, likely to lead to the overthrow of Made- 
moiselle de la Fayette's influence was to foment 
the religious scruples of the pair, and to daunt 
the proud heart of Louise with imaginary dangers, 
even by inspiring her with a secret conviction 
that her life was in danger and therefore that a 
cloister was her only refuge. The system of spies, 
of warning intimations and the bribery by which 
the Cardinal inaugurated and maintained his 
power, rendered possible a conflict such as he now 
offered to la Fayette. The popular confessor to 
the ladies and courtiers of the Louvre was le 
Pere Jean Baptiste Carre, Superior of the order 
of the Dominicans of France ; an ecclesiastic 
devoted to Richelieu, whom he worshipped and 
obeyed with servile zeal. This personage, who 
was considered a light in his Order being a man 
distinguished by learning, eloquence, ecclesias- 
tical power and religious zeal took yearly a 
solemn oath of obedience 36 to the Cardinal 
minister, whom he regarded as the incarnation of 
human power, wisdom and benevolence. Carre 
addressed to his patron long memorials on public 
affairs, written with consummate skill ; he tran- 
smitted notes describing the condition of public 
feeling towards the minister at home and abroad, 
gathered from the reports of the foreign monks of 
his order ; he placed all members of the Domini- 
can community in France at the disposal of 
Richelieu, while his judicious counsels and 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 311 

fervent zeal aided the minister in many a dark 
hour of uncertainty and doubt. This ecclesiastic, 
therefore, was confessor to the court, and by 
him much service might be achieved. The post 
of confessor to the King and Queen was a privilege 
bestowed by Henri Quatre on the Jesuits, and at 
this period, the commencement of the year 1636, 
was, fortunately for the designs of Richelieu, 
vacant by the dismissal of le P. Souffrant, who 
had followed the fortunes of Queen Marie. 

Richelieu, by the advice of his own confessor, 
counselled Louis to confer that office upon 
Nicholas Caussin, a Jesuit father who had 
obtained high repute for probity and virtue, and 
who was the author of a book of religious medi- 
tations, called " La Cour Sainte," very much 
admired by pious persons. Intimation of his pro- 
motion was given to Caussin, who was desired by 
his Eminence to wait upon the King on the morn- 
ing of the Feast of the Annunciation, as it was his 
Majesty's purpose to confess before receiving 
the Holy Eucharist ; but previously he was 
instructed to visit the Cardinal at Ruel. This 
mandate was conveyed to the Jesuit monastery 
by a young page greatly favoured by the Cardinal, 
the young Marquis de Cinq-Mars, second son of the 
Marshal d'Effiat. Caussin repaired to Ruel on the 
23rd of March, 1636, and was at once admitted to 
private audience with the minister. With suave 
indifference Richelieu greeted the reverend father, 
and after repeating the flattering intimation that 
the King contemplated bestowing upon him the 


much coveted post of confessor in ordinary, pro- 
vided that his Majesty received satisfaction from 
his ministrations on the morrow, proceeded to 
inform Caussin, " that the King was a noble 
prince without vice whatever, and that his 
virtue being a benediction to the realm, it was 
necessary to encourage such holy inclinations. It 
was true that, unfortunately, his Majesty had 
lately appeared much attached to one of the 
Queen's ladies, although he suspected nothing 
wrong ; -. nevertheless, as a great affection between 
persons of opposite sexes was dangerous, it would 
be prudent to check such partialities." 37 The 
tone of the Cardinal was careless, but his manner 
significant. Caussin, therefore, departed initiated 
in the line of action expected from him, but by 
no means disposed to implicit submission. The 
following day, Caussin met his royal penitent, 
whose confession fully enlightened him on the 
nature of his liaison with Mademoiselle de la 
Fayette. The King declared himself " more than 
content " with his new spiritual director, and 
signed on the same day his letters of office. 
Caussin being, a few days subsequently at St. 
Germain for the King's confessor had apartments 
assigned him in all the royal palaces M. de 
Noyers, chief secretary of the war department, 
and Richelieu's confidential friend, paid him a 
visit at midnight, and said " that he had been 
directed by M. le Cardinal to apprise him that the 
young lady whom his Eminence had mentioned 
to the reverend father contemplated leaving the 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 313 

court to embrace a religious life, and that M. le 
Cardinal desired he should examine her vocation 
and induce her as soon as possible to carry such 
design into execution." De Noyers enforced pro- 
found secrecy respecting his visit, but exhorted 
Caussin to carry out the views of his Eminence, 
whose patriotic and disinterested counsels con- 
ferred prosperity on the realm. 38 It was subse- 
quently represented to Caussin that Queen Anne 
beheld the ascendency of la Fayette with extreme 
displeasure and disbelieved in the innocence of 
such liaison with her royal consort, and that the 
King of Spain, who was devoted to his sister, was 
not likely to be conciliated by the establishment 
of a matiresse en litre at the Louvre. It was true 
that Anne did not show the same toleration 
towards la Fayette as she had manifested towards 
Mademoiselle de Hautefort, who still remained 
her confidential friend and often shared with 
her royal mistress the questionable vigils at the 
Val de Grace. De Hautefort hated Richelieu, 
disapproved the conduct of the King towards his 
wife, and did all in her power to reconcile the one 
and to overthrow the other. La Fayette was the 
enemy of Richelieu only so far as such enmity 
pleased the King, who needed a confidente to 
whom he might exhale his jealousy and occasional 
exasperation against his minister. She sym- 
pathised with and admired the King, and felt no 
regard for Anne of Austria whose intrigues she 
declined to share. Her crime in Richelieu's eyes 
was her independence and her true regard for 


Louis, which made him apprehend that one day 
the restraints interposed by virtue and piety 
might be cast aside for ever, and that France 
would adore in Louise Angelique de la Fayette a 
second Gabrielle d'Estrees. Caussin, the director 
of the royal conscience, was, meantime, disin- 
clined to follow the dictation of Richelieu. His 
Order was jealous of the Dominican communities 
and of their Superior, Carre ; and resented the 
fact that Richelieu had not chosen a Jesuit monk 
for his own confessor. The Jesuits, moreover, 
strongly protested against the foreign policy of 
France. The alliance between France, Gustavus 
Adolphus King of Sweden, the deposed Elector 
Palatine and the German Protestant Princes, was 
abhorrent to their principles and hostile to their 
interests. They sympathised with the exiled 
Queen-mother and desired her recall, they ap- 
proved of the marriage of M. d'Orleans and 
blamed the minister for his persecution of the 
heir-presumptive. The enmity displayed by 
Richelieu towards le P. Chanteloube, at one time 
confessor to Queen Marie de 5 Medici, who had 
taken refuge in Brussels to escape the Bastille, 
added another item to the list of grievances 
against the Cardinal. In Mademoiselle de la 
Fayette, therefore, Caussin and his Order descried 
the antidote to the heretical policy of France, 
and a source by which peace with Spain and the 
Empire might be achieved. The Queen's house- 
hold was a very focus of intrigue, every person 
appertaining thereto adhered to one of the 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 315 

factions of the Queen, the Cardinal or la Fayette. 
Mademoiselle de Polignac, governess of the maids, 
the Due de St. Simon, Madame de la Flotte, 
dame d'atours, Mademoiselle de Chemerault, 
Mademoiselle de Filandre, head-dresser to her 
majesty, Sanguin, chief maitre d* hotel and others, 
were the hidden spies of Richelieu, who held 
in his pay even the very scullions of the royal 

The Queen herself was hostile to la Fayette, and 
desired her exile from court ; though, since the 
marriage of Monsieur, a marked change had come 
over her Majesty, who seemed now to be less the 
opponent of Richelieu personally, but rather 
disaffected on account of his warlike designs upon 
her brother, Don Philip of Spain. Madame de 
Senece and the Bishop of Limoges befriended la 
Fayette, and did all in their power to induce her 
to relinquish her monastic resolves and to accept 
the position of state and influence opening to her. 
The King was in the habit of sending his written 
communications to Mademoiselle de la Fayette by 
one Boiszenval, his first valet de chambre. This 
Boiszenval had been raised from the subordinate 
service of a valet de garde robe by the favour of 
Louise, who had obtained for him promotion, in 
the hope of securing one faithful attendant not 
seduced by the benefits of M. le Ministre. Riche- 
lieu, however, soon contrived to lure Boiszenval 
from his allegiance to a lady whom the Cardinal 
assured him was on the eve of withdrawing from 
the world, and whose favour could be but tem- 


porarily exerted in his behalf. Partly intimidated 
by the half -uttered threat of the minister, and 
partly prompted by self-interested motives, Bois- 
zenval sold himself to the Cardinal. Whenever, 
therefore, he was intrusted with a note by the 
King to carry to la Fayette, Boiszenval took 
it straight to Richelieu, who first perused and 
then, by the aid of his experts in imitating hand- 
writing, caused the letters to be copied again, 
altering any profession or statement therein which 
displeased him. 39 The same method he pursued 
with regard to verbal messages interchanged 
between the lovers, which the Cardinal suppressed 
altogether or moulded to suit his purpose. For 
some little time this duplicity succeeded, until one 
day Boiszenval, with unparalleled insolence, said 
to Mademoiselle de la Fayette, on presenting her 
with a billet from the King, " If you are sincere, 
Madame, in your design to become a nun, do so 
without delay, this probation is too tantalising 
to his Majesty ! 9; Such words naturally roused 
suspicion, and upon comparing notes the King 
and la Fayette discovered how they had been 

A few days subsequently Louis suddenly 
addressed Boiszenval, who was performing his 
functions at the lever of his Majesty, when the 
royal chamber was crowded with courtiers. 
" Boiszenval," said the King, " I have discovered 
that you are a consummate traitor. I therefore 
dismiss you. Go ! Never presume to present 
yourself in my presence again." 40 Boiszenval 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 317 

retired, his patron the Cardinal dared not in- 
terfere, or perhaps deemed it more politic not to 
interpose when Louis was roused into so unusual 
an exercise of decision. Meantime Caussin took 
every opportunity to ingratiate himself with 
Mademoiselle de la Fayette, and one day when 
the Queen was leaving the chapel at St. Germain, 
she approached him timidly saying, " Reverend 
Father, I wish if possible to speak with you." 
Caussin excused himself from an immediate in- 
terview and fixed four o'clock in the afternoon for 
the conference. During the interval he saw the 
King and asked his Majesty's permission to confer 
with a lady of the household whose name he pre- 
tended not to know. " Ah ! " said his Majesty, 
" it was la Fayette. She wishes to consult you 
on the design she has long entertained of going 
into a nunnery. Yes, I consent to the con- 

Caussin therefore held a long consultation 
with Mademoiselle de la Fayette in the presence 
of Mademoiselle de Polignac, who having been 
secretly bribed by Richelieu took notes of the 
conference which ensued. La Fayette then said 
that she was resolved to enter a nunnery, that 
God called her to that vocation, that she prayed 
the reverend father to dispose the mind of 
the King to permit her retreat, that she was 
miserable and had scruples on her liaison with 
the King, and was wearied with the envy and 
hate of malignant personages. Caussin there- 
upon represented the privations and hardships 


of a nun, and asked the pertinent question 
" whether she had a true call and was not lured 
thereto by wordly chagrin and by the representa- 
tions of interested personages ? " La Fayette 
replied with tears, " that in her early youth a 
religious life had been her election, that she 
wished now to enter as a novice the Convent of La 
Visitation des Filles de Ste Marie, that she 
should quit the world without bitterness or 
regret, and that she requested the reverend 
father to broach the subject to the King, which 
was the object of the interview which she had 
requested." 41 Caussin therefore honestly per- 
formed the task imposed upon him. Louis heard 
him in gloomy despair. " Although," replied his 
Majesty, " I regret and deplore her decision yet I 
dare not hinder her vocation. Nevertheless, tell 
her to wait until my departure to join my army. 
Meantime consult Madame de Senece on the 
subject I leave all to her." 

Madame de Senece, when appealed to by 
Caussin, as the King doubtless anticipated, abso- 
lutely refused her assent to the project, and 
insisted that letters should be despatched to the 
father and mother of la Fayette, Monsieur and 
Madame de Hautefeuille, who alone she averred 
could grant the desired permission. The answer 
was many months in arriving, the jealous agonies 
of the Cardinal became intense, and he bitterly 
reproached Caussin for his lukewarm zeal. " I 
feared to render myself obnoxious and so to 
defeat my purpose by a show of too much zeal," 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 319 

answered the discreet Jesuit. Richelieu turned 
away with a wrathful gesture, and forthwith 
charged le Pere Carre to examine and report on 
the condition of la Fayette's mind, and to in- 
sinuate himself if possible into her confidence. 42 
The subterfuge failed : Louise made one con- 
fession to Carre and then refused to open her mind 
further to the stern Dominican, who if he failed 
in obtaining her confidence, at any rate served the 
Cardinal's purpose by maintaining through other 
ladies of the palace, his penitents, the most rigid 
surveillance over her conduct. The curious letters 
of Carre addressed to the Cardinal still exist in the 
French Foreign Office every little incident, every 
insignificant remark, every vacillation of mind 
relating to the poor girl whom it was Richelieu's 
purpose to coerce were there recorded. Carre at 
the beginning of the year 1636 writes to his 
patron : 43 "I address your Eminence in much 
depression on account of the danger which besets 
the vocation of Mademoiselle de la Fayette. M. 
de Limoges, Madame de Senece and M. le Cheva- 
lier de la Fayette, uncle of the said lady, came to 
call upon me this morning between the hours of 
nine and ten o'clock. All three attacked me 
furiously M. de Limoges 44 by angry argument 
and abuse, Madame de Senece by bitter reproaches 
and M. le Chevalier by atrocious insinuations 
all because they said that I had plotted and 
negotiated the retreat of their niece into a con- 
vent. They asked me why I so acted, and why 
I had not consulted them ? I replied that my 


conscience forbade me to take counsel of persons 
interested, as they were, in the result ; upon 
which they poured more abuse on my head, and 
gave me a formal interdiction, as they said, on 
behalf of the Queen not to meddle with the con- 
science of a lady of her household ; and forbade 
me, on their own responsibility, to interfere with 
their niece. So behold me, Monseigneur, in 
despair at being quite powerless to forward the 
good work unless your Eminence assists me ! " 
Carre goes on to relate that he had called upon the 
abbess of Ste Marie, who promised to receive the 
young postulant upon the responsibility of Carre 
alone. In the evening Carre accidentally ex- 
changed a few words with la Fayette, and exhorted 
her to retire without further parley and to ad- 
dress letters of farewell from the convent to the 
King, to the Cardinal and to her own relatives ; 
also, if she so desired, to the Queen. Mademoiselle 
de la Fayette then remarked, " that was un- 
necessary, as the Queen would rejoice at her 
retreat." The following month la petite was still 
at court, and threw fresh alarm into the mind of 
Richelieu's zealous agent who was regarded as 
the most holy and devoted of men by stopping 
the reverend father, whom she encountered in the 
apartment of Madame de la Flotte, to inform him 
" that her relatives and the King forbade her 
retreat, and threatened if she entered a convent 
to take her thence by edict of Parliament as 
being under age." " I replied," writes Carre, 
" that she need be under no apprehension, for 


that your Eminence would protect her. I then 
asked her what her own wishes were ? She re- 
plied in a labyrinth of words, ' that in a few years 
she might feel better assured of her vocation.' 
I said that two supreme reasons induced me 
earnestly to desire her immediate retreat, the 
first was the salvation of her soul, the second 
the welfare of Christendom by the conclusion of 
peace, which good work the reverend General of 
our order commanded me to forward, but that it 
was not probable that the King of Spain would 
consent to lay down arms while he knew that our 
holy and good King loved any other woman 
except his wife, sister of his Catholic Majesty, 
although he might be aware of the purity and 
innocency of such attachment. It was my 
opinion therefore that all conscientious persons 
should contribute toward so merciful an object." 45 
Another day Carre writes to the Cardinal to in- 
form him that Mademoiselle Thomassin 46 told- 
him that la Fayette was suffering from agonies of 
indecision ; that she feared the King's passion 
and shuddered at the thought of involving his 
Majesty in mortal sin ; that she dreaded the re- 
sentment of the Cardinal, and even feared that 
some personal catastrophe would befall her in- 
deed every little vexatious incident was now in- 
terpreted by la petite as a sign of Divine wrath at 
her indecision ; " for instance this morning la 
Fayette came into my apartment," said Thom- 
assin, " and said that God drew her towards a 
religious life by inflicting upon her countless 


little mortifications ; she then showed me a little 
pimple which had appeared on her right cheek 
during the night, 6 a sign,' she said, c that God is 
displeased at my delay.' " 47 Richelieu caused it 
to be intimated to la Fayette that she should be- 
come a benefactress to any convent she might 
select by presenting the community with 30,000 
francs. Never was there a more zealous exponent 
than Carre of the minister's wishes : the more 
difficult the enterprise the more important did it 
appear to Richelieu to separate Louis from his 

Caussin, meantime, prompted by the wishes of 
the King if not by his direct commands, did all in 
his power to induce la Fayette to delay the com- 
mencement of her noviciate. He represented to 
her in glowing language the hardships to which 
she was desirous to submit. Even when she had 
taken her final resolution to abandon the thorny 
path of intrigue and of a vain wrestling with the 
inexorable mind which rules France, Caussin's 
earnest counsel followed her : " What ! will you 
quit the court, a King who esteems you, and bril- 
liant prospects, to take the veil and bury yourself 
between four walls ! There are only too many un- 
happy women who have thrown themselves into 
convents without due reflection, and will you 
Madame increase the number ? You do not know 
what it is to relinquish your judgment, to abandon 
your will, and to live by and at the dictation of 
strangers who will not permit you to dispose of a 
pin without their sanction ! You have been as a 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 323 

bird of paradise at court, fed with amber and 
cinnamon, you have heard nothing but praise, 
compliments and adulation. Greatly amazed 
therefore will you feel when a heavy cross is laid 
on your shoulders and you are hurried up the 
steep path to Calvary. If you were an old woman 
desirous to give your last days to penitent repen- 
tance no one would feel surprise at your resolve, 
but for a young girl of seventeen years old, good 
and innocent, to fly from a King to entomb her- 
self in a prison surpasses belief ! The conversa- 
tion of the King, has it ever offended you and 
evoked scruples ? Are you not pure as when you 
first attracted his regard ? You know his Majesty 
too well to feel apprehensive that he will ever ask 
from you anything which the law of God forbids 
you to grant. I advise you, therefore, stay with 
the King and do all the good you can through 
him, as God has been pleased to endow you with 
such power over his Majesty's mind." 48 Dis- 
tracted thus by opposite counsels, Mademoiselle 
de la Fayette fell ill under the conflict ; grave 
scruples of conscience tormented her, but though 
she pitied and admired Louis XIII. she had no 
confidence in his faithful support. She knew that 
the King could hide nothing from his minister, 
and that their most secret confidences he often 
disclosed, especially if she had in any respect 
assailed the policy or the character of Richelieu. 
It was a point of honour and habit with the King 
to repeat to Richelieu every inimical speech. La 
Fayette could never be sure that the King would 


not denounce, and then retire with her to weep 
and bewail Richelieu's tyranny ! " Louis XIII.," 
said le Pere Caussin, " refrains from expressing 
all he feels, he does not all that he wills and 
wills not all that he can ! " But with support so 
precarious la Fayette might well shrink from 
continuing to brave the hostility of the minister 
against which not one of the King's near kindred 
could prevail. 

In the early part of May 1637, Mademoiselle de 
la Fayette, therefore, took her final resolve. One 
morning when the court was at St. Germain, she 
presented herself before the King and asked his 
permission to make an excursion to Paris to see 
the abbess of the Visitandines, of the Rue St. 
Antoine. Louis wept but consented, laying, how- 
ever, strict commands that she should return to 
St. Germain by a given hour. Accompanied by 
Madame de Senece, Mademoiselle de la Fayette 
had an interview with the abbess, who agreed to 
receive her as a novice at any moment. No further 
opposition was encountered from Madame de 
Senece, who had been silenced by a threat con- 
veyed to her by Carre, 49 " that if she sought again 
to dissuade Mademoiselle de la Fayette from the 
resolve which it had taken so long to render active 
her own exile from court would ensue." The 
evident displeasure and impatience of Queen 
Anne, moreover, had due weight with her lady of 
honour, and so la Fayette was sacrificed to ex- 
pediency and to the will of the Cardinal. To the 
reluctant Caussin was entrusted the mission of 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 325 

obtaining the final assent of King Louis. " It is 
true," said the King, " that she is very dear to me. 
God help me ! but if a religious life is her vocation, 
let her depart ! I consent." The same evening 
la Fayette appeared for the last time in the royal 
circle. Louis drew her apart and conversed for 
some time, everybody present remarking on the 
extreme pallor of the King. In the presence of the 
court she then thanked the King for his permis- 
sion, which enabled her to " fulfil the dearest wish 
of her life." " Go, Madame," replied Louis, 
scarcely master of his emotion. " God calls you : 
it is not for man to oppose His will. My authority 
would have sufficed to assure your continued 
residence here for I could have forbidden every 
abbess in the realm to receive you ! Nevertheless, 
I appreciate the excellency and privilege of so holy 
a life, and in my last hour God forbid that my 
conscience should be burdened with the thought 
that I had deprived you of so precious a voca- 
tion ! 9 ' Louise then said farewell to her royal 
mistress " qui ne la pouvait aimer" Anne coldly 
smiled. 50 " The only bitterness of departure," 
exclaimed Louise afterwards, " is the joy and 
triumph of my enemies ! 5: La Fayette then 
retired to the apartment of the Countess de 
Fleix, daughter of Madame de Senece. A fit of 
hysterical weeping relieved her overstrained feel- 
ings, during which the coach of the King drew up 
under the archway of the 'quadrangle ; for Louis, 
in bitter affliction, insisted on leaving St. Germain 
for a retirement of some days at Versailles. 


" Alas, alas ! I shall never see him again ! " 
exclaimed Mademoiselle de la Fayette, as she 
watched the departure by torchlight of the 
cortege. At dawn Louise, attended by Madame de 
Senece and by three of the Queen's maidens, de- 
parted for the Convent of the Visitation, Rue St. 
Antoine, and was received with great honour 
and parade by the abbess, who was a Seguier and 
niece of the new Lord-Keeper of the Seals and of 
the Bishop of Meaux. 51 

The King, meantime, on his arrival at Ver- 
sailles, took to his bed and refused during two 
days to grant audiences. On the third day it was 
suggested by M. de St. Simon, " that his Majesty 
need not longer deprive himself of the pleasure of 
seeing Mademoiselle de la Fayette as all the con- 
vents opened their portals to the King of France." 
Louis rose eagerly and with his own hand wrote 
to the abbess of the Visitandines that he should 
visit the convent on the morrow to have an inter- 
view with Mademoiselle de la Fayette. On the 
arrival of his Majesty he encountered to his sur- 
prise M. de Noyers, the confidential friend of the 
minister. The King sharply inquired his busi- 
ness, and was informed that M. de Noyers had 
been commissioned to confer with the abbess on 
the payment of the dowry of the novice. Louis 
was then solaced by the sight of la Fayette, with 
whom he conversed for three hours in the convent 
parloir while his suite waited without the gate. 
" He was so moved by the description given him 
by la Fayette of the joys and peace of the monastic 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 327 

state that his Majesty afterwards confessed to 
le Pere Caussin, that but for his duty to his realm 
he would willingly follow her example." This 
interview was followed by many more during the 
next two months, before the departure of the 
King for his camp in Picardy. " La cdbale de 
Mademoiselle de la Fayette subsiste toujours ! ' 
was the mournful comment of Chavigny to the 
Cardinal de la Valette, generalissimo of the army 
in Italy. From her retreat Louise dared to speak 
openly to the King on politics, and pathetically 
deplored " those great crimes," as she termed 
them, of his reign the exile of the Queen-mother, 
and the alliance of France with the Protestants of 
Germany, against the orthodox and Catholic 
monarchs of Austria and Spain. She described 
Richelieu as a man, unscrupulous and relentless 
in his hatred, unmeasured in his ambition, and 
who, sooner or later, must, from motives of self- 
interest and the lust of power, separate his lot 
from that of the childless King and join the 
faction of the heir-presumptive. She made touch- 
ing allusion to the fragility of the health of the 
King, which at any moment might fail ; and she 
implored him to listen to the enlightened counsel 
of le Pere Caussin, his spiritual director and a 
personage also of great political savoir. In the 
privacy of the confessional Louis was assailed 
by the same entreaties. The sombre and even 
menacing aspect of the King, meanwhile, greatly 
disturbed the Cardinal, he therefore summoned 
Caussin, and asked upon what the interviews 


between the King and la Fayette turned, as every 
one was surprised to see a great King interest 
himself in the fate and caprices of an insignificant 
little girl. Caussin skilfully dissembled, but said 
that the King was disquieted by reports that his 
Eminence intended to cause Mademoiselle de la 
Fayette to be carried off secretly and immured 
in a dismal house an offshoot of the Visitandines 
of Paris, situated in the wilds of Auvergne. " Ah, 
Monsieur," continued Caussin, " cease to trouble 
yourself about this petite demoiselle. What can 
you fear ? Mademoiselle de la Fayette is only a 
child." " Doucement, monpere" retorted Richelieu, 
ironically ; " you are simple, if not evil-minded, I 
perceive ! Let me enlighten you and expose the 
malice of the world. Know that this child as you 
term her has been near overthrowing all. 52 Let 
her take the veil and occupy herself with her 
breviary. The King complains that she has 
entered a nunnery : it is her own fault. Have 
you not often told me that she complained of his 
Majesty's eccentric and unequal temper, and 
that the fear of sudden disgrace made her take 
the resolve to profess ? 5: Richelieu then, accord- 
ing to the relation of Caussin himself, proposed a 
strict alliance, averring that all other confessors 
of the King had lived in confidential intercourse 
with him, and that if Caussin would support 
on all occasions his policy he might command 
any favour for himself, for his order, or for his 
kinsmen. The wily Jesuit made cautious reply to 
these overtures, but the cold indifference of 

1687] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 329 

Caussin's manner convinced his Eminence that 
his sophistry had then failed to gain so important 
an ally as the director of the conscience of King 


1 " Le Cardinal lui fit dire par Madame de Fargis, dame d'atours, que 
si elle voulait, il la tireroit bientot de la misere dans laquelle elle vivoit. 
La reine alors, qui ne croyoit point que ce fut lui qui la fit maltraiter, 
pensa d'abord que ce fut par compassion qu'il lui offrit son assistance, 
souffrit qu'il lui ecrivit et lui fit memo reponse ; car elle ne s'imagincit 
point que ce commerce produisit autre chose qu'une simple galanterie. J 

2 Journal de Richelieu. " L'ambassadeur m'a dit que j'y devois aller 
librement quand le roy y etoit, ou n'y etoit pas, luy dire un mot de ce 
qu'elle devoit f aire, tantot la divertir de ce qu'on jugeroit a propos ; quo 
je luy ferois plaisir d'en user ainsi." 

3 Heir of La Rochefoucauld, and afterwards the celebrated duke of that 
name, author of " The Maxims." 

4 Monglat states that Mademoiselle de Hautefort exclaimed, " Prenez- 
la (la lettre) tant que vous voudrez a cette heure ! " Cousin, Vie de 
Madame de Hautefort. 

3 " Le roi prit des pincettes d'argent qui etaient aupres du feu pour 
essayer s'il pouvait avoir ce billet avec les pincettes : mais elle 1'avait 
mis trop avant, et ainsi la reine la laissa aller, apres s'etre bien divertie 
de la peur de Madame de Hautefort, et de celle du roi." Vie de Madame 
de Hautefort. Cousin, quoted from la Vie MS. 

6 Vie de Madame de Hautefort. Cousin, quoted from la Vie MS. 

7 Mademoiselle de Hautefort was known at court by the sobriquet of 
" Sainte Hautefort." 

8 When the Queen Marie de' Medici heard of the return to Paris of 
Madame de Chevreuse, she exclaimed, " He bien, elle retourne apres 
cinq ans de banissement ; et avoir et6 en divers lieux. Le Cardinal ne 
sauroit avoir pense, n'y faire la moindre action que je ne sache a quoi 
elle tend." Aubery, Mem. pour 1'Hist. du Card, de Richelieu, t. 2. 

9 La Grande Mademoiselle Anne Louise d'Orleans, daughter of Monsieur 
and of Marie, Duchess de Montpensier. Mem., t. i. 

10 Marie de Vertus dite de Bretagne, daughter of Claude de Bretagne, 
Count de Vertus, and of Catherine Fouquet. She married, in 1628, 
Hercules de Rohan, Duke de Montbazon, father of the Duchess de 
Chevreuse. Marie was quite a child when she married the Duke, who 
took her from a convent, where she was destined to make profession. 
The Duke de Montbazon, therefore, always called her " Ma religieuse." 
Madame de Montbazon was one of the most beautiful women of the 


court, and one of the most intrigante, and masculine in mind. She died 
in 1657, aged 45. 

11 Anne de Rohan, wife of M. de Guemene, eldest son of the Duke de 
Montbazon, and brother of Madame de Chevreuse. 

12 " Ou il y avait six poupees, une femme en couches, une nourrice, 
quasi au naturel, un enfant, une garde, une sage-femme, et la grand'- 
maman. Mesdemoiselles de Rambouillet et de Bouteville jouaient avec 
elle, deshabillaient et couchaient tous les jours ces poupees, etc."- 
Tallemant, Hist, du Card, de Richelieu. 

13 Marguerite de Lorraine Vaudemont, daughter of Frangois, Count de 
Vaudemont, and of Frangoise de Salms. Her father was the brother of 
Henri, Due de Lorraine, and father of Duke Charles IV., Duke of 
Lorraine in right of his wife Nicole. 

14 Montmorency had asked for the sword of Constable, and for the 
government of the citadel of Montpellier, which were refused to his 
solicitations : " On n'avait garde de rendre le Due plus puissant en 
Languedoc." The Duke had a trifling quarrel with the Duke de 
Chevreuse, which had incurred the resentment and bad offices of 
Madame de Chevreuse. Vie du Due de Montmorency Galerie des 
Personnages Illustres. The Duke proposed to the States of the province 
to vote a supply for the King's service, which he intended to divert to 
the purposes of the revolt, as Montmorency himself allows in a letter to 
Monsieur : " On saisira les secours d'argent qu'ils doivent accorder au 
Roi pour le service de Monsieur." Mem. du Due de Montmorency : 
Paris, 1665. 

15 Brother of the first Due d'Epernon, a prelate whose theological 
attainments were far inferior to his military acquirements. For details 
of the trial and execution of Montmorency, see Vie du Due de Mont- 
morency, Paris, 1665 ; Galerie des Personnages Illustres de la Cour de 
Louis XIII., t. 4 ; Mem. de Bassompierre, de Pontis, Tallemant ; 
Aubery, Hist, du Cardinal de Richelieu ; Pere Griffet, Continuation de 
1'Histoire du Pere Daniel ; Le Vassor, Hist, de Louis XIII. ; Madame 
de Motteville, Mem., t. 1. 

16 Anquetil. Le Pere Griffet, who states that Richelieu revealed the 
circumstance to the King, with the intention of increasing the wrath of 
his Majesty. " Le Due de Montmorency," writes Madame Motteville, 
" etoit tres assidu aupres d'Anne d'Autriche ; il fit meme le passionne, 
et il pourrait etre arrive qu'il se fut pare de son portrait par une 
galanterie espagnole, assez a la mode dans ce temps." 

17 Anquetil ; Motteville ; le P. Griffet ; Galerie des Personnages 
Illustres de la Cour de Louis XIII. 

18 " Bullion vint a bout de faire abandonner Montmorency par 
Monsieur, en lui persuadant qu'il falloit absolument une victime a la 
justice du Roi ; et qu'on le laissoit le maitre de sacrifier Puylaurents ou 
le Due de Montmorency, et que c'etoit pour lui de voir s'il vouloit 
conserver le Due, ou Puylaurents," 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 331 

19 Vie du Due de Montmorency. 

20 Vie du Pere Joseph Leclerc de Tremblay, Capucin, Instituteur de 
1'Ordre des Filles de Calvaire. 

21 The chateau of Dammartin was given to the Duchesse de Ventadour, 
half-sister of the unhappy Duke. 

22 Historiette de M. de Montmorency, t. 3 ; Tallemant des Reaux. 

23 Journal du Cardinal de Richelieu. 

24 Marie Catherine de la Rochefoucauld, Countess de Rendan, widow of 
Henri de Beaunremont Marquis de Senece, governor of Auxonne, and 
ambassador at Madrid during three years of the regency. 

25 Cousin. Mem. de M. le Cardinal de Richelieu centre M. de Chateau- 
neuf. Archives des Affaires Etrangeres ; France, t. ci. ; douze pages 
de la main de Charpentier, un des secretaires de Richelieu. 

26 Chateauneuf did not stand alone in this misdemeanour. The king, 
writing to his sister Queen Henrietta Maria, advises her to have the new- 
born Prince of Wales baptized privately by her Roman Catholic chaplain, 
which, if she consented to do, Louis XIII. promises to stand sponsor to 
the child. " Vous savez, ma sceur, que le seul moyen de vous donner 
contentement, que la reyne ma mere, et moi nous tenions sur les fonts de 
bapteme le prince mon neveu, c'est qu'il soit baptise a la catholique ; a 
quoi vous pouvez beaucoup contribuer, puisque cela se peut faire par 
votre aumonier dans votre oratoire, le roy mon frere pouvant alors dire 
que vous 1'avez fait sans son sceu, et consentement." Lettre de 
Louis XIII. a la Reyne d'Angleterre. Aubery, Hist, du Card, de 
Richelieu, t. 5, p. 375. 

27 Proces- Verbal de la Visite des Papiers de M. de Chateauneuf, faite 
par MM. Bouthillier et de Bullion ; copie communiquee par M. le Due 
de Luynes ; Cousin, Vie de Madame de Chevreuse, p. 242. 

28 The names in the correspondence between Madame de Chevreuse 
and Chateauneuf were indicated by ciphers : 22 stood for Richelieu ; 
24, the Queen ; 28, Madame de Chevreuse, who always alludes to herself 
in the third person. 

29 Cousin, Vie de Madame de Chevreuse. These letters are also quoted 
by le P. Griffet, Hist, du Regne de Louis XIII. ; Continuation de 
1'Hist. de France du Pere Daniel. 

30 Cousin, Vie de Madame de Chevreuse ; Motteville, t. c, 

31 Ibid. 

32 Dampierre became subsequently one of the most magnificent seats 
in France. It was restored by the grandson of Madame de Chevreuse, 
son of her son by the Constable de Luynes, upon whom the peerage of 
her second husband was confirmed. The Due de Chevreuse and de 
Luynes married the eldest daughter of the famous Colbert, who was a 
wealthy heiress. Madame de Chevreuse had three daughters by her 
second husband : Anne Marie de Lorraine, abbess of Pont-aux-Dame ; 
Henriette, abbess of Jouarre ; and Mademoiselle de Chevreuse, 
celebrated for her beauty, and the admiration of the coadjutor De Retz, 


33 Charles de Schomberg, Due d'Halluyn, Pair et Marechal de France, 
Marquis d'Epinay, and Comte de Nanteuil. This nobleman eventually 
married Mademoiselle de Hautefort, September 24, 1646. The duke 
died 1656. 

34 Mem. de la Porte. Petitot, t. 59. 

35 Daughter of Cesar de Bourbon, Count de Busset, and of Louise de 
Montmorillon. The branch of Bourbon Busset descended from the 
turbulent Louis, Archbishop of Liege, who died in 1482, son of 
Charles I., Duke of Bourbon, and of Agnes of Burgundy. 

36 The words of this oath were, " Ego Frater Joannes Baptista Carre, 
ordinis Praedicatorum, vestri Novitiatus Generalis Prioris, voveo et pro- 
metto obedientiam tibi, Domino Eminentissimo Armando Cardinal! 
Duci de Richelieu, usque ad mortem." Archives des Affaires Etran- 
geres, France, t. 78 ; Cousin, Vie de Madame de Hautefort. 

37 Le Pere Griff et, Hist, du Regne de Louis XIII., t. 3. 

38 Griffet, t. 3. 

39 Siri, Memorie Recondite, t. 4 ; L'Espion, Turc. t. 4 (written by one 
Paolo Marana) ; Dreux du Radier, t. 6 ; Vie de Mademoiselle de la 

40 Siri, t. 8 ; Dreux du Radier, t. 6 ; Le Pere Griffet, t. 3 ; Hist, de 
Louis XIII. 

41 Griffet, t. 3. 

42 Le Pere Griffet, t. 3 ; Mem. de Motteville, t. 1. 

43 Cousin, Vie de Madame de Hautefort, Appendix sur Mademoiselle 
de la Fayette ; Archives des Affaires Etrangeres, France, t. 78, fol. 63. 

44 " L'oncle esperait pour moms obtenir un chapeau par le moyen de la 

45 Archives des Affaires Etrangeres, France, t. 78, fol. 124. 

46 Mademoiselle Thomassin was a dresser in the service of Anne of 

47 Archives des Affaires Etrangeres, France, t. 78, fol. 150, quoted from 
M. Cousin, Appendix, Vie de Madame de Hautefort. 

48 Mem. de Richelieu, t. x. 

49 Louis XIII. had no very elevated opinion of the capacity of the zealous 
Dominican. " Le bon Pere Carre," said his Majesty one day, " estun 
de ces saints qu'on gagne aisement des qu'on a bien dore une chapelle." 

50 Mem. de Motteville ; Griffet, Regne de Louis XIII. ; Dreux du 
Radier, t. 6. 

51 Ibid. 

52 Cousin, Vie de Madame de Hautefort, Bibl. Imp. Val. 73, 74, MS. 
" Le Cardinal m'a dit que quand le Roi cut et6 trois jours sans voir 
la Fayette il seroit gueri, que je ne pouvais ignorer ce que disoit 
St. Jerome, qu'il falloit passer sur le corps de son pere, pour courir a 
1'etendard de la croix. Je lui aurois pu dire," adds Caussin, " que le 
Saint-Esprit ne se prend pas a coups de canon ; mais je lui dis settlement 
que si j'eusse presse davantage, j 'aurois tout gate." 




THE year 1637 opens an important and myste- 
rious era in the married life of Anne of Austria. 
It is the period of her most flagrant treason against 
her husband's realm, of her reconciliation with 
the Cardinal de Richelieu, and of the hope which 
transported France, and which was realised during 
the following year by the birth of Louis Quatorze. 
Europe during the year 1637 continued con- 
vulsed with warfare, every realm seemed shaken 
to its foundation. The invasion of Germany by 
Gustavus Adolphus King of Sweden in the year 
1630, in behalf of the Protestant Princes of Ger- 
many and to serve the cause of the dethroned 
Elector Palatine, had moved every nation. Spain, 
united to the Empire by close family ties and 
political sympathies, threw in her lot with the 
Emperor Ferdinand II. Soon the war had assumed 
the terrible aspect of a conflict waged between the 
Protestant Powers of Europe allied with France, 
against the orthodox and potent Empires of Spain 
and Austria. The invasion of the Swedes occurred 
during the first session of the Diet of Ratisbon, to 
which the envoys of France, the able diplomatist 
Brulart and the astute Capuchin father, Joseph 



de Tremblay, had been sent by Richelieu to nego- 
tiate a peace between France, the Empire and the 
Dukes of Mantua and Savoy, or to oppose by 
every artifice the election of the Emperor's eldest 
son as King of the Romans. The desired pacifica- 
tion was obtained, Casale was to be surrendered. 
The Emperor moreover in his anxiety to secure 
the promise of the imperial dignity for his son, 
disbanded at the solicitation of a majority of the 
Electors a part of that vast army under his re- 
nowned general Albert de Wallenstein, Duke de 
Friedland, which held the rebellious princes in 
check and might have arrested the victorious 
advance from Pomerania of King Gustavus Adol- 
phus. 1 The Swedish armies laid siege to Stettin, 
which was soon taken at the point of the sword and 
the town given up to pillage : the members of the 
Diet thereupon retired in dismay from Ratisbon 
without proceeding to the much-coveted election. 
France meanwhile had been at war with the 
Emperor and the King of Spain since the year 
1626 concerning the succession to the Duchy of 
Mantua. The old policy of Henri Quatre therefore 
presented itself with double zest to Louis XIII. 
and his minister : alliance with the Protestant 
Powers of Europe to bring about the humiliation 
of the overgrown power of Spain, to wrest the 
Empire from the Hapsburgs, Archdukes of Aus- 
tria, by causing the election of a King of the 
Romans from among the princes of another 
dynasty, to moderate the pretensions of the 
Papacy, to confer the power of supreme nomina- 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 335 

tion to ecclesiastical benefices on the rulers of the 
various countries of Europe, and to abolish the 
faculty of appeal to Rome in disputed cases con- 
cerning temporalities. The Great Henry projected 
this political revolution while holding the Cal- 
vinists of the realm in strict subjection. Richelieu 
ventured a step further : he crushed " les religion- 
naires" drove with a strong hand their allies 
from the coast of France, resumed possession of 
their cities of refuge, annulled the charters of La 
Rochelle and other powerful cities, and whilst the 
Calvinists cowered before the 'prestige of the crown, 
the able minister, to exalt the power of France 
abroad, joined their foreign allies to effect in other 
countries the reforms which he had so sternly 
repressed at home. In 1628 the Valteline was 
rescued from papal domination and restored to 
liberty ; and in 1631, two years after La Rochelle 
fell at the feet of Richelieu, the alliance between 
the Protestant crown of Sweden with the Catholic 
realm of France was concluded, for the overthrow 
of the Imperial House and the reform of the Ger- 
manic Confederation. The treaty between France 
and Sweden was signed January 1631 at the camp 
of Berwalt in Brandenburg ; the plenipotenti- 
aries who ratified this astonishing alliance were 
M. de Charnece on behalf of France, and Horn, 
Marechal de Camp of the Swedish forces, and 
Bannier, their famed general of infantry. 2 The 
articles stipulated an alliance offensive and defen- 
sive between the two crowns ; that the King of 
France should furnish annually for the service of 


the war an annual subsidy of one million of livres ; 3 
that the invading army should always be main- 
tained at a complement of thirty thousand in- 
fantry and six thousand cavalry. Finally, that 
the Roman Catholic religion should be respected, 
and that no wilful spoliation of cathedrals, monas- 
teries and church treasures should be permitted. 
England joined the allies, Denmark wished well 
to the forces of the gallant realm, her neighbour, 
and thus was inaugurated that contest known 
under the familiar designation of the Thirty Years' 
War. France fought well and bravely in the con- 
test, the success of the Scandinavian monarch 
was unparalleled, victory followed his banners; 
in vain Tilly, Wallenstein, Montecuculi and the 
Emperor himself sought to arrest his progress. 
Complete religious and political freedom seemed 
about to dawn on Germany ; in the space of two 
years Gustavus Adolphus gained thirty battles 
and took two hundred towns, no limit therefore 
could be prescribed to the prowess of a conqueror 
so mighty. Richelieu thereupon began to reflect ; 
the war approached the Alsatian frontier, and 
possibly the Swedish hero might long to test his 
veteran soldiers against the world-renowned chiv- 
alry of France. When Germany lay prostrate, 
Richelieu argued might not the Imperial banner 
be again raised from the dust by the hero, and 
Gustavus Adolphus, become the ally of the 
Emperor Ferdinand, lead his legions over the 
frontier and dictate the pacification of Europe 
from Paris ? Long did Richelieu and his two 

1637], ANNE OF AUSTRIA 337 

confidants, the Capuchin and Dominican fathers, 
Joseph de Tremblay and Carre, ponder over a 
glory that eclipsed the exploits of the minister in 
Piedmont and Montferrat, and which reduced 
the much-lauded conflict of the Pass of Susa into 
an ignoble skirmish when compared to the mighty 
victories of Gustavus. The jealousy of the Car- 
dinal did not long ferment ; on the 6th day of 
November 1632, the gallant King fell on the 
plains of Lutzen in the very arms of victory. 
Gustavus received two mortal wounds from the 
hand, it was rumoured, of an assassin, who him- 
self died from the pistol of an officer mysteriously 
at hand to avenge the assassination. Later the 
body of this personage was likewise found ex- 
tended on the battle-field mutilated by sabre 
wounds. 4 France then rallied from her panic : in 
the preceding month Montmorency had suffered 
the penalty of treason ; the rebel league with 
Spain, cemented by the boyish resentment of 
Monsieur, was dissolved on the field of Castel- 
naudari. Monsieur, penitent, as has been before 
related so long as the rod was suspended over his 
head, soon regretted his concessions and fled 
again from the realm. The flight of Orleans gave 
Richelieu opportunity for completing the annexa- 
tion of the duchy of Lorraine. Nancy was in- 
vested and garrisoned by French troops ; the 
Duke, after a hasty abdication in favour of the 
Cardinal his brother, fled to Besanon and joined 
a division of the Imperial army under Monte- 
cuculi. On the plains of Lombardy the French 


armies encountered the Spanish forces with vary- 
ing success, and but few notable achievements 
gave lustre or renown to the contest. The King's 
generals were Marshal de Crequi and the Cardinal 
de la Valette, the brother of the famous Duke 
d'Epernon, who was renowned rather for his 
military capacity than known as a prince of the 
Church and Cardinal Archbishop of Toulouse. 
The Duke of Saxe Weimar, after the death of 
Gustavus Adolphus, commanded the French con- 
tingent in Germany, and the war continued to 
rage with varied success, Bannier, the most re- 
nowned of the Swedish generals, having the com- 
mand in chief of the forces. In 1633 Heidelberg 
was taken by the Swedes, and in September of 
the same year a Spanish army under the Duke de 
Feria entered Germany and joined the Imperial 
forces Feria having first escorted the new gover- 
nor of the Low Countries, the Cardinal Infant Don 
Ferdinand, 5 to Brussels. 

In this year the Archduchess Infanta Isabel 6 
died without posterity, and according to the 
terms of the will of her father Philip II. King of 
Spain the sovereignty of the Low Countries re- 
verted to the Spanish crown. Ferdinand had great 
influence with his sister Queen Anne of Austria, 
and was her frequent correspondent, and after 
his arrival in Brussels most of Anne's private 
correspondence with Spain passed through his 
hands. Queen Marie meantime, on the decease of 
the Infanta, quitted Brussels and retired to Spa, 
paying a visit en route to the Prince and Princess 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 339 

of Orange at Bolduc. Monsieur however re- 
mained the guest of the Archduke Ferdinand, 
fretting at the life of inaction and self-denial 
which his exile entailed, tenaciously resenting 
fancied affronts to his high dignity, at variance 
with the Queen-mother and becoming weary of 
the society of his estimable but inert consort, 
whose beauty had now lost its influence over his 
capricious heart. Meantime the great battle of 
Nordlingen, gained by the armies of Spain and the 
Empire over the forces of France and her allies, 
September 6, 1634, seemed to awaken again the 
patriotism of the Duke or perhaps gave him 
opportunity for the step which he had long medi- 
tated, his return to France, an event earnestly 
desired by Richelieu, who felt the necessity of 
making concessions to a prince who might any 
day hear himself saluted as King of France. The 
Duke, as the price of this concession had asked for 
the recognition of his marriage with Marguerite de 
Lorraine, Louis offered to submit again the ques- 
tion of the legality of this marriage to the highest 
civil and ecclesiastical authorities of the realm, 
and in case their decision was adverse to in- 
demnify the Princess, to create her a duchess and 
not to compel Monsieur to marry again against his 
inclination. The Duke accepted this proposition, 
being nevertheless firmly resolved to maintain the 
validity of his union with Madame, which he re- 
garded as a master-stroke of defiance to the will 
of Richelieu. Monsieur also asked for the pay* 
ment of his debts. Louis generously presented 


his brother with the sum of 400,000 livres for that 
purpose. Moreover it was stipulated that all the 
Duke's revenues should be restored, with the 
donation of a further sum of 160,000 crowns for 
his immediate equipment. The government of 
Auvergne was also to be conferred on Monsieur 
to indemnify him for the loss of that over the 
Orleanois which had been forfeited after the late 
rebellion. 7 

Content, as he well might be, with these muni- 
ficent stipulations, Monsieur, without taking leave 
of his wife, fled from Brussels on the 12th of 
September and repaired to St. Germain, where 
the brothers interchanged a fraternal embrace, 
Gaston taking Heaven to witness that he would 
be a true and faithful subject and a sincere and 
cordial ally of M. le Cardinal. The following day 
his Eminence regaled the returned prodigal by a 
sumptuous banquet at Ruel, of which the Duchess 
d'Aiguillon was queen. From Anne of Austria 
Monsieur met with a cool reception. His mar- 
riage and his subsequent persistence in his union 
with Marguerite de Lorraine dissipated any in- 
fluence which he had exercised over the mind and 
conduct of the Queen. In Monsieur Anne now 
beheld the married heir-presumptive, ready on the 
demise of his brother and King to seize her crown 
and transfer it to his own consort. More than 
ever Anne deplored her childless condition, and 
lamented that in spite of her prayers, offerings 
and vows after twenty-two years of wedlock the 
blessing appeared farther than ever from attain- 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 341 

ment. The alienation between Anne and her hus- 
band had become more confirmed if less visibly 
demonstrated. Louis, refreshed by the deferential 
homage of Mademoiselle de la Fayette, or de 
Hautefort, cared not for another companion. 
Anne, with her fair beauty, her consciousness of 
her charms, her petulant and derisive wit, her 
determined self-will and her Spanish inclinations, 
had become hateful and sometimes even terrible 
to the King. Alone in his solitary chamber Louis 
loved to be at peace, to avoid the trouble and 
fatigue of kingly rule and to abandon himself to 
melancholy musings and to the alleviation of his 
frequent and painful maladies. The excitement 
of a camp, of a review, of a military progress, alone 
had power to dissipate his Majesty's constitutional 

The military events of the year 1635 were 
adverse for France ; notwithstanding incredible 
efforts on the part of the government, reverses 
met the allies everywhere. The French had three 
armies on foot in Germany ; one of 12,000 men 
under Marshal de Feuquieres and the Duke 
Bernard of Saxe Weimar ; the second corps de 
bataille under Cardinal de la Valette was destined 
to march for the rescue of the Palatinate, Heidel- 
berg having again fallen ; the third army under 
Marshal de la Force kept guard on the frontiers 
of Alsace. In Italy Louis had an army of 12,000 
men and 2000 horse under the Marshal de Crequi ; 
in the Valteline the French soldiers numbered 
1200 men and 800 horse ; in Provence and 


Languedoc and in Lorraine large bodies of troops 
were quartered. With such forces in the pay of 
France, in addition to heavy subsidies to the 
allies of the crown, well might King Louis exclaim 
in a despatch to the Marshals de Chatillon and de 
Breze, " Judge, Messieurs, therefore, whether it is 
possible for me I having to support alone the 
cost of such great armies to raise other reinforce- 
ments for my allies. Such armies as mine ought to 
draw to me all the forces of the said allies ! " 8 
The most energetic measures nevertheless were 
necessary, Richelieu beheld with horror the pro- 
gress of the Imperialists and the slender chance 
which existed that the Duke of Saxe Weimar 
would be able to defend the frontiers from inva- 
sion. Spain threatened Provence and Languedoc, 
the Imperial armies were marching into Cham- 
pagne and Picardy, the Duke of Lorraine pre- 
pared to attack his confiscated duchy, all the 
resources of Spain and the Empire seemed united 
to invade France and thus deprive the great Pro- 
testant League of her chief ally. In the midst of 
this suspense the fortress of Philipsburg was taken. 
Utter panic thereupon prevailed throughout the 
kingdom as treasures and abundant military 
stores fell into the hands of the enemy. The Mar- 
shals de la Force and the Duke d'Angouleme were 
sent into Lorraine to intercept the advance of 
the Imperial general, Gallas, 9 on the cities of 
Toul, Metz and Verdun, while the King himself 
marched to the frontiers of the duchy. Crequi 
meanwhile entered the Milanese and laid siege to 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 343 

Valenza. A victory soon after gained by the Duke 
of Lorraine over the troops under La Force, and 
the news of the capture of the city of Treves by the 
Spanish commander-in-chief of the forces in the 
Low Countries, completed the national despon- 
dency. The gallantry of the Cardinal Infant 
governor of the Low Countries, and brother of 
Queen Anne, eminently contributed to the success 
of the war. The French received another repulse 
in Italy, where Crequi with his allies the Dukes 
of Savoy and Parma was compelled to raise the 
siege of Valenza and retreat before the victorious 
arms of the Marquis de Alada and Don Carlos 
Coloma. This disastrous year terminated by the 
assemblage of a second Diet in Ratisbon by the 
victorious Emperor, and by the triumphant elec- 
tion of his son as King of the Romans, who had 
married the sister of the consort of Louis XIII. 

France, menaced by invasion from every quarter 
of her territory, concluded alliance offensive and 
defensive, February 1635, with the States of 
Holland against Spain and had thus directly 
challenged that potent monarchy. The treaty 
was elaborate and calculated to exasperate King 
Philip and his minister Olivarez. Louis actually 
therein divided the Netherlands with his Dutch 
allies ; the share of territory to fall to France in 
case of victory being Luxembourg, the counties of 
Artois, Namur, Hainault, Flanders and the Cam- 
bresis ! The answer of Spain to this challenge was 
the inroad of a formidable army, early in the year 
1636, under Prince Thomas of Savoy, Piccolomini 


and Jean de Wert, on the province of Picardy. 
La Capelle Chatelet and the town of Corbie were 
captured, and the road to Paris opened for the 
advance of the enemy on the capital. The con- 
sternation was so great at court and in the city 
that the Cardinal dared not show himself, for 
there was no insult which the populace would not 
have been ready to shower upon him when the 
news of the fall of Corbie arrived. Richelieu him- 
self was so depressed in mind and body at the 
gigantic war which enveloped France that if Pere 
Joseph, to whom he confided his trouble, had not 
encouraged and counselled him he was on the 
point of retiring from the administration of 
affairs. 10 Chavigny, Richelieu's confidential friend, 
describes the panic which followed the advance of 
the Spanish armies ; " but," says he, " the King 
has gone for change of air to Madrid, 11 and Mon- 
signeur to Chaillot, they both now understand 
each other and are in perfect health." 12 The 
Count de Soissons meantime was sent into 
Picardy as commander-in-chief, where Louis him- 
self followed and took up his quarters in the city 
of Amiens. The Duke de Montbazon repaired to 
Soissons, Breze to La Fere, the Count d'Alais 
to Abbeville, Bethune to La Peronne and Ram- 
bures to Dourlens all being eager to defend 
their country from invasion ; while the Duke de 
Longueville, at the head of 6000 men, kept guard 
over the frontier of Normandy. 

The Queen, during these momentous events, 
resided at St. Germain and took eager interest in 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 345 

the affairs of the war. Notwithstanding the re- 
newed prohibition of the King, Anne persisted in 
her clandestine correspondence with her brothers, 
Don Philip IV., and Ferdinand, governor of the 
Low Countries. Her indignation had been im- 
prudently expressed at the treaty concluded by 
Louis XIII. with the States-General of Holland 
against Spain, while her Majesty could scarcely 
conceal her joy at the triumph of her countrymen 
and at the visible dismay and depression of the 
minister. While France mourned in consternation, 
Anne and her favourite ladies exulted, and la 
Fayette was tauntingly advised by the Queen to 
counsel King Louis to make timely peace whilst 
he was able with Spain. The treacherous half- 
surrender of La Capelle by the governor, M. du 
Bee, and the unexpected advance of the Spanish 
army upon Roye, had excited the suspicion of 
Richelieu. Letters intended for the Cardinal Infant 
were captured ; the mysterious and suspicious 
allusions in which, on the condition of the frontier 
fortresses, inspired him with alarm and indigna- 
tion. The facts which unaccountably transpired 
relative to the military resources of the realm 
proceeded evidently from some personage highly 
placed and in the daily habit of hearing important 
discussions relative to the war. Richelieu, never- 
theless, dared not at this period reveal his con- 
victions ; his own position was precarious, his 
enemies many, and the disastrous result of the 
campaign of 1635-6 had placed sharp weapons in 
the hands of persons who plotted his overthrow. 


The people generally, pronounced that the alliance 
of Catholic France and Protestant Germany was 
unhallowed and likely to be visited with condign 
j udgment. So anxious was Richelieu to propitiate 
Louis and to conciliate public opinion, that by 
the advice of his wily adviser, the Capuchin 
Joseph, he presented to the King " his Hotel de 
Richelieu (afterwards Palais-Royal) with all its 
dependencies ; also his superb and magnificent 
vessels for the altar of gold and diamonds, his 
state buffet and its trophies of silver plate valued 
at three thousand golden marks, his celebrated 
heart-shaped diamond weighing twenty carats : 
the whole unconditionally, but reserving to him- 
self the enjoyment of the above during his life- 
time." 13 " Monseigneur, by this graceful act you 
will diminish the dislike felt towards your Eminence 
by the populace, you will convince the public 
that you use wisely and liberally the favours and 
honours given you by the King, and that at your 
death your only wish is to restore your riches to 
your benefactor, instead of bequeathing such to 
your relatives. By this generosity you will acquire 
immortal renown, and your most bitter enemy 
must be converted into an eulogist of your dis- 
interestedness." So argued Pere Joseph ; and 
Chavigny, therefore, on the 9th of June, 1636, 
carried the donation signed by his Eminence to 
the King, who was pleased to accept the gift. 
The fortune of the great minister soon emerged 
from the cloud of adversity, to the consternation 
of his adversaries. In November 1636 Corbie was 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 347 

recaptured and its garrison of 1600 Spaniards 
compelled to capitulate, and Gallas was repulsed 
and compelled to retreat from the duchy of Bur- 
gundy before the gallant deeds of Conde. Suc~ 
cesses also attended the French arms in Lorraine, 
so that the end of the year 1636 again found the 
policy of Richelieu in the ascendant, and the 
minister established and greeted by his sovereign 
as " Celui qvCil aimoit le plus, avec M. le Cardinal 
de la Valette, en France" 

Monsieur, meantime, had shared the campaign 
in Picardy with his cousin, M. de Soissons, the 
Princes having been declared by the King com- 
manders of the besieging army. No sooner had 
Corbie capitulated and the court rejoiced at so 
glorious an issue of the campaign, when Monsieur 
again fled from Versailles to Blois, while M. de 
Soissons in disguise reached the rebel haven, 
Bouillon's fortress of Sedan. The courtiers were 
confounded ; Chavigny, in his amusing letters, 
which relieve the dry details of military proceed- 
ings, finds no word to express his amazement at 
such an escapade. " The King," says Chavigny, 
" sent for Monsieur after the surrender of Corbie, 
to consult with him on the dispersion of the army 
and the towns in which large garrisons should 
winter, after which his Majesty said to his 
brother that it was now time that he should enjoy 
himself a little in Paris. Monsieur, however, in- 
sisted upon departing into Champagne, to which 
his Majesty declined to assent as there was no 
military work in the province requiring his High- 


ness's presence. I do not know whether this 
denial offended Monsieur ; it is certain, however, 
that he has again fled from court, which is a thing 
that fills us with despair, for it appears as if the 
same work and negotiations have to begin over 
and over again ! " 14 The true reason of the flight 
of the Duke and of the Count de Soissons, was 
their dread of Richelieu's vengeance after his 
detection of a plot concocted between them to 
assassinate the minister on one of his visits to the 
royal abode a castle in the vicinity of Amiens. 
The design failed owing to the faint-heartedness 
of the Duke, who assuredly then held his enemy in 
his toils, as Richelieu, separated from his own 
attendants, was conversing with Monsieur, around 
whom stood the four gentlemen who, on a signal, 
were to give the fatal blow. Monsieur, assailed 
with a remorseful panic, suddenly ran up some 
steps leading to the King's apartment, leaving 
Richelieu surrounded by his intended assassins, 
who, perceiving the Duke's perturbation, dared 
not strike. Richelieu, with admirable sang- fr 'oid, 
comprehending how matters stood, bowed, and 
calmly entered his coach which was in waiting. 
The Cardinal then caused the rumour to be circu- 
lated that the King had resolved on the arrest of 
M. d'Orleans and of M. de Soissons on their return 
to Paris. The flight of the Princes ensued, and 
neither of them quitted their retreat until fresh 
calamities convulsed the realm. Monsieur, never- 
theless, obtained from his brother the long-sought 
recognition of his marriage with Marguerite de 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 349 

Lorraine " provided that Monsieur espoused not, 
with the Princess, the pretensions and resentment 
of Duke Charles of Lorraine, her brother." 15 

The year 1637 opened with the capture of 
Landrecy and the siege of La Capelle ; important 
military events, which, united to the victories of 
the Duke of Weimar in Alsace, restored the mili- 
tary prestige of France. The desire, therefore, to 
conclude an honourable peace with Spain, and 
to put an end to the warfare in Italy, was now 
earnestly entertained by Richelieu. To effect 
this boon without compromising his sovereign, the 
Cardinal opened a private correspondence with 
the powerful minister and favourite of Philip IV., 
the Count-duke de Olivarez. In this patriotic 
and laudable design, Richelieu found himself 
foiled by the intrigues of Anne of Austria, who 
counselled her brother to enforce a solution of the 
political events leading to the war at the sword's 
point rather than by the pen of the diplomatist. 
Richelieu confided his suspicions to Pere Joseph, 
and asked his invaluable assistance to unravel 
the intrigue. The doubts of Richelieu were first 
excited during the month of April of the year 
1637 ; during the following months of June and 
July the minister acquired more positive know- 
ledge on the subject of the Queen's frequent corre- 
spondence with the enemy. He had resolved to 
send a secret agent to Spain to test the popular 
feeling of the country in regard to the war with 
France and the private dispositions of the 
Spanish ministers. For this purpose, by the 


advice of Pere Joseph, a monk of the order of 
Recollets, one Jerome Bachelier was selected 
partly for his skill in chicane, but more especially 
as he was slightly acquainted with Olivarez, with 
whom Bachelier had conferred when sent to 
Spain some years previously on a mission con- 
nected with his order. Some ostensible errand, 
however, it was needful to provide, in order to 
procure for Bachelier an audience of the Count- 
duke. Richelieu therefore suggested to Anne of 
Austria, that as God had not yet granted her 
prayer for offspring, and as she had already caused 
prayers to be put up at every shrine in France, 
it might be advisable to solicit her brother, King 
Philip, to send her a fragment of some renowned 
saint of Spain, whose intercession might procure 
for her the unspeakable blessing of becoming the 
happy mother of a Dauphin. Anne assented, and 
wrote to the King her brother, to send her the arm 
of the holy and blessed St. Isidore of Seville, to be 
enshrined in her chapel of Val de Grace, that she 
might daily kneel in supplication before this pre- 
cious relic of the Oracle of Spain. Probably on 
this occasion Richelieu addressed to the Queen 
the following extraordinary epistle, which affords 
in itself no clue to the period when it was written : 
"It is impossible for me to express to your 
Majesty the affliction with which I am inspired, in 
finding, from the letter with which I have been 
honoured, that God still withholds from your 
marriage the benediction which we had all trusted 
to obtain from His goodness, I assure your 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 351 

Majesty that the King grieves as much for the 
affection which he bears you as for his own sake, 
and for the welfare of this realm. Nevertheless I 
pray you to take comfort. What God withholds 
at one time He bestows at another, and the 
Almighty, having hitherto testified a peculiar care 
for France, will in His own good time crown the 
blessings he has showered upon us by giving the 
one boon alone capable of consummating our 
felicity. I pray earnestly that so it may be : 
deign to believe, Madame, that no one desires this 
blessing more fervently than myself." 16 The 
Queen, however, far from being penetrated with 
Richelieu's devotion for her welfare, while solicit- 
ing through Bachelier the arm of St. Isidore, wrote 
by ses voies secretes to her brother the King, to be 
on his guard against the intrigues of the monk 
sent with her petition, as his true mission was 
secret and political. Bachelier, accordingly, on 
his arrival at Madrid found every ministerial door 
closed against him and audience of the Count- 
duke refused unless he first made a statement of 
his errand. Compelled to submit, Bachelier had 
then the mortification to find his request referred 
to the Archbishops of Toledo and Seville, who had 
received his Catholic Majesty's commands to com- 
ply with the pious petition of his sister, the very 
Christian Queen. Foiled in his design and con- 
firmed in his distrust of the Queen by Bachelier's 
report, " that the intimation of the true object of 
his mission proceeded from a high authority in 
France," 17 Richelieu commenced in good earnest 


investigations which he resolved should issue in 
the repudiation of Anne of Austria, or in her per- 
fect submission to his decrees, of whatever nature 
he thought proper to propose. His first step was to 
place spies about Madame de Chevreuse, who was 
considered by his Eminence as the mischievous 
instigator and upholder of Anne's misdemeanours ; 
his second, by the aid of Father Joseph and the 
Archbishop of Paris, to introduce a young Capu- 
chin monk as confessor to some of the sisterhood 
of Val de Grace trusting by this device to gain 
insight into her Majesty's proceedings when at the 
convent, from whence all her private correspon- 
dence was despatched. It was discovered by this 
means that a person in disguise was in the habit 
of leaving letters for the Queen at the convent, 
which were delivered to the abbess, who now 
placed them in a recess in the wall by the side of 
the altar in the Queen's oratory. Anne always pro- 
ceeded to the convent to peruse her letters and to 
indite her answers, which she placed in the same 
hiding-place. A few hours after the Queen's visit 
the same messenger appeared at the convent-grate, 
to whom the letters were given by the abbess her- 
self. This messenger was soon traced by Richelieu's 
secret police ; he was discovered to be la Porte, the 
Queen's faithful servant, who had before suffered 
in her cause. He was followed to the hotel of the 
English embassy where he was heard to inquire for 
one M. Auger, and from the same embassy he was 
one morning pursued to the convent where he was 
seen to leave a letter at the grate of the parloir. } 



Madame de Chevreuse, meantime, had ex- 
perienced some alleviation in the rigour of her 
captivity at Milly. She had been suffered to 
leave that dismal chateau and take an hotel in 
Tours, where her proceedings with the old Arch- 
bishop of Tours afforded great scandal to his pious 
flock. 1 * The prelate was so fascinated with the 
beauty and wit of the Duchess that he became a 
martyr to her caprice, and showed perfect in- 
difference to the decorum appertaining to his high 

Richelieu therefore, sent an exempt of his police 
down to Tours to watch the manoeuvres of his old 
enemy, and discovered that missives were often 
mysteriously despatched by Marc de la Porte, 
brother of the Queen's servant, and valet in the 
service of the Duchess, who also was in the habit 
of receiving packets from his brother in Paris ; 
the copy of a letter, moreover, alleged to have 
been written by Madame de Chevreuse to the 
Duke de Lorraine, was transmitted by an anony- 
mous hand to the Cardinal de Richelieu. In this 
letter the duchess taunted her old admirer with 
his languid zeal against the despoiler of his duchy 
the tyrant Richelieu whom, with the same 
perverted taste which characterised her inter- 
cepted correspondence with Chateauneuf, Ma- 
dame de Chevreuse vilified in opprobrious terms. 
Richelieu now thought it time to humble the 
haughty Princess who had dared to defy his 
power, reject his amity and to ridicule his ad- 
miration. The gravity of the Queen's offence 


merited arrest for high treason. From Louis 
XIII. Anne had little indulgence to expect ; pre- 
possessed with the idea that she had sanctioned, 
and even devised, the conspiracy for which 
Chalais suffered, the King was ready to believe 
any infamy which might be alleged against his 
imprudent consort. 

On the last day of July 1637, Richelieu assem- 
bled the council of state at the Louvre, previous to 
the departure of the King for Chantilly, whither 
Louis was going to spend the month of August, 
in high dudgeon that the remonstrance of his 
minister had prevented him from superintending 
in person the siege-works before La Capelle. After 
giving certain explanations relative to the pro- 
gress of the campaign in Picardy, Richelieu 
suddenly rose and denounced the secret intelli- 
gences between Anne of Austria, the King of 
Spain, and the Cardinal Infant governor of the 
Low Countries. " Sire, we have arrived at that 
period of national calamity when the treasonable 
relations of a queen of France with the enemy 
must be arrested. Her Majesty, I have reason to 
believe, has made important political disclosures, 
the proofs of which exist in the convent of the Val 
de Grace." Richelieu then accused the Queen of 
illicit correspondence with Madame de Chevreuse, 
with Mirabel, late Ambassador of Spain at the 
court of France, with the Spanish ministers in 
London and Brussels, with the Queen Marie de' 
Medici, and with the Queen of England, whom 
she had perniciously exhorted to make innova- 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 355 

tions in religion highly displeasing to Charles I., 
under the delusive hope that Spain would inter- 
pose to put down seditious risings in Britain. 20 
The sensation excited by the Cardinal's discourse 
was acute enough to satisfy his anticipations ; the 
council clamoured that investigations should be 
instituted into an affair which so nearly concerned 
the national honour and the military renown of 
France ! The King, informed beforehand of 
Anne's misdemeanours, listened in sullen wrath, 
and empowered his ministers to make all pre- 
paratory arrests and examinations for the eluci- 
dation of the business. 

" There is already sufficient evidence for the 
arrest and arraignment of the Queen on a charge 
of high treason," exclaimed the Chancellor 
Seguier. " Such a process, however, would shake 
the prestige of the monarch and degrade the royal 
dignity. I put to you, therefore, Sire, whether it 
will not be better to avoid so cruel an extremity 
and to exact instead from the Queen Infanta a 
plenary confession, and to compel the accept- 
ance of pledges which hereafter shall suffice to 
prevent future correspondence ? " 21 

The moderate advice of Seguier met with 
applause and with protestations from the Car- 
dinal minister " that his fealty to the state sur- 
passed only his reverence for her Majesty." The 
Chancellor was then commanded by the King to 
make the necessary perquisition into the affair 
" without favour or dread " ; and a mandate was 
addressed by Louis to the Archbishop of Paris, 


directing and requiring him to grant every 
facility for the investigation requisite in the 
nunnery of Val de Grace which was under his 
jurisdiction. Lastly, a lettre de cachet was signed 
by the King decreeing the arrest and transfer of 
Pierre la Porte to the fortress of the Bastille. 22 

The Queen, meantime, unconscious of the gulf 
yawning at her feet, had been present a few days 
previously at the profession of Louise Angelique 
de la Fayette in the nunnery of the Visitandines. 
Louis, overwhelmed with grief at this separation, 
had exhausted his powers of persuasion to induce 
la Fayette to reconsider her resolve. He accused 
the Cardinal of using menace to hasten this deter- 
mination, and one day Louis suddenly returned 
from Fontainebleau to Paris, after the reception 
of a letter from Louise in which she expressed 
some apprehension of the Cardinal's violence. 
"If M. le Cardinal causes Mademoiselle de la 
Fayette to be abducted and carried into Auvergne, 
as he once threatened, I swear that I will fetch her 
thence in the very teeth of the Lord Cardinal and 
of all the devils in his train!" 23 "Sire," ex- 
claimed la Fayette, " cease to urge me. I have 
vowed allegiance to a higher Potentate than your- 
self. Let me become His faithful subject." " 
The sermon on the profession of la Fayette was 
preached by Caussin, who was moved to tears as 
he contemplated the fair young girl about to be 
sacrificed to a court intrigue. The Queen threw 
the black veil over the head of la Fayette, who 
wept without ceasing throughout the ceremony. 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 357 

At the conclusion of the service Anne retired to 
the abbess's parlour and sent for Caussin. Her 
Majesty then, after a touching allusion to the 
scene which they had just witnessed, said that 
her conscience obliged her to remark to the 
reverend father that she deemed it to be his 
bounden duty to represent to the King that his 
people groaned under the burden of taxes and 
subsidies to defray the expenses of a war excited 
and maintained by the ambition of the Cardinal ; 
that the aim of the Cardinal was so to daze the 
mind of the King that his services could not be 
dispensed with ; that his ambition and treachery 
maintained a perpetual feud between the King 
and his nearest and dearest connections and some 
of his most faithful nobles, most of whom would 
serve the realm with greater ability than M. le 
Cardinal. In reply to this somewhat officious 
address, Caussin assured her Majesty of his zeal 
and loyalty, but said " that he had made a rule 
never to interfere in politics, but in other matters 
he would faithfully acquit himself as his con- 
science might dictate." 25 

On the 3rd of August Louis departed for Chan- 
tilly. On the following day Anne also left Paris, 
not having the slightest suspicion of the peril 
awaiting her. Anne was followed to her coach by 
Mademoiselle de Hautefort and other ladies who 
took leave of her Majesty for the period of her 
absence at Chantilly. La Porte was amongst the 
Queen's attendants ; before leaving the Louvre 
Anne beckoned to this individual and gave him 


two letters one folded and addressed, the other 
in a blank envelope and unsealed. Her Majesty 
said, " Carry this letter to the post ; as for this 
one, I will tell you what you must do with it ! >! 
Anne was proceeding to give la Porte the necessary 
instructions when a nobleman of the court ap- 
proached, to whom she was compelled to speak ; 
the Queen then hurriedly entered her coach with 
Madame de Senece and drove out of the court- 
yard. " The Queen," says la Porte, " made me 
understand by a sign that both these letters were 
for Madame de Chevreuse ; she omitted, however, 
to tell me what she desired me to do with the 
letter enclosed without an address in a sheet of 
paper, but I concluded that her Majesty might 
send me word the same evening. Afterwards I 
took the determination, as I did not hear, to send 
them both by a special messenger whom I trusted 
and knew." 28 The Queen had no sooner quitted 
the precincts of the Louvre than la Porte was 
arrested and conveyed to the Bastille by Goulart, 
ensign of les Mousquetaires du Roi. On his 
person were found the letters given to him by 
Anne, one of which was openly addressed to the 
Duchess de Chevreuse, a mere letter of gossip, and 
was to have been forwarded by the royal mails ; 
the other letter was written partly in a cipher of 
numerals, and made allusion to some recent inter- 
course of letters between the Duchess and the 
Duke of Lorraine. The Queen, moreover, therein 
refused to sanction, " as too perilous," a project 
proposed by Madame de Chevreuse, to visit the 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 359 

Louvre in disguise that she might confer on im- 
portant matters with her Majesty. The letters 
were both in the handwriting of the Queen, and 
on the envelope of the unsealed letter was the 
sign $, which La Porte afterwards avowed was the 
hieroglyphic by which Anne indicated the letters 
that were to be sent to the Duchess by " les voies 
secrets" A third letter was also found in the 
pocket of La Porte from Madame de Chevreuse, 
which however, contained nothing particular 
except a request that La Porte would remind the 
Countess de Lude to ask the Queen to interest 
herself in the prompt settlement of a law- suit then 
pending between the Duchess and M. de Chev- 

The news of the arrest of La Porte came acci- 
dentally to the ears of Mademoiselle de Hautefort, 
who was spending the interval of the Queen's 
absence from Paris at the house of her grand- 
mother, Madame de la Flotte Hauterive. A cer- 
tain M. de Guigencourt happened to be loitering 
in the vicinity of the Louvre and saw the arrest 
made. Being slightly acquainted with La Porte 
he followed the soldiers and their prisoner as far 
as the gates of the Bastille. La Porte was known 
to be a confidential servant of the Queen, 
Guigencourt therefore hastened to Mademoiselle 
de Hautefort to impart to her the event he had 
witnessed. The magnitude of the catastrophe was 
too well comprehended by La Hautefort, who, 
devoted to Anne of Austria, cleverly partook in 
all her secrets without becoming involved in their 


disastrous course. She instantly saw the expe- 
diency of warning the Queen without loss of time ; 
but as her letter might be intercepted or be 
delayed by etiquette from immediate presenta- 
tion, Mademoiselle de Hautefort enclosed it to 
Mademoiselle de Chemerault, her intimate friend, 
who was then in waiting at Chantilly, adjuring 
her to lose no time in presenting the enclosure to 
her royal mistress. Mademoiselle de Chemerault 
was not a favourite with the Queen, who thought 
her bavarde and coquette ; she had not therefore the 
privilege of early entree to the bed-chamber. To 
attract Anne's attention was therefore her only 
chance of obeying the urgent mandate of La 
Hautefort. On presenting herself at the Queen's 
toilette, Mademoiselle de Chemerault arrayed her- 
self splendidly, putting the note in her bosom. 
The Queen, attracted by the unusual sight of a 
grande toilette before she had commenced her own, 
looked displeased, and commenced in a bantering 
tone to rebuke La Chemerault for her folly. A 
sign, however, soon caught her eye, Anne being 
ever on the alert for the denouement of her 
intrigues. The Queen, therefore, still pretending 
to rally the vanity of La Chemerault, approached, 
and the latter, while making profound obeisance, 
contrived to retreat, until a large mirror screened 
the Queen from the watchful eyes of Madame de 
Senece and others. In an instant the important 
missive was transferred from the bosom of La 
Chemerault to that of the Queen. Anne returned, 
and with heightened colour seated herself before 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 361 

her toilette-table. Soon, however, under some 
slight pretext, she rose and retired alone into the 
cabinet fitted up for her oratory, when opening 
the note she possessed herself of its alarming 
contents. 27 " The Queen," says the author of the 
Vie de Madame de Hautefort, " fell back almost 
senseless with alarm when she had perused the 
letter. Such a surprising sickness and indifference 
subsequently overpowered her Majesty that for 
forty hours not a morsel of food passed her lips, 
she who had usually so good an appetite." Made- 
moiselle de Hautefort informed the Queen that 
she had not imparted the subject of her letter to 
Mademoiselle de Chemerault, and that she would 
obey in all matters her directions. The Queen 
presently sent cordial thanks to Mademoiselle de 
Hautefort by La Chemerault for the important 
service which she had rendered her, and begged 
the continuance of her assistance in this ex- 
tremity. 28 " The unhappy Princess having no 
mercy to expect from her consort or from a 
minister who on more than one occasion had 
threatened her with exile and divorce, believing 
herself lost, abandoned herself at first without 
regard to appearance or to prudence to the 
anguish and despair which possessed her." " Lost, 
lost ! " she was overheard to murmur, " the Car- 
dinal will marry his niece to the King and she 
will bear children never mind how ! " alluding to 
Madame d'Aiguillon, whom Anne detested for her 
sanctimonious manners and for her undeviating 
allegiance to her uncle. On the 7th of August 


Richelieu arrived at Chantilly. Anne, who does 
not appear to have made any appeal meantime to 
the King, immediately sent her secretary, M. Le 
Gras, to wait upon Richelieu, to inquire on her 
behalf, " what had happened to cause the arrest 
of La Porte ? as she assured his Eminence that 
she had availed herself of the services of the said 
La Porte to send friendly letters to Madame de 
Chevreuse only, and protested on her honour 
that she had never sent a line into Flanders nor 
into Spain, by the aid of the said La Porte or by 
that of any other person or medium whatever." 29 
Richelieu, who, owing to the services of Seguier 
and other persons who readily came forward 
with their evidence now that an accusation was 
made, knew as well as the Queen herself the ex- 
tent of her misdemeanours, made no reply to a 
statement so at variance with the truth. The 
silence of the minister increased the anguish and 
suspense of the Queen. " Silence," she observed, 
" was more cruel in this extremity than the most 
bitter reproaches." Anne knew not the extent of 
her peril ; she was ignorant of the quarter from 
whence the blow proceeded, whether discovery 
of her secret correspondences in France had only 
been made, or whether her danger proceeded 
from letters and reports forwarded by the Ambas- 
sadors at Madrid and Brussels. La Porte, however, 
knew enough, as she was aware, to authorise her 
arrest, and she had reason to doubt whether his 
fidelity and fortitude would stand the terrible 
ordeal of the torture -chamber of the Bastille. In 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 363 

her agony Anne knew not to whom to turn for 
counsel ; she desired to see Mademoiselle de 
Hautefort, and she even expressed a wish to 
confer with the Duchess d'Aiguillon but no per- 
son was permitted access to her presence. By 
some one of the numerous expedients in which 
Anne was an adept, she contrived to communicate 
by letter with the Due de la Rochefoucauld and 
with M. de Puisieux, an ex-secretary of state 
whom Richelieu had exiled, to implore their 
counsel. M. de la Rochefoucauld relates in his 
Memoirs that the Queen proposed to him, in order 
to save her from perpetual imprisonment for life 
in the fortress of Havre, which she felt certain was 
a doom impending over her, that he should carry 
her off from Chantilly and convey her to the pro- 
tection of her brother at Brussels. 30 Meantime, 
her devoted friend, Marie de Hautefort, was 
moving heaven and earth to devise a method of 
communicating with La Porte, to satisfy the 
Queen's anxious solicitude to secure his silence, 
and to inform him of the peril of his royal mis- 
tress which might be consummated by a single 
imprudent admission. " Consternation is im- 
printed on the face of the Queen," writes Grotius, 
the Swedish Ambassador, to the Chancellor Oxen- 
stiern, " and her health visibly suffers. 31 The rare 
visits which she now receives from the ladies of the 
court announce some serious complication ; per- 
haps, at the suggestion of officious ecclesiastics, 
the Queen, it may be proved, has been guilty of 
some crime, hoping to benefit the Roman Catholic 


faith which is deemed endangered by the alliance 
of France with so-called heretics." 

Several letters addressed to Anne of Austria had 
fallen into the Cardinal's hands during the brief 
interval after La Forte's arrest and his own arrival 
at Chantilly. He had also ascertained that within 
the last eight months La Porte had conveyed five 
little packets of writing to Auger at the English 
embassy, sent by the Queen ; and that letters had 
frequently, sometimes thrice a week, been taken 
therefrom and delivered by La Porte himself inio 
the Queen's hands. La Hautefort, about the 12th 
of August, nine days after the arrest of La Porte, 
sent word to the Queen through Mademoiselle 
Chemerault whom Anne found herself compelled 
to trust, that it was reported in Paris " that La 
Porte, under the influence of torture, had made 
important confessions ; and as it would be highly 
expedient to gain some intelligences within the 
Bastille, she had obtained a list of the personages 
confined in the fortress, which she had sent for 
her Majesty's inspection." Anne replied, " that 
she was too afflicted and troubled in her mind ; 
that she could think of nothing but her griefs ; 
and that as she felt unequal to any mental exer- 
tion, she confided implicitly in the affection and 
ability of Madame de Hautefort." 32 

On the Feast of the Assumption Anne attended 
mass and received the Holy Eucharist in the 
chapel at Chantilly. Driven frantic by her terror 
and suspense, as it must charitably be supposed, 
Anne, while she knelt before the altar, sent for 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 365 

Le Gras, her secretary, and for Caussin, the King's 
confessor ; and with the Sacred Elements on her 
lips, she laid her hand on the altar and took oath 
that she had never held treasonable correspon- 
dence with any foreign potentate ; adding " that 
she required and charged them both to repair to 
the presence of King Louis and report what they 
had seen and heard." 33 This terrible act of perjury 
invalidates for ever any statement put forth by 
Anne of Austria, and gives probability to all sub- 
sequent charges preferred by her enemies, show- 
ing that there was no act, however flagrant, from 
which the Queen shrank in order to deliver herself 
from peril and disgrace. " La reine estjausse ; elle 
est perfide et ingrate" was a plaint which often 
escaped Louis XIII. with more justice, perhaps, 
than many have been inclined to believe, and 
explains the neglect in which Louis suffered his 
consort to exist, though she wore the crown- 
matrimonial of France, and was the eldest sister 
of the most puissant monarch in Christendom. 

The extreme perturbation of Anne's mind is not 
accounted for by subsequent revelations, much 
as they damaged her character as a wife and a 
Queen ; it seems therefore almost certain that the 
omnipotent minister, having made his terms with 
the Queen, suffered enough to transpire to justify 
in the sight of the King and his subjects the com- 
motion he had made, while suppressing evidence 
which must have rendered her crime unpardon- 
able in the opinion of King Louis and the nation. 

On the 16th day of August, Le Gras, with much 


circumlocution informed the Queen " that more 
was known by M. le Cardinal than she suspected ; 
that a warrant was out for the arrest of the abbess 
of Le Val de Grace, and for her transfer as a 
prisoner to the castle of Bussiere ; that Madame 
de Chevreuse was to be conveyed to the fortress 
of Loches ; while La Porte had suffered one severe 
interrogatory in the Bastille before MM. de Laff e- 
mas and La Poterie." The Queen after an inter- 
val of reflection and with all the appearance of 
desperate resolution, sent Le Gras to request that 
the Cardinal de Richelieu would visit her early 
on the morrow, as she had revelations to make. 
Aware of what must be the result of the search 
about to be instituted in her apartments at the 
Val de Grace, Anne dreaded the wrath and fury 
of Louis XIII. rather than the indignation of 
Richelieu, over whom she had already witnessed 
the power of her charms. The exultation of the 
Cardinal was doubtless great ; the Queen had 
been brought to seek his assistance and one link 
in the chain of her subjugation had been wrought. 
On the morrow, therefore, August 17th, 1637, 
Richelieu, after first seeking an audience of the 
King to ask his permission to hold interview with 
her Majesty, entered Anne's presence. His Emi- 
nence was attended by the two secretaries of state, 
Chavigny and de Noyers, by his own private secre- 
tary and by two gentlemen of his household. 
Anne was sitting under her canopy of state, look- 
ing ill, depressed, her eyes swollen with weeping. 
Hearing that the Queen was unattended by any 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 367 

of her women, the Cardinal caused Madame de 
Senece to be summoned, who took her place be- 
hind the Queen's fauteuil. Anne languidly ex- 
tended her hand to Richelieu, who, kneeling, 
pressed it to his lips. A few compliments were 
interchanged ; the Queen then said in a hurried 
voice " that she had sent for M. le Cardinal to 
avow to him that she had written to M. le Cardinal 
of Spain, her brother ; and that her letter had 
been despatched par des voies secrets to Brussels ; 
the letter, nevertheless, contained expressions only 
of sisterly regard, with inquiries after the health 
of his Royal Highness, with other demands of like 
innocent import." 34 When the Queen ceased 
Richelieu sternly replied, " Madame, to my certain 
knowledge other subjects have been discussed in 
your said letters. If you desire my interposition 
it is necessary that you should make frank confes- 
sion, as I have assurance from the King your 
august consort that he will pardon the said devia- 
tions of which he has cognisance ; in proof of 
which I have assembled the personages present to 
witness my declaration. If you have nothing more 
to confide to my ear I will repair to his Majesty 
and take his royal commands on the steps which 
his duty to his realm may require." Menace 
lurked in the bland words of his Eminence, " the 
King promised oblivion for those misdemeanours 
of which he was cognisant." What revelations lay 
hidden in the caskets of the Val de Grace or in the 
breast of the prisoner La Porte ? And what did the 
threat signify, " that Richelieu would take the 


royal commands on the measures necessary for the 
welfare of the realm " ? With a shuddering sob 
Anne then requested Madame de Senece, the 
secretaries of state and others, to retire and leave 
her alone with Monsieur le Cardinal. 

The Queen then confessed all to Richelieu, 
showing, according to his statement, marvellous 
confusion at the deed of perjury which she had 
committed on the Feast of the Assumption. 

Anne admitted : 1st. That the letters seized on 
the person of M. Senelle, and addressed to her by 
Madame de Fargis during the years 1631-1632, 
were genuine and not forged missives, as she had 
at the time pertinaciously insisted. 2ndly. That 
she had written to the Cardinal Infant, to Mirabel, 
to Gerbier, the English resident at Brussels, and 
had received frequent replies from these person- 
ages. 3rdly. That her letters were written in her 
private closet, then given to La Porte, who trans- 
ferred them to M. Auger, secretary to the English 
ambassage, who forwarded them to Brussels. 
4thly. That in these letters she had testified dis- 
content at her position, and that she had written 
to Mirabel letters, and received in return answers, 
which would be very displeasing to the King her 
lord. 5thly. That she had given notice of the 
journey into Spain of the monk Bachelier, and 
had warned them to open their eyes and detect 
the private designs for which he had been sent. 
Gthly. That she had disclosed to the Marquis de 
Mirabel that a reconciliation with M. de Lorraine 
was talked about in France, and had warned 


them (the Spaniards) to be on their guard. Tthly. 
That she had demonstrated much annoyance when 
she heard it spoken of as probable that the 
English were about to reconcile themselves with 
France instead of persevering in their alliance 
with Spain. Sthly. That the letter found upon 
La Porte was to have been conveyed to Madame 
de Chevreuse by the Sieur de la Thibaudiere, and 
that in the said letter she mentioned the project 
of a secret visit which the duchess contemplated 
paying to her. " Whilst her Majesty was making 
this confession, her condescension was such," 
writes Richelieu, " that she several times ex- 
claimed, ' Quelle bonte faut-il que vous ayez, M. le 
Cardinal ! ' and protesting that she should feel 
everlasting obligation towards the person who 
would extricate her from her dilemma, she did me 
the honour to say, ' Give me your hand, M. le 
Cardinal ! ' and presented her own as the pledge 
of the fidelity with which she intended to adhere 
to her promises. However, out of respect, I with- 
drew further from her Majesty while she made 
the said protestations." 35 

Such was the substance of the confession made 
by the Queen and suffered to transpire by Riche- 
lieu ; it was first reserved for the ear of the King 
alone but eventually got wind at court. No one 
believed that the whole truth had been disclosed ; 
and what was mere conjecture in France took the 
form of positive assertion abroad, in those coun- 
tries especially whose secret archives might have 
betrayed the facts. What passed besides at this 



interview of two hours between Richelieu and 
Anne of Austria and on what terms his forbear- 
ance and protection were purchased can never 
now be disclosed. That Richelieu informed the 
Queen that on the following day the convent of 
Val de Grace was to be searched and its abbess 
arrested appears more than probable by the 
strange fact which took all the ministers by sur- 
prise excepting Richelieu, and also the most 
ardent of Anne's adherents, that not a single 
document of any description not even a scrap of 
writing of later date than the year 1630 was dis- 
covered in her Majesty's apartments or in any 
other chamber of the convent. The deposit of her 
papers in her convent stronghold was a fact con- 
stantly admitted by the Queen to her intimates. 
All her private correspondence was addressed 
from thence, and in the subsequent examinations 
it was admitted when the confession could do no 
harm by the proofs being destroyed that all the 
Queen's recent private letters had been there re- 
ceived, read and the answers thereto despatched 
from the nunnery ; also that the ciphers for her 
foreign correspondence were, until recently, left 
in a coffer standing in her oratory. The fact 
might have excited less surprise if it had been 
remembered that the abbess, Louise de Milly, was 
a cousin of the famous Capuchin Joseph, Riche- 
lieu's second self his constant guest and private 
counsellor. A hint to Le P. Joseph, after Riche- 
lieu's interview with Anne of Austria, might 
authorise the Capuchin to communicate with the 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 371 

abbess, so that during the night of the 18th of 
August she might have committed to the flames 
all documents that compromised her royal mis- 
tress ; or what is most probable, she may by 
command of the Queen have delivered the papers 
to the Capuchin. This supposition would corrobo- 
rate the subsequent evidence of a poor nun of the 
convent, that one night she had seen the abbess 
convey with her own hands to the chapel two 
coffers adorned with the initials of her Majesty. 
Anne afterwards explained, on the demand of 
the Chancellor, that these coffers contained only a 
reliquary and a few jewels. So strange did the 
non-appearance of these papers appear that all 
kinds of suppositions were invented to account 
for their disappearance. The author of the Vie du 
Pere Joseph asserts that the Queen was supposed 
to have received friendly warning from the Chan- 
cellor Seguier, and had contrived by some method 
to withdraw her most dangerous papers from the 
convent, which she desired the abbess to deliver 
to Madame de Sourdis. 36 This statement is most 
improbable ; in the first place the name of 
Madame de Sourdis never occurs in the history of 
the Queen's private life at this period, secondly 
the police of the Cardinal de Richelieu was too 
vigilant to permit of the surreptitious withdrawal 
of important papers from a nunnery under its 
especial surveillance. Besides, the Queen evidently 
knew not of the intended search at the Val de 
Grace until after her interview with the Cardinal. 
So carefully was the secret of this visit preserved 


that the Archbishop of Paris, who accompanied 
Seguier to the convent, knew nothing of the 
measures to be pursued until he found himself 
vis-a-vis to the Chancellor in his coach and on his 
way thither. Seguier, in the proces verbal of his 
visit, addressed to Richelieu, plainly states his 
opinion that some friend of the Queen had been 
beforehand and had effectually removed all traces 
of her guilt. " It is our unanimous opinion," writes 
Seguier, " that some one has here given important 
notice of events not that the Archbishop is impli- 
cated, because Monseigneur was not himself cog- 
nisant of any such intended visit but we think it is 
probable that the Queen, suspecting some inquiry 
might be made, has so directed the reverend Mother 
that no important papers should be found." This 
is not the language of a person who had been him- 
self the author of the important notice of events, 
which he deprecates as having partially defeated 
the ends of justice. 37 

To return to the interview between Richelieu 
and Queen Anne at Chantilly when the Cardinal 
took leave Anne remained alone, apparently con- 
vulsed with sorrow. His Eminence then sought 
the presence of the King, who waited with extreme 
impatience to hear the result of the interview. 
Louis pursued the affair with extraordinary ar- 
dour ; he insisted upon perusing every deposition 
made, the reports of the Chancellor and other 
officers of the Crown were submitted to his inspec- 
tion, and it was evident that his Majesty ex- 
pected and probably wished to obtain revelations 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 373 

of the last importance. The Cardinal repeated 
the admissions made by Anne, but remarked 
that the Queen's fault, though doubtless grave, 
was, he trusted, not unpardonable. He ventured 
therefore to ask the royal clemency on her behalf. 
Louis sullenly demanded to peruse the confession 
in the Queen's own handwriting before he ac- 
corded any grace whatever. Le Gras 38 was then 
summoned and sent to the Queen with this hu- 
miliating order. Very bitter must have been 
Anne's tears while she accomplished this unwel- 
come and degrading task. The document laid 
before the King, and amended by the pen of 
Richelieu, whom Anne consulted, is as follows : 

" UPON the assurance given us by our very dear 
and beloved cousin, the Cardinal Due de Riche- 
lieu, who on our prayer came to confer with us, 
that the King, our very revered lord and spouse, 
had commanded him to inform us that like as he 
had aforetimes forgiven deeds committed by us 
displeasing and disagreeable to his Majesty 
especially in the affair of and concerning La Dame 
de Fargis during the years 1631, 1632 he was 
disposed again to grant us the same grace, on con- 
dition that we confess and declare frankly and 
truly all the secret intelligences which we have 
holden unknown to his Majesty both within and 
without the kingdom, the persons whom we have 
employed, and the chief events which we have 
imparted, or those which in a like manner have 
been transmitted to us : 


" We Anne, by the grace of God, Queen of 
France and Navarre, avow and admit that we 
have written several times to M. le Cardinal 
Infant our brother, to the Marquis de Mirabel, to 
Gerbier, the English resident in Flanders, and 
that we have frequently received letters from the 
said personages. 

" That these letters were written in our closet, 
La Porte our porte-manteau in ordinary, being 
only in our confidence ; we gave our letters to 
the said La Porte, who carried them to Auger, 
secretary of the English embassy, who forwarded 
them for us to Gerbier. 

" That amongst other subjects, we sometimes 
testified our discontent and resentment at our 
domestic position, and we acknowledge to have 
written and received letters from the Marquis de 
Mirabel, conceived in terms likely to be greatly 
offensive to the King. 

" We acknowledge to have given notice of the 
journey into Spain of a monk of the order of 
Minimes, and we advised that a strict watch 
should be kept over his actions. 

" We also warned the Marquis de Mirabel that 
the reconciliation of the Duke of Lorraine with the 
King was spoken of, and that he had better pro- 
vide in time against such a vexatious event. 

" We moreover own to having testified and ex- 
pressed great annoyance when it was supposed 
that the English were about to be reconciled with 
France instead of remaining the allies of Spain. 

" That the letter taken from La Porte was to 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 375 

have been delivered to a certain Sieur de la Thi- 
baudiere, and that the letter made mention of a 
journey projected by Madame de Chevreuse who 
wished to pay us a clandestine visit. 

" We freely and candidly confess to all the 
above-mentioned facts and voluntarily declare 
them to be true. We promise never more to be 
guilty of like faults, and we engage to live with 
the King, our very honoured lord and husband, 
as beseems a person who holds no other interest 
but the welfare of his royal person and realm. In 
witness of which we signihis present with our own 
hand and cause it to be countersigned by our 
private counsellor and secretary and keeper of 
our privy seal. 

" Done at Chantilly, this 17th day of August, 

(Signed) " ANNE. 
" LE GRAS." 39 

This document Anne's secretary conveyed to 
Richelieu, who presented it to King Louis, assur- 
ing his Majesty that he believed the Queen had 
candidly confessed the truth, as La Porte had 
undergone already two rigid interrogatories and 
had revealed nothing. He therefore advised him 
to grant the Queen pardon for the misdeeds of 
which she had made written confession. Louis 
consented, which fact demonstrates the extra- 
ordinary influence exercised over the King's mind 
by his minister as he was induced so to do with- 
out waiting for the report of the search at the Val 


de Grace, or for the result of the examination of 
the abbess, Louise de Milly. That the King con- 
sidered his pardon as a mere form, perhaps due to 
the dignity of the Queen-consort, is evident, as 
after this document was signed Louis commanded 
the investigation into Anne's conduct and her 
correspondence to be pursued with increased 
rigour. The additional revelations which came to 
the King's knowledge were severely punished by 
him without regard to this absolution, and there 
is little doubt that if the various proces verbaux 
had not been toned down or suppressed by the 
Cardinal, and the Queen's letters in the Val de 
Grace totally abstracted, that Louis would have 
proceeded with rigour to punish Anne's infidelity. 
The form of the King's letter of pardon ran thus : 

" AFTER having perused the frank confession 
which the Queen our dear spouse has made of all 
that has lately displeased us in her conduct, and 
on the assurance which she gives us that she will 
for the future conduct herself as her duty to us 
and to our realm commands we declare, that we 
pardon and obliterate from our mind the said 
past events and promise in accordance to live 
with her as a good king and husband should do. 
In witness of which we sign the present, and 
cause it to be countersigned by one of our privy 
counsellors and secretaries of state. Done at 
Chantilly, this 17th day of August, 1637. 

(Signed) " Louis. 


1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 377 

Louis, accompanied by the Cardinal, then pro- 
ceeded to the Queen's apartment. Anne rose 
and threw herself at the King's feet, craving his 
pardon. Louis coldly laid before her Majesty her 
confession, with his pardon appended thereto, 
saying : " All this, Madame, that you have here 
confessed would not, as you are aware, be par- 
doned in Spain ; nevertheless I am willing to 
forgive all that you have so far avowed. It is my 
pleasure, however, that for the future you show 
to Madame de Senece and cause her to peruse any 
future letters you send abroad ! " " Sire," replied 
the Queen, " I never can extinguish the love 
which I bear towards my brothers, nevertheless, 
for the future I will learn so to demonstrate my 
affection as to commit no infidelity or trans- 
gression against your realm ! " 41 

Seguier, meantime, accompanied by the Arch- 
bishop of Paris, by the two secretaries of state, 
Chavigny and De Noyers and by the M. de la 
Potherye, suddenly appeared before the gates of 
the Val de Grace and demanded admission de par 
le Roy. A guard of soldiers surrounded the 
convent, and archers penetrated even into the 
interior of the house. Seguier assembled the com- 
munity in the refectory, where the Archbishop 
opened the proceedings by pronouncing a solemn 
excommunication against the abbess or any 
member of the sisterhood who should equivocate, 
conceal or suppress the truth relative to the 
grievous scandal which had caused the visit of M. 
le Chancelier. The abbess was then arrested and 


conveyed a prisoner to her cell by seven soldiers 
of the guard. The prioress likewise suffered the 
same indignity, but was ordered by Seguier to 
point out the chests, coffers and closets where 
papers were stored, and to attend him during his 
search. The nuns remained in the refectory, at 
the door of which soldiers were stationed. Seguier 
first demanded to be led to the Queen's apart- 
ments. A rigid examination then took place 
every closet, desk, drawer and chest was rifled. 
In a small recess to the right of the altar a number 
of letters were seized, but they proved to be 
papers of no consequence in the present inquiry, 
but were epistles received in the year 1630 by her 
Majesty, chiefly from Madame de Chevreuse. A 
small leather coffer was found locked, which 
upon being eagerly opened contained only gloves 
de peau d'Angleterre, with a little friendly note 
from Queen Henrietta Maria. In the coffer with- 
in which so many discoveries were expected, and 
where the Queen's clandestine correspondence was 
placed by the abbess, nothing was found but 
scourges and " disciplines " of various degrees 
of severity. The chapel, the oratory and the 
private cell of the abbess were next searched, but 
nothing was discovered. The abbess was then 
led into the awful presence of Seguier to suffer the 
ordeal of a first interrogatory, and to hear the 
reading of the decree of her banishment and 
probable deposition from her abbatial dignity. 
The narrative is thus vividly given by Seguier 
himself in a despatch to his chief, Richelieu : 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 379 

" The nuns of the Val de Grace appeared to be in 
great consternation at the orders which they re- 
ceived. The mother abbess seemed amazed. 
We judged, nevertheless, that some one had given 
them notice of our intended visitation not of the 
visit of the Archbishop, as Monseigneur was not 
himself cognisant of such a visit but it is our 
opinion that the Queen, suspecting something, 
warned the abbess, who took care that we should 
find no papers. The letters which we brought 
away are all written in the year 1630. Nothing 
here shows that the Queen has since corresponded. 
Nothing can have been abstracted since we took 
possession of the convent ; a guard was placed 
over the Queen's apartments whilst we examined 
the cell of the abbess. The said superior wished 
to appear indisposed, she said that she was 
feverish and ill. The doctor, however, whose 
advice we took, stated that she had no fever be- 
yond that excited by the events of the day. This 
said abbess is very wily ; she is a native born of 
Franche Comte. After the oaths which we ad- 
ministered she must be very subtle and advised 
if she has not told the truth. The Archbishop 
solemnly excommunicated her unless she con- 
fessed all, and declared her incapable of being 
absolved therefrom ; she then took oath on the 
Holy Eucharist which is the most stringent 
oath that we could administer. She testifies the 
strongest affection for the Queen and denies 
everything. She says that her Majesty has been 
wickedly accused of many false things, but she is 


a just and virtuous princess. When she was 
leaving the convent she said that God would 
avenge her for the cruelty and injustice under 
which she suffered, and that wrong could not 
last for ever. Her community was reluctant to 
permit her to leave : there was, however, no 
resistance, but perfect obedience to the mandate 
of the King so much so, that such submission is 
rarely met with in other convents. All the nuns 
of the community offered to attend her." " 

The unfortunate abbess was placed in a coach 
surrounded by a guard, and conveyed to the 
Castle of Bussiere ; there she was subjected to 
rigorous imprisonment, being debarred for many 
weeks from taking the air and from communica- 
tion with her relatives. 

Richelieu had prescribed the points on which 
the examination at the Val de Grace was to turn, 
which had been signified in writing by De Noyers. 
Anne's confession was cleverly made the basis of 
all future inquiry, and, as it seems, the aim of the 
examinations which ensued was rather to confirm 
her assertions for the satisfaction of the King 
than to elicit further discovery. Her Majesty, 
however, in her confession of the 17th of August, 
had made no mention of the abbess of the Val de 
Grace. On the very morning therefore of the 
domiciliary visit to the convent, Richelieu hastily 
sought an interview with the Queen and ex- 
tracted from her further admissions, which Anne 
gave thus, under her own sign-manual, and sent 
by Le Gras to the minister : 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 381 

" The Queen has commanded me further to 
inform Monseigneur 1'Eminentissime, Cardinal 
Due de Richelieu, as follows : 

" That she confesses to have given a cipher to 
La Porte, to use in his correspondence with the 
Marquis de Mirabel, in order that he might write 
to the said Marquis the items mentioned in her 
declaration of the 17th day of this month, and 
that the said La Porte returned to her said 
Majesty the cipher, which the Queen burnt. 

" That her Majesty knows that the Duke de 
Lorraine sent an envoy to Madame de Chevreuse, 
but she is not aware whether it was to treat con- 
cerning public or private affairs her Majesty 
not wishing or intending to accuse Madame de 
Chevreuse in this matter, but she leaves it to La 
Porte to confess what he may know of the affair. 

" It is true that Madame de Chevreuse visited 
her Majesty twice in the Val de Grace during her 
second exile to Dampierre ; she also owns to have 
received letters from the said Dame de Chevreuse 
at the said Val de Grace. Moreover, quite recently, 
a man was sent to convey news of Madame de 
Chevreuse to the Queen when at the Val de 

" That her Majesty wrote many times from the 
Val de Grace to Madame de Chevreuse before the 
outbreak of the war. 

" That the Chevalier de Montagu visited her 
Majesty once at the Val de Grace, where also 
she received several letters from the said lord, 
sent through Auger ; the said letters being only 


complimentary effusions. Letters also were sent 
by Montagu for Madame de Chevreuse. 

" That when the Queen was at Lyons and 
wrote to the abbess of Val de Grace to forward 
letters in the words, ' Give these to your relative,' 
her Majesty thereby meant to say, ' Send these 
letters to Madame de Chevreuse.' : 

The King's assertion to La Hautefort, " that 
the Queen was a traitor to her friends," seems 
rather confirmed by Anne's gratuitous statements 
relative to her devoted friend the Duchess de 
Chevreuse. From these last admissions Riche- 
lieu framed his instructions to his examiners at 
Val de Grace, and for the personages whom he 
was about to despatch to interrogate Madame 
de Chevreuse. The Cardinal doubtless wished 
to have all the high personages concerned at his 
mercy, though perhaps he might not choose to 
submit them all to that of King Louis. 


" The Queen has confessed that when she 
directed the abbess thus ' Donnez cette lettre a 
votre parenteS that. she meant to indicate the 
Duchess de Chevreuse. 

" That she often wrote from the Val de Grace 
to persons in Spain when the Marquis de Mirabel 
was in Paris. 

" That she has confided to the care of the 
abbess two reliquaries and some jewels. 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 383 

" These three confessions cannot comprehend 
all, therefore it will be necessary to put the 
following queries to the abbess Louise de Milly : 

" Inquire of the said abbess if the Queen never 
wrote in her convent ? Ask her also whether the 
Queen wrote during the residence of the Marquis 
de Mirabel in Paris ? and how often and to whom ? 
And what the direction meant on one of the letters 
' Donnez cette lettre a votre parente ' ? 

" If the said abbess persists in saying that she 
was to give the letter to one of her own relatives 
and not to Madame de Chevreuse, a fresh oath is 
to be administered to her and she is to be again 
exhorted to speak the truth. If she continues to 
persist in her assertion it is to be represented to 
her how miserable and degraded is her perjured 
state, seeing that the Queen has confessed quite 
the contrary to the King, allowing that while 
the Marquis de Mirabel was here she often wrote 
letters from the Val de Grace addressed to per- 
sonages in Spain and Flanders, and confessing 
that the words, ' Donnez cette lettre a votre parente,'' 
were meant to designate Madame de Chevreuse. 

" You will then take notice whether the said 
abbess contradicts her Majesty's assertion or 
confirms it. 

" She is then to be asked whether the Queen 
has confided to her care any papers, packets, 
ciphers or other things ? If she denies that such 
is the fact another oath is to be administered, 
then if she still persists in her assertion she is to 
be told that the Queen admits to have confided to 


her care a large and a small reliquary and 

Furnished with these instructions commis- 
sioners were sent down to Bussiere to interrogate 
the abbess for the second time, August 28th. 
She then confessed that the Queen had often 
written letters in her convent though she knew not 
to whom they were addressed, that Madame de 
Chevreuse went under the sobriquet of sa parente, 
that she knew nothing of the Queen's employ- 
ment when at the convent, but she received her 
Maj esty at the portal of the convent, led her through 
the grille and to the door of her private parlour, 
that she had no acquaintance with La Porte, 
that she had received the two reliquaries in trust 
for the Queen, both of which might be found at 
the convent also the jewels, which Madame de 
la Flotte could identify, that she had spoken the 
truth, that the Queen had often written from the 
Val de Grace but had not informed the abbess of 
the contents of her letters, and that all letters 
sent from the convent had been asked for in the 
name of the Duchess de Chevreuse. 45 

The interrogatories put to La Porte in the 
Bastille were of much the same character, and 
referred rather to the Queen's clandestine corre- 
spondence seven years back than to the present 
charges against her. The devotion manifested 
by La Porte was heroic, and ought to have been 
put forth in a better cause. He avowed that he 
had carried letters to and from the Val de Grace 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 385 

to Madame de Chevreuse, but vehemently 
denied that the Queen had foreign correspond- 
ents, or that he had holden intercourse in her 
behalf with the foes of France. His cool self- 
possession never varied. Nothing could be ex- 
tracted damaging to the reputation of the Queen 
or of Madame de Chevreuse, except that in 
defiance of the royal prohibition they corre- 
sponded and sometimes used numerals as a cipher. 
His first interrogatory occurred on the 13th of 
August. All that was obtained from La Porte in 
the way of avowal was that the figure 2 in the 
letter found in his pocket meant the Queen, the 
number 3, M. le Cardinal, 19, Madame de Chev- 
reuse, 15, M. de Montbazon, &c. His second 
examination took place on the 14th of August, 
and again La Porte obstinately denied that the 
Queen had any foreign correspondents as far as he 
knew, all that he could testify to were letters 
of the year 1630 addressed to Madame de Chev- 
reuse, and the two letters taken from him which 
were intended for the same noble lady. By the 
command of the King, whose suspicions were 
excited by the discrepancy between La Porte's 
statements and the Queen's confession, Anne's 
apartments in the Louvre were examined. 
Seguier was also commanded to search the hotel 
de Chevreuse, and to bring every paper found 
therein or in the Louvre direct to the King. The 
result was the capture of a few more letters of 
ancient date, both in the handwriting of the 
Queen and of the Duchess, in which the Cardinal 



was very hardly treated by both. As it was 
evident that Anne had not avowed all her deal- 
ings with the foes of France, when through the 
Cardinal she obtained pardon, but on the contrary 
had afterwards made fresh revelations, Louis re- 
solved that she should undergo a fresh examina- 
tion before the Chancellor Pierre de Seguier, the 
point especially to be elicited being what had 
become of the correspondence known to have been 
harboured at the Val de Grace ? This ordeal 
Anne was compelled to submit to on the 22nd of 
August, but there exists no proces-verbal of its 
course. M. Cousin, in his admirable life of Ma- 
dame de Chevreuse, doubts that the Queen was 
ever subjected to this indignity at all, but 
Madame de Motteville and the famous Made- 
moiselle de Montpensier, Siri and others assert 
in their Memoirs that the examination did in 
reality occur. Madame de Motteville, indeed, 
states the fact on the authority of Anne of 
Austria, in whose service she remained to the end 
of the Queen's life. It is nevertheless proved by 
modern research that Anne was never subjected 
to the outrage of having her pockets, the bosom 
of her dress and her farthingale searched like a 
common felon by the Chancellor, as has been 
universally asserted in all narratives of the events 
of this period. The scene of the Queen's humilia- 
tion was said to have been her apartment in the 
Val de Grace, but Anne was at Chantilly during 
the whole of these proceedings, while the true 
revelation of what occurred on the visit of Seguier 

1637] ANNE OP AUSTRIA 387 

to the convent is still on record under his own 
hand and seal in the Bibliotheque Imperiale. 
" It was at Chantilly," relates Madame de Motte- 
ville, " that this grand affair occurred, the very 
remembrance of which in after days inspired the 
Queen with horror. It was supposed that the 
Cardinal wished to reduce her to extremity by his 
measures that he might send her back to Spain." 
Anne meanwhile continued at Chantilly in 
agonies of suspense. Distrusting the Cardinal, 
and dreading lest the torture would wring from 
her faithful La Porte admissions which Richelieu 
might find it impossible to conceal from the King, 
she was almost distracted with apprehension. It 
was besides imperative that La Porte should con- 
firm her confessions, as much for the satisfaction of 
the King as for his own escape from cruel torture, 
which would certainly be mercilessly applied by 
Laffemas until he had owned all she had declared 
that he knew. An attempt to communicate with 
La Porte in order to inform Mm what she had 
avowed became therefore highly important for 
Anne's safety. She had written, after her inter- 
view with Seguier, to her faithful Marie de Haute- 
fort detailing the course of events, the admissions 
she had made, and imploring her friend, by every 
pathetic entreaty, to devise some means of com- 
municating with La Porte in the Bastille and 
with Madame de Chevreuse at Tours. Anne's 
appeal was answered by self-sacrificing devotion 
on the part of Mademoiselle de Hautefort, indeed 
there are on record few more touching instances of 


courageous affection. Within the Bastille the 
Chevalier de Jars still lingered, his sentence of 
death, as has been before related, having been 
commuted on the scaffold to imprisonment for 
life in that fortress. It occurred, therefore, to 
Mademoiselle de Hautefort that M. de Jars, who 
had already twice paid the penalty of a terrible 
punishment for his attachment to the fortunes of 
the Queen, might be again induced to risk his 
life a third time in her cause. 46 With M. de Jars, 
however, Mademoiselle de Hautefort had no 
acquaintance ; she therefore applied to Madame de 
Villarceaux, a niece of the late lord-keeper, who 
was intimately acquainted with the poor prisoner, 
and was at stated intervals permitted to visit him 
in the Bastille. Madame de Villarceaux pitied the 
Queen, and agreed to ask M. de Jars whether he 
could assist her in this extremity. Suffering had 
made the Chevalier cautious, and de Jars declined 
to compromise the miserable position which he 
owed to the King's clemency, 47 adding that in 
itself the thing was impossible, as La Porte was 
incarcerated in a deep dungeon and was never 
suffered to see the light of day except when 
brought before his judges for examination. 

Madame de Villarceaux communicated her 
failure to la Hautefort. The latter, upon con- 
sideration, resolved to incur the risk of writing a 
letter to de Jars which Madame de Villarceaux 
promised to carry in person. The interview be- 
tween M. de Jars and his friend took place in an 
inner court of the prison, where vigilant eyes could 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 389 

watch the actions of the imprisoned persons thus 
favoured. De Jars, nevertheless, was able to read 
the letter, but again refused to tamper in any 
new intrigue. In despair at her repeated failures, 
Mademoiselle de Hautefort resolved to accompany 
Madame de Villarceaux in disguise, see M. de Jars 
and lay upon him the peremptory commands of 
the Queen that he should again serve her. Made- 
moiselle de Hautefort, therefore, joined her friend 
early one morning in the disguise of a soubrette ; 
over this costume she threw a large, coarse cloak, 
having a wide hood in which she concealed her 
face. It was an unusual privilege, that of admit- 
ting female visitors to see a prisoner in the Bastille 
upon three consecutive days, under the iron rule 
of the then captain of the Bastille, who was the 
elder brother of the Capuchin Joseph, and still 
more so to admit the same persons and to leave 
them to discourse freely. It is just possible, there- 
fore, that Richelieu might have been an unsus- 
pected confederate in Mademoiselle de Hautefort's 
project. There exists, however, no evidence to 
confirm the supposition, except the extreme im- 
probability that Mademoiselle de Hautefort and 
her friend were able to outwit the minister and 
his Argus-eyed jailers at the Bastille in the manner 
which they subsequently achieved. The pair on 
the morning of the 26th of August, therefore, drove 
to the Bastille and on demand were admitted 
into the little court. The hour was so early that 
the Chevalier had not yet quitted his cell. Madame 
de Villarceaux therefore sent a message to the 


effect that she wished to see him without delay, 
as she had brought the sister of his sick valet de 
chambre, who, having been given over by the 
doctor, had sent his sister to speak to his master 
on urgent affairs. The Chevalier, knowing that 
his valet was in perfect health, began to suspect 
some unwelcome and perhaps dangerous solicita- 
tions and very unwillingly descended to greet his 
friend Madame de Villarceaux. The supposed 
soubrette advanced towards him, apparently in 
great distress ; presently she took his hand, and 
raised her hood. " What, Madame, it is you ! ' 
exclaimed M. de Jars, aghast. Mademoiselle de 
Hautefort let her hood drop and putting her 
finger to her lips, made a curtsey, and assuming 
the deportment of one in her apparent condition, 
said, " You may well be surprised, Monsieur, to see 
me here, but your astonishment will increase when 
you learn that I come by the absolute command 
of the Queen." Marie then took a paper from her 
pocket, and giving it the Chevalier, continued, 
" This, Monsieur, is what the Queen has given me 
to confide to you ; you are required to employ your 
influence and wit in this horrible place to cause 
that small paper to reach the hands of the prisoner 
La Porte who is confined here in a dungeon. I 
feel assured, Monsieur, knowing your loyalty and 
your love for our dear royal mistress, that you 
will not abandon her in this hour of her extreme 
peril. I have already, through Madame de Villar- 
ceaux, attempted to secure to her Majesty your 
aid, without which I dare not contemplate the 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 391 

future." De Jars hesitated ; suffering had broken 
his courage and had impaired his powers of re- 
source. Mademoiselle de Hautefort perceived his 
agitation ; tears trembled in her own eyes as she 
hurriedly exclaimed, " Oh, Monsieur ! Monsieur ! 
can you hesitate to serve the Queen ? Do I not 
run also perilous risks ? for if I should be dis- 
covered what would become of me ? 5: De Jars 
at length said, " The will of the Queen shall be 
performed as far as I am able. I see no alterna- 
tive. God help me ! I have just escaped the scaf- 
fold and this affair if discovered will again con- 
sign me to death but I am worn out, broken in 
health ! Say to the Queen, Madame, that as I 
served her in the days of hopeful youth I now 
devote to her the remnant of my life." 48 He then 
concealed the Queen's letter in his sleeve, the 
two ladies hurried from the prison and returned 
without accident to the Louvre. 

A few hours later the King arrived at the 
Louvre and commanded the presence of Marie de 
Hautefort and of his confessor. Nothing tran- 
spired relative to either of these interviews, and 
the King after giving audience to Seguier and 
others returned to Chantilly. Louis was gloomy 
and ill, he was evidently displeased that no 
progress had been made in the elucidation of the 
problem of the Queen's innocence or guilt, for 
nothing could divert him from the persuasion that 
the perusal of the letters which he hoped to have 
seized in the Val de Grace, and the confessions 
of La Porte, would throw light on the fall of the 


fortresses of Corbie and La Capelle, and on the 
treacherous surrender of Catelet to the Spaniards. 
The Chevalier de Jars, meanwhile, considered 
how he could best discharge the perilous mission 
confided to him, and which he set about under 
the conviction that his life would be sacrificed in 
the attempt. The Queen ever held the lives and 
fortunes of her friends cheap when her interest 
prompted a sacrifice. The King was right when 
he declared that Anne's disposition was ungrate- 
ful and egotistical. La Porte was a prisoner an 
secret, immured in one of the deepest dungeons of 
the Bastille. The Chevalier at length ascertained 
that the dungeon of La Porte was under the tower 
in which he himself was imprisoned. His room 
was at the top of the tower, below were two other 
cells, and in the one on the basement story, im- 
mediately over the den in which La Porte lay, 
was a certain Baron de Tenance and one Reveil- 
lon a servant of the unfortunate Marshal de 
Marillac. De Jars commenced operations by 
making a hole in the floor of his room. When he 
had accomplished this undertaking in the night, 
he was able to communicate with the inmates of 
the cell below who were two poor clowns im- 
prisoned for seditious conduct at Bordeaux. They 
agreed to help in the design, and during the sub- 
sequent night they also succeeded in piercing their 
floor and in communicating with the prisoners 
below. De Jars, on learning their success and who 
the prisoners were, lowered a small fragment of 
paper on which he wrote his object, and implored 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 393 

their aid in communicating with the prisoner 
below. " They promised to serve him," relates La 
Porte in his Memoirs, 49 " for prisoners are inspired 
with the strongest kindness for each other. The 
said prisoners, therefore, made a hole in the floor- 
ing of their room under which was my dungeon, 
which hole they concealed during the day by put- 
ting over it the leg of their table. When they heard 
my soldier open the door of my dungeon to per- 
form some necessary service in the morning, know- 
ing therefore that during that brief interval I was 
alone, they lowered to me the letter which they 
had received. The first letter which I got simply 
informed me that a lady had been making in- 
quiries about me, who desired to know what ques- 
tions had been put in my interrogatories, and 
also to give me some important information 
which should be imparted on receiving assurance 
that this first letter had reached me safely. That 
I was to confide in the writer who was a prisoner 
also and the devoted servant of my mistress, and 
that he warned me to confide in no one, but to 
suspect everybody in the Bastille except himself. 
I had, however, neither pen nor ink to make reply ; 
besides, I suspected the writer. Two days after- 
wards, when my soldier had left my cell on his 
accustomed errands, I saw another letter descend 
to me which reproached me for not writing, and 
which gave me some important hints from the 
quarter my advices came. I therefore took 
courage, and the same night, when my soldier 
was asleep, I softly rose and placing myself before 


the lamp with my back to him, I crushed a little 
coal, which I mixed with cinder-dust, burnt straw, 
and kneaded with oil from my lamp. Then I took 
a straw and scrawled upon the back of a letter- 
cover which they had left in my pocket that so 
many things had been demanded of me that I 
could not answer the questions, but that I had 
confessed nothing which could injure any one. 
When my soldier again left me the prisoners 
above spoke to me, hearing the door of my 
dungeon open, and they then lowered to me a 
thread with a little pebble attached, to which I tied 
my letter which they instantly drew up." The 
following day the letter written by Anne of 
Austria reached La Porte. " I was then fully in- 
structed what the Queen had acknowledged and 
therefore what facts it was requisite that I should 
confess at my next interrogation." This narrative, 
extraordinary as it appears, is confirmed by 
authentic evidence, besides being related by La 
Porte himself. The plotters were never discovered, 
and M. de Jars suffered no additional penalty for 
his chivalrous devotion. The question which 
naturally occurs is could it be probable that 
in the Bastille itself it was possible, in the space 
of four days, for prisoners to perforate, unknown 
to their jailers, three floorings of one of the 
strongest towers of the fortress, to communicate 
with each other through the fissures thus made, 
and finally to penetrate to a prisoner in a dungeon 
under ground, constantly guarded by a soldier, in 
the brief intervals in which he was left alone, and 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 395 

through an aperture in the roof of his dungeon 
without attracting attention or discovery ? The 
incident seems drawn from the pages of romance 
instead of being a veritable episode of prison- 
life within that dreadful fortress. Anne's secret 
moreover was known by de Jars, by the Bordeaux 
captives, by MM. de Tenance and de Reveillon, 
who all preserved religious silence on the event. 
That the deed was accomplished there is no reason 
to doubt, but whether the prisoners deceived 
their governor M. de Tremblay, or his brother the 
wily Capuchin, or his Eminence the Cardinal, as 
they fancied and believed, or that their purpose 
was connived at by these personages, is a point 
which may be surmised but never ascertained. 

La Porte received his information not a day too 
soon. On the 27th of August he was summoned 
before Seguier, who was attended by Laffemas and 
la Potherye. On the 19th of August, Seguier, who 
seems to have proceeded in good earnest with the 
investigation, had written to Richelieu to inform 
him of the little progress made. " La Porte," 
writes the Chancellor, " has been now interrogated 
three times. Your Eminence will perceive that he 
stoutly refuses to afford any information on the 
matters mentioned by the Queen in the letter 
taken from him. M. de la Potherye awaits an 
order to proceed again to La Bussiere ; it is requi- 
site to continue the process and the interroga- 
tories of the abbess of Val de Grace. I have sent 
an order to Patrocle 50 and to his wife to repair 
to Bourges, according to the command which I 


received from the King. He intends to obey, but 
declares he is innocent. He has written to the 
King, which letter I send to your Eminence to 
present if you should deem it expedient." 51 

La Forte's fourth examination took place in the 
torture-vault of the Bastille. Surrounded by the 
terrible implements, lurid light shining only within 
the chamber, exhausted by hunger and by the 
pestilential atmosphere of his cell, Anne's faithful 
servant was again summoned to confess the enter- 
prises which he had undertaken in her behalf. 
Falling on his knees, La Porte now promised to 
make ample confession on the sole condition that 
Anne would send one of her officers to command 
him to speak. The judges consulted together, 
when Seguier desired the prisoner to name the 
person whom he wished to see. La Porte asked 
for La Riviere, an officer of the Queen's household 
and a friend of M. de Laffemas a person in whom 
he placed no trust, but whom, with wonderful 
dexterity, being instructed beforehand in what 
he was to avow, he requested to see in order to 
disarm suspicion. It so happened that this La 
Riviere was a prisoner in the Bastille where he 
had been consigned for some trifling offence. La 
Porte therefore was sent back to his dungeon for 
a few hours and the sitting suspended. Seguier, 
meantime, communicated with the King, believ- 
ing that important revelations were at last forth- 
coming. Louis approved of the decision of the 
judges and unhesitatingly directed that a ficti- 
tious message should be delivered as from the 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 397 

Queen by La Riviere, whose mission was to be 
further authenticated by the important credential 
of a letter addressed to La Porte in the Queen's 
own hand commanding him expressly to confess 
everything. 52 How this letter was extorted there 
is no record, probably the stern order of her 
consort in person left Anne no alternative but to 
submit to this fresh ordeal. During the night of 
the 27th of August the same personages met 
again, surrounded by the same grim entourage. 
" La Riviere," writes Seguier in his proces-verbal 
of the examination, " being sent for, explained to 
the prisoner that her Majesty commanded him to 
reveal the truth, otherwise she would for ever 
abandon and desert him. The said La Porte then 
dropped on his knees, saying that as the Queen 
willed it he would confess all that he knew, to 
wit that about eight months ago by order of 
the Queen he conveyed four or five small packets 
to a person named Auger who lived in the Fau- 
bourg St. Germain, and that he had been to the 
same house to receive letters for the Queen which 
were given to him, that he denied any intimacy 
with M. Auger and had never spoken to him but 
once when the said Auger was leaving the Queen's 
apartments in the Louvre. He also confessed that 
the Queen had recently given him a paper which 
he had the curiosity to peruse and found to be 
the cipher used in her correspondence with Madrid. 
He kept it only one day as he was ignorant what 
he was to do with it, the Queen never having given 
directions, that he knew nothing of the envoy 


sent to Madame de Chevreuse from Lorraine and 
strenuously denied knowledge thereof. He denied 
that he was in the habit of carrying letters to the 
Val de Grace and stated that he had attended the 
convent chapel once only on a Good Friday. 
Being asked if M. Patrocle, usher to the Queen, 
knew of the late menees ? he replied that he was 
not aware that the Queen had ever employed the 
said Patrocle in secret on important missions. 
La Porte added that he knew of nothing more, 
but after he had received permission from her 
Majesty he resolved to avow all frankly. That 
the reason he had before denied knowledge of 
that which he now confessed was that he wished 
to keep his fidelity without alloy to the Queen his 
mistress, but that having been exonerated by 
the permission of her Majesty he gladly relieved 
his conscience by avowal." 53 So admirable did 
La Porte's constancy appear to Richelieu, that he 
was heard to lament that he possessed not so 
faithful a servant. 

The Cardinal, meantime, took the singular re- 
solve to confer privately and invisibly with La 
Porte. Chavigny had apartments at the Arsenal, 
in the garden of which a broad gravel pathway led 
to a postern of the fortress, often used by the late 
Due de Sully in his double capacity of Grand 
Master of Artillery and Governor of the Bastille. 
Richelieu placed himself upon Chavigny's bed, 
and drawing the curtains closely round com- 
manded the prisoner to be brought into the 
chamber. La Porte instantly recognised the 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 399 

voice of the Cardinal, a fact which his circum- 
spect and respectful replies betrayed. Finding 
that he could elicit nothing further by way of 
evidence, Richelieu admonished La Porte in the 
name of the Queen to make a clean breast, and 
referred to her Majesty's late letter. " I am 
amazed," replied La Porte, " that her Majesty has 
again thought it necessary to command me to 
confess the truth, seeing that my various interro- 
gatories have doubtless been submitted to her 
inspection by which she might perceive that I 
have told all I knew. Nevertheless, if to speak 
falsely will serve her Majesty, although it would 
doubtless consign me to the scaffold, I am ready 
to obey and submit." 54 

Richelieu probably was not the dupe of La 
Porte's affected simplicity ; he had convicted the 
Queen fully and utterly by her own verbal con- 
fession, under her own hand and seal and by the 
incontrovertible evidence of the papers he had 
openly produced without reference to any docu- 
ments which he might choose to suppress. The 
alternative cannot be evaded that either the 
Queen, informed of the proceedings about to be 
taken against her, found means to destroy her 
papers at the Val de Grace, or that Richelieu 
caused a surreptitious seizure to be made thereof, 
to be used according to circumstances and at his 
pleasure. The painful dismay evinced by Anne, 
when at Chantilly she heard of the arrest of La 
Porte from Mademoiselle de Hautefort, seems to 
be quite at variance with a notion that she was 


expecting and prepared to encounter the storm. 
Aware that no treasonable correspondence existed 
to convict her, she could have afforded to wait 
tranquilly the manoeuvres of the Cardinal, and 
to brave, as she had so often done before, the 
wrath of the King her husband. 

To restore a semblance of festivity and concord 
at Chantilly, the Cardinal caused numerous invi- 
tations to be issued. It was necessary to show 
to the country at large that the Queen was not a 
prisoner nor in immediate peril of divorce or of 
imprisonment for life in the fortress of Havre as 
it was reported all over the realm. The King 
also had sunk into a fit of morbid gloom from 
which nothing seemed to rouse him, deepened by 
the conviction that one night, on passing along 
a gallery of the chateau, he had seen the appari- 
tion of the late Marshal de Montmorency. 

Mademoiselle de Montpensier and her troop of 
young and noble maidens, her playfellows, were 
therefore summoned to make the sombre chateau 
ring with merriment. " After I arrived at Chaii- 
tilly," relates this shrewd young lady, who was 
then only ten years old, " I put every one into 
good humour. The King was devoured with 
melancholy and suspicions which had been in- 
spired by the Queen. The Queen was in bed, and 
ill, which she might well have been for a smaller 
cause than the affront which she had just received 
for the Chancellor had examined her at Chan- 
tilly on the day preceding that of my arrival. 
She was in the first agony of her grief at this 


affront, which however the presence of Madame 
de St. George allayed, as it was through her that 
the Queen now determined to continue her inter- 
course with Monsieur." 55 


1 Harte's History of the Life of Gustavus Adolphus, t. 1. Galeazzo, 
Hist, delle Guerre di Ferdinando II. e III. contro Gostavo- Adolf o Re di 
Suetia, e Luigi XIII. Re di Francia. 

2 Harte's History of Gustavus Adolphus, t. 1, p. 231. 

3 Equivalent to 400,000 crowns, as stated in the treaty of Berwalt. 

4 Harte, 1. 1. Galeazzo, Hist, delle Guerre di Ferdinando II. The name 
of the officer who gave the mortal wound to the great Gustavus was 
Maurice Falkenberg. The Duke of Saxe Lauenburg was suspected as the 
contriver of the base assassination. Vie du Pere Joseph de Tremblay. 

5 Brother of the Queen of France, towards whom Anne showed extra- 
ordinary attachment. 

6 Daughter of Philip II. and of Elizabeth de Valois. She was a princess 
of sagacity and piety, and was greatly venerated by her subjects and 
by her kinsmen of Spain. The Archduchess Infanta is interred in the 
church of Ste. Gudule of Brussels. 

7 Articles de 1'accommodement de M. le Due d'Orleans avec le Roy son 
Frere, etc. Aubery, Mem. pour 1'Hist. du Cardinal de Richelieu, t. 2, 
p. 232. 

8 Aubery, t. 2. 

9 Mathias, Count Gallas or Galasso, a native of the district of Trent. 
Count Gallas died 1646. He held supreme command at the battle of 

10 Vie du Pere Joseph de Tremblay. The Capuchin taunted his patron, 
as " une poule mouillee," for his panic ; and advised him to shoir 
himself boldly to the populace. 

11 Madrid is a chateau in the Bois de Boulogne, which was built by 
Francis I. after his return from his captivity in Spain. The King used 
to retire there, and the courtiers spoke of his Majesty, " comme etant 
a Madrit," during the period of his temporary seclusion. 

12 Aubery, t. 3. 

13 Hist, du Card. Due de Richelieu. 

14 M. de Chavigny au Cardinal de la Valette. Aubery, Mem. pour 
1'Hist. du Card. Due de Richelieu, t. 3. Paris, a 21 Nov., 1636. 

16 Aubery, t. 2. Promesses du Roy et de M. le Due d'Orleans. Signed 
at Orleans, February 6th, 1637. Siri, Memorie Recondite, t. 9. Galerie 
des Personnages Illustres de la Cour de Louis XIII., t. 4. 

16 Aubery, t. 5. 

17 Vie du Pere Joseph. Siri, Memorie Recondite. 



8 " Le Capucin missionnaire raconta tout au Pere Joseph, et celui-ci au 
Cardinal. Son Eminence resolut de rompre ce commerce ; et fit com- 
prendre au Roi le danger qu'il y avait d'ecrire clandestinement a un 
ennemi de 1'Etat." Vie du Pere Joseph de Tremblay, Capucin nomm6 
au Cardinalat. 

19 Bertrand de Chaux, Archbishop of Tours, whose ignorance and sim- 
plicity were the best excuses for his aberrations. 

20 Vie du Card. Due de Richelieu. Siri, Galerie des Personnages 
Illustres, t. 4. Preface aux Mem. de Richelieu depuis 1'ann. 1616 a 
1620. Bassompierre, Journal de ma Vie. 

21 Proces-Verbal du Chancelier (Seguier). MS. Bibl. Imp. Suppl. Fr. 
No. 4068. Pieces relatives a 1 'affaire du Val de Grace. 

22 Ibid. Mem. de la Porte, Coll. Pettitot. 

28 Journal du Card, de Richelieu, public en 1648. 

24 Vie de Mademoiselle de la Fayette, Dreux du Radier. " Le Roy et 
elle se quitterent les larmes aux yeux." 

25 Griffet, Hist, du Regne de Louis XIII., t. 3, ann. 1637. 

26 Mem. de Richelieu, t. 10. Interrogatoires de la Porte. Ibid. 
Memoires. Lettre du Pere Carre au Cardinal de Richelieu. " La Porte, 
le jour qu'il fut pris, avoit voulu donner les lettres de la Reyne a un 
gentilhomme qui refusa de les prendre, feignant qu'il devoit demeurer 
ici encore trois jours. La Porte lui conseilla de prendre conge de la 
Reyne lorsque sa majeste entreroit en carrosse ; ce qu'il fit : et elle ne 
manqua pas de lui dire, ' La Porte vous doit donner une lettre,' a 
laquelle il s'excusa. Madame de la Flotte m'avertit qu'une personns 
lui avoit dit, que la Porte avoit un chinre qui servoit a dechiffrer les 
lettres qu'on ecrivoit a la Reyne." Cousin, Appendice, Vie de Madame 
de Chevreuse. 

27 Vie Inedite de Madame de Hautefort, publiee par M. Victor Cousin, 
Vie d'Anne d'Autriche ; Mem. de Motteville, vi. 

28 Ibid. 

29 Relation de ce qui s'est passe en 1'affaire de la Reine sur le sujet de La 
Porte, et de 1'Abbesse de Val de Grace. MS. Bibl. Imp. Suppl. F. 4068. 

80 Mem. pp. 352, 353, et seq. 

81 Galerie des Personnages Illustres de la Cour de Louis XIII., t. 4. 
" On parle fort a la Cour de 1'affaire de la Reine," writes Grotius in 
another despatch. " Les gens disent communement qu'en voyant les 
lettres qu'elle ecrivoit en Espagne par 1'Angleterre surprises et 
dechiffrees, elle a demande pardon au Roi ; et qu'en presence de 9 
temoins, entre lesquels on compte son propre confesseur, celui du Roi, 
et De Noyers, elle confessa avoir ecrit a Madrid sur les moyens de 
traverser la ligue projectee entre la France et 1'Angleterre ; marque les 
endroits faibles ou le royaume peut etre attaque ; et averti le roi 
d 'Espagne de se defier d'un certain Bachelier, envoy e en France sous 
pr^texte d'acquitter un vceu de la Reine a St. -Isidore," &c. &c. 

32 Vie MS, Cousin ; Vie de Madame de Hautefort. 

1637] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 403 

33 MS. Bibl. Imp. Suppl. Fr. 4068. 

34 The letter alluded to by the Queen is probably the following one 
one of the few letters written during her married life extant. The letter 
is given as in the original, in Anne's phraseology and spelling : 
" Hermano mio Sino fuera porque temo de cansar le, eon mis cartas no 
dejaria pasar ningun ordinario sin escrivirle ; mas, no peudo acabar ? 
conmigo el dejar pasar este sin hazerlo, y dezir lo que he sentido harto 
que ayan venido dos o tres sin haber sabido nuevas suyas ; y por aca se 
dizen algunas tan diferentes de las que yo deseo, que aunque no las 
creo, no dejare de da me grandissima pena ; y asi le supplico que mande 
que no venga ningun ordin sin que yo sepa nuevas suyas ; y quando no 
me pudiere escribir, mande que escrivan a Don Christoval para que el 
me las pudiere dar. Si supiese lo que yo me huelgo con ellas, no duda de 
la mercedes que me haze, que tendria muchiss cuyadado que no me 
faltasen algun dia. Espero en Dios, que le podre dezir el consuelo que 
es para mi ; y que con esto se puede haber (sufrir) todo : el me cumple 
este deseo, que le prometo que despues de la salvacion es el mayor que 
tengo. Suplico Nro. Senor que me guarde Hermano mio como deseo." 
MS. Bibl. Imp. Fonds. Fr., 92413747, fol. 3. 

35 MS. Bibl. Imp. Supplement Fra^ois, No. 4068. Pieces relatives a 
1'affaire de 1637. 

36 Jeanne de Montluc, Countess de Carmain, daughter of Sieur de 
Montesquion and of Jeanne de Foix : she married Charles d'Escoubleau, 
Marquis d'Alluye et de Sourdis, and died in 1657. 

37 Bibl. Imp. MS. Suppl. Fr. 4068. All these manuscript relations of 
events are in the handwriting of the Cardinal de Richelieu. 

8 The Queen's private secretary. 

39 MS. Bibl. Imp. Suppl. Fr. 4068. This document is in the hand- 
writing of Le Gras, and was a copy furnished to the Cardinal in obedience 
to his mandate. The original may perhaps be still on the shelves of the 
French Foreign Office ; though, probably, Anne of Austria, after her 
accession to power as Regent of France, would decree the suppression of 
this and many other damaging papers connected with her career as 

40 Ibid. 

41 Galerie des Personnages Ulustres de la Cour de Louis XIII., t. 4. 

42 MS. Bibl. Imp. Suppl. Fr. 4068. Lettre Autographe du Chancelier 
Seguier au Cardinal de Richelieu, avec une note de sa main. 

43 Ibid. Nouvelle Declaration de la Reine, 22 Aoust, 1637. 

44 Ibid. Instructions de la main de De Noyers adressees au Chancelier 
pour interroger La Porte, et 1'Abbesse du Val de Grace. 

46 Ibid. Interrogatoire de 1'Abbesse du Val de Grace, du 28 Aoust, 
48 Frangois de Rochechouart, Chevalier de Jars, had suffered exile for 
his connivance in the revels of the Court when at Amiens, and attended 
his friend the Duke of Buckingham to England. On his return to France, 
he again imprudently suffered himself to be drawn into the correspond- 

404 ANNE OF AUSTRIA [1637 

ence between Chateauneuf and Madame de Chevreuse, and had been 
accused of carrying Anne's correspondence to Monsieur. 

47 De Jars was then a prisoner at large within the precincts of the 

48 Cousin, Vie de Madame de Hautefort. Motteville, Mem., t. 1, p. 83. 
" Ce fut en cette occasion que Madame de Hautefort, voulant genereuse- 
ment se sacrifier pour la Heine, se deguisa en demoiselle suivante, pour 
aller a la Bastille donner une lettre a La Porte ; ce qui se fit avec beau- 
coup de peine, et de danger pour elle, par 1'habilete du commandeur de 
Jars qui etait encore prisonnier, et etait creature de la Reine," &c. 

49 Mem. de La Porte (Petitot Coll.), p. 370. 

50 This Patrocle was a valet de chambre in the service of the Queen, 
upon whom the suspicions of the King had fallen. 

51 MS. Bibl. Imp. Suppl. Fr. 4068. 

52 " Le Hoi commanda a la Reine d'ecrire de sa main a La Porte, pour 
lui commander de dire tout ce qu'il savait ; mais comme il crut qu'elle 
avait etc forcee d'ecrire cette lettre, il ne changea rien en sa conduite." 
Mem. de Motteville, t. 1, p. 85. 

53 MS. Bibl. Imp. Suppl. Fr. 4068. Dernier Interrogatoire de La Porte. 

54 Galerie des Personnages Illustres de la Cour de Louis Treize, t. 4. 
Mem. de Richelieu. Mem. de Madame de Motteville, t. 1. 

55 Mem. de Mademoiselle de Montpensier, t. 1. Madame de St. George 
was Jeanne de Harley one of the ladies once in attendance on Henrietta 
Maria, Queen of England, and who had been dismissed by Charles I. 
for her intrigues at the English court, and her noisy querulousness of 
disposition. Madame de St. George on her return to France had been 
appointed governess to Mademoiselle, 




THE Duchess de Chevreuse during this interval 
had not escaped the shock which was rending the 
court. Neither the Queen nor her friend, Made- 
moiselle de Hautefort, dared to incur the suspicion 
of correspondence with a personage so distrusted 
by the minister. After her visit to the Bastille 
Mademoiselle de Hautefort sent her cousin, M. 
de Montalais to Tours, to seek, accidentally as it 
should appear, an interview with the duchess to 
impart the import of Anne's avowals, and the 
stage which the judicial proceedings had reached. 
M. de Montalais was also desired to reassure the 
duchess by a promise from Marie de Hautefort to 
give her timely notice, should affairs assume a 
serious aspect, by sending her a book of Hours 
bound in red velvet, while if matters were likely 
to be amicably settled, a volume of Hours 
bound in green velvet should apprise Madame de 
Chevreuse of the felicitous news. 1 Envoys de- 
spatched in the King's name, however, soon waited 
upon the Duchess to subject her to severe interro- 
gatories. The noblemen thus sent were the 
Marshal de la Meilleraye, the Bishop of Auxerre 
and the Abbe Dorat, treasurer of the Sainte 
Chapelle, who was a personage known and trusted 



by the Duchess. The private instructions of the 
commissioners empowered them to apply every 
pressure to extort confession ; if Madame de 
Chevreuse denied her guilt and audaciously defied 
their authority the envoys were instructed to 
commit her a close prisoner in the neighbouring 
castle of Loches that fortress of evil repute for 
its oubliettes and darksome prison cells. M. de la 
Meilleraye, who was a near kinsman of the Car- 
dinal's, was commissioned to assure the Duchess of 
the good will of Richelieu, who still acknowledged 
himself the slave of her charms and her wit, in 
proof of which M. le Cardinal, being informed 
that her pecuniary circumstances were embar- 
rassed, from the narrow income allowed her by 
the Due de Chevreuse, had sent her 10,000 livres 
in gold. Madame de Chevreuse laughed in her 
sleeve, demurely accepted the gift, protesting that 
she had nothing to confess but would answer any 
interrogatories put to her. Aware that the letter 
had been seized in which she had proposed to 
Anne of Austria to pay her a clandestine visit, the 
Duchess was able to return an apparently candid 
and truthful reply to the questions put to her 
upon this subject. " I protest," replied she, 
" that in making this proposition I had no other 
object in view, excepting to pay my respects to 
the Queen, and to transact a few private affairs 
of my own in Paris. Far from intending to pre- 
judice her Majesty against the Cardinal, it was 
my firm intent to exert all the influence which I 
possessed in his behalf ! " She then proceeded to 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 407 

eulogise the administration of the Cardinal, and to 
make great protestations of future friendship. The 
Duchess however was thoroughly on the alert ; 
she distrusted and knew the value of Richelieu's 
fine protestations, she appreciated the dislike 
of the King and the danger to which she was 
exposed relative to her correspondence with 
Lorraine. The Duke her husband, upon being 
asked whether he would answer for her appear- 
ance if summoned to Paris, and whether he 
would undertake to put a stop to future clandes- 
tine correspondences replied by a shrug and an 
emphatic negative. 2 Anne's friend meantime, 
the Prince de Marsillac, 3 heir of the Duke de la 
Rochefoucauld, had been significantly warned by 
Richelieu to refrain from visits or correspondence 
of any kind with the exiled Duchess. His father 
moreover had extorted an oath that he would 
avoid such communication, threatening in case 
of disobedience, that which in the present temper 
of the court it would have been easy to obtain a 
lettre de cachet to imprison him in the Bastille. 
The young Prince, in despair at being thus obliged 
to abandon his royal mistress, did the best thing 
for her interests which he could under the 
circumstances he communicated confidentially 
with Sir Herbert Croft who was at Douay, and 
induced him to repair in disguise to Tours. Croft 
succeeded in his mission, and after two secret 
interviews with the Duchess, raised her alarm to 
the highest pitch of terror, and in her haste to 
avoid incarceration at Loches, she resolved to fly 


from France and take refuge in Spain with the 
brother of her good and persecuted royal mis- 
tress. Madame de Chevreuse was the more re- 
solved to adhere to this resolution upon learning 
privately from the Marshal de la Meilleraye the 
terms which would insure her exemption from 
arrest. The Cardinal prescribed the cessation, 
total and complete, of intercourse of any descrip- 
tion with Anne of Austria ; her acknowledgment 
that she had guiltily and maliciously incited 
Queen Anne to acts of disloyalty to the realm and 
to the King ; and her voluntary retreat back and 
continued residence at the Chateau de Milly. 
Hastily therefore the Duchess made preparation 
for flight ; her jewels which were valued at the 
sum of 400,000 francs spoils taken from the un- 
fortunate Marquis d'Ancre she sent by Croft to 
the Duke de la Rochefoucauld and his son at 
Verteuil, with a paper by which she bequeathed 
the jewels to the Prince de Marsillac in case of her 
death. The money sent to her by Richelieu 
amply sufficed for her wants during her journey. 
On the 6th of September therefore the Duchess 
after undergoing a fourth ordeal before Richelieu's 
envoys, pretended illness and lassitude to a 
degree which she said nothing but a solitary 
evening drive in her coach could relieve. The 
Duchess set out unmolested and continued her 
drive until nine o'clock, when at a given spot the 
coach stopped and she alighted in the dress of a 
cavalier, having managed during the route from 
Tours to effect that transformation. A faithful 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 409 

servant, probably the brother of La Porte, was in 
waiting with a saddle-horse which the intrepid 
duchess mounted, and without attendants or 
baggage of any kind, set off in headlong flight to 
the frontier. 4 The coach returned by a cir- 
cuitous way to Tours, and drew up before her 
door with all due ceremony, as if its mistress was 
about to descend and enter the mansion. By this 
stratagem the flight of Madame de Chevreuse was 
unknown until the middle of the following day 
when she was beyond pursuit. The Duchess rode 
without drawing rein until she arrived at Ruffec, 
a place one league from Verteuil, the magnificent 
palace of the La Rochefoucaulds. Unwilling to 
compromise her friends, and yet being in urgent 
need of assistance, Madame de Chevreuse wrote 
hastily the following note to the Prince de Mar- 
sillac at a way-side hostelry, which she sent up to 
the chateau by a peasant boy : " MONSIEUR, 
The writer of this note is a French gentleman who 
implores your help to save his life. He has un- 
fortunately fought a duel and killed his anta- 
gonist, a gentleman of rank, which sudden event 
obliges him to fly from France to escape arrest. 
You, Monseigneur, he hears, are likely to be 
generous enough to afford your protection to an 
unknown. He implores you therefore to lend 
him a coach and servants to help him on the way." 
" I sent my own coach," states the young 
Prince de Marsillac, when interrogated on the 
affair, " with a servant named Poter, who had a 
suspicion that the distressed cavalier was Madame 


de Chevreuse." 5 " One hundred yards from my 
master's chateau I met a young cavalier wearing 
a flaxen wig, who appeared almost spent with 
fatigue. He entered the coach alone and im- 
mediately threw himself at the bottom to repose," 
was the evidence of the servant. Poter drove 
Madame de Chevreuse rapidly to a lone hunting 
seat where she arrived at three o'clock in the 
morning, and was received by one Malbasty, a 
trusted retainer of La Rochefoucauld. Madame 
de Chevreuse rested some hours, then still being 
attended by Poter and Malbasty she again took 
horse. She wore a black casaque, and doublet 
and hose, boots, spurs and rapier, and her fore- 
head was bound with a scarf of black taffetas, to 
protect a wound which she pretended to have re- 
ceived in the duel. At the first halt after leaving 
the house of M. de la Rochefoucauld, the little 
hostelry was full of people and she was obliged to 
rest on a truss of hay in an outhouse, and was soon 
in a deep sleep. So fair and gracious was the 
aspect of the sleeping young cavalier, that a kind, 
honest farmer's wife of the district passing by, 
was lost in admiration. " Never did I behold so 
fair and comely a lad ! " exclaimed she, her heart 
melting with compassion at the comfortless plight 
of the stranger. " Monsieur, come and rest in my 
house, it will be a pleasure to serve such as you." 
Onwards however, in her painful flight, Madame 
de Chevreuse was compelled to hasten ; Riche- 
lieu's myrmidons were Argus-eyed, and were 
spread over every province of France. Once she 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 411 

was near capture by the Marquis d'Antin and a 
band of bold retainers. Again, when close to 
Bayonne, a gentleman at the head of a troop of 
followers rode up to take a closer inspection of so 
jaunty a cavalier and swift horseman. " Par le 
Sang-Dieu ! " exclaimed the rough Bearnais 
gentleman, " if Monsieur were not dressed en 
cavalier, I should say that I saw the Duchesse de 
Chevreuse ! ?: " Monsieur, I have the honour to 
be related nearly to the said lady Duchess ! " re- 
plied the brave woman with a laugh, as she 
galloped past waving her cap to the Bearnais 
and his motley entourage. To troublesome in- 
quirers as to her name, rank and business, the 
Duchess mysteriously hinted that she was the 
young Duke d'Enghien, flying to escape the 
Bastille for an intrigue d' amour, in which a life had 
been lost. At length after several weary days 
the bourne was attained and the rocky heights 
of Irun rose before the eager gaze of the poor 
fugitive. Flight then became unnecessary, and 
Madame de Chevreuse, beyond the power of her 
adversary, had leisure to summon resolution and 
courage for fresh enterprise, especially as the 
corregidor of Irun, upon hearing the name of the 
illustrious fugitive, called to place himself and the 
resources of the town at her disposal. Madame 
de Chevreuse made a first use of her power by 
despatching a messenger to Madrid, with letters 
addressed to their Catholic Majesties, praying for 
protection and the loan of equipages and an 
outfit suitable to her sex and station. 6 


The flight of Madame de Chevreuse and her 
daring defiance greatly incensed the King. Be- 
fore she had crossed the frontier half a dozen 
emissaries were in full chase after the fugitive, all 
being the bearers of pacific declarations from the 
Cardinal. The Duke de Chevreuse, roused for 
once from his sloth, despatched his steward 
Boispille in hot pursuit after his runaway consort. 
Boispille came up with his mistress at Irun only, 
and was there treated with some truths from her 
lips to convey to his master, which led him to 
regret his bootless journey. The envoy of the 
Cardinal pursued his journey with more delibera- 
tion, stopping at Tours and at Verteuil to 
examine the Archbishop and the Duke de la 
Rochefoucauld, on the causes of the sudden flight 
of the Duchess, and to take cognizance of the 
measure in which they had been her abettors. 
The old Archbishop gave his evidence, weeping 
bitterly for the loss which he had sustained : 7 
" The said lady Duchess called upon me to tell me 
that she had received warnings from two different 
personages sent purposely to apprise her that it 
had been determined to arrest and confine her in 
the Bastille, and that a troop of horse was already 
under orders to fetch her. She had therefore 
come to the resolve to fly from France, and that 
such haste was requisite that she had no choice but 
to retire into Spain." Vignier then continued his 
journey to Verteuil, leaving the prelate to mourn 
at leisure " the eclipse of the bright light which 
had shone upon his diocese." The loan of the 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 413 

coach by the Prince de Marsillac to Madame de 
Chevreuse being a high crime and misdemeanour 
in the opinion of Richelieu, was punished by a 
painful journey under arrest to Paris, and by 
ten days of imprisonment in the Bastille. 8 The 
President then proceeded to the Pyrenean fron- 
tier to reprimand the incorrigible fugitive, but 
upon her promise of amendment to assure her of 
pardon provided she would obediently return to 
Tours and agree to a sojourn of three months at 
Dampierre, after which she might be permitted to 
appear again in Paris. This grace, however, was 
to be conceded only on the distinct understanding 
that the Duchess forthwith quitted the Spanish 
territory. An imbroglio of foreign affairs in 
Lorraine, England, Spain and Brussels, rose in 
grim array before Richelieu, if he suffered the 
escape from France of that esprit brouillon, that 
termagant fury, that false-lipped syren Madame 
la Duchesse de Chevreuse ! When Vignier ar- 
rived at Irun the Duchess was already on the road 
to Madrid, welcomed by Philip IV. as the dear 
friend and fellow- sufferer of his beloved sister, 
Dona Ana, and cheered by the frenzied applause 
of the people who flocked in crowds to gaze on her 
fair face and form. 

Richelieu began now to tire of the judicial in- 
vestigations, and having achieved his object he 
pressed the King to put an end to the public 
excitement, " and to the disgraceful aspect of a 
divided court," by giving his final fiats on the fate 
of the culprits still detained in durance. Anne 


was therefore suffered to return to the Louvre. 
Louis, still unforgiving and still unconvinced, 
imposed upon the Queen a list of prohibitions, 
which as applied to a wife and to a sovereign 
princess seem of unsurpassed severity, and cal- 
culated to cast a shadow on the throne itself. 
The rules, written entirely by the King, were 
presented to Anne of Austria by the Cardinal de 
Richelieu, whose exhortations doubtless schooled 
her rebellious heart to outward submission. 


" I desire that the Queen shall never more write 
to Madame de Chevreuse, because the pretext of 
this correspondence has been the blind behind 
which she has been able to correspond abroad and 

" I desire that Madame de Senece shall in 
future render to me a strict account of all the 
letters written by the Queen, and that these 
said letters shall be folded and sealed in her 

" It is my will that Filandre, the Queen's chief 
dresser, shall inform me every time that the Queen 
writes the which it is impossible for the Queen to 
do without the knowledge of the said Filandre, as 
she has charge of the Queen's writing implements. 

" I forbid the Queen to pay visits to any con- 
vents until I give her notice of my wishes in 
this respect. If I should ever rescind this my 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 415 

command, it is my will that for the future she shall 
be attended in her visits to any convent whatever 
by her first lady in waiting and by the dame 
d'atours, who are never to leave her Majesty alone. 

" I beg the Queen to remember that should the 
fancy again seize her to hold foreign correspond- 
ences, or to communicate intelligence from this 
country, directly or indirectly, that in such case, 
she has agreed to forfeit the benefit of the oblivion 
which I have conceded to her past bad conduct. 

" The Queen will take notice that I forbid her 
to see or to hold communication with Croft, or 
with any other of the friends and emissaries of 
Madame de Chevreuse. 

" Done at Chantilly, this 17th day of August, 
1637. (Signed) " Louis." 

Lower down on the same paper, Anne, with 
trembling hand, subscribes her humble acceptance 
of these stern behests of her consort, thus : 

" I promise the King to observe, faithfully and 
religiously, all that he has been pleased to com- 
mand me. " ANNE." 9 

The abbess of the Val de Grace, after suffering 
prolonged imprisonment at Bussiere, was deposed 
from her dignity and sent into a distant convent 
as a simple nun. La Porte, after enduring im- 
prisonment for a year in the Bastille, was released 
from custody and exiled to his native town of 
Seiches in Anjou, under the prohibition of never 
quitting the limits of the province on penalty of 


a fresh arrest. The nuns of the Val de Grace 
remained for some time under the ban of their 
ecclesiastical superior, the Archbishop of Paris ; 
the rules of their Order were restored in full 
severity, and the fine music in their chapel which 
had rendered it the resort of the beau monde of 
Paris on high festivals was suspended. With the 
elevation of a new abbess 10 the sisterhood gradu- 
ally emerged from the cloud, but for some years 
the fair form of the young Queen of France never 
crossed the threshold of her once beloved retreat. 
Anne, however, was nearer being avenged on 
the Cardinal de Richelieu for all his evil revelations 
than she supposed. Throughout the painful affair 
the Jesuit Caussin, confessor to the King, had 
stood her friend, perhaps not so much out of 
conviction of her innocence as from the per- 
suasion that Anne henceforth could continue to 
share the throne of France only by Richelieu's 
sufferance, and consequently by living in com- 
plete subjection to his will. As one of the cabal 
to promote the deposition of the Cardinal from 
power patronised by the Queen-mother and 
Monsieur, Caussin deemed it his duty to avail 
himself of the visible discontent of the King at 
the failure of the proceedings against La Porte 
and others, to arouse the royal conscience on the 
heinousness of the alliance of France with the 
German and Swedish heretics, on the wickedness 
of the attempt to separate the Duke of Orleans 
from his wife, and on the prolonged and painful 
exile of Marie de' Medici. Mademoiselle de la 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 417 

Fayette, now known as La Sceur Angelique, 11 
seconded these intrigues with all her might, and 
spoke with the authority of one dead to the world 
and its carnal influences, and alive only to the 
promptings of religion, honour and truth. From 
the Low Countries the Queen- mother corresponded 
with Caussin, and exhorted him by every holy 
inspiration of principle and right, to awaken the 
mind of the King to the fact that his person, his 
family, his realm and his consort were alike bound 
in the adamantine chains of a relentless enemy, 
whose Satanic ambition had no parallel on earth. 
Caussin even presented to the King a letter from 
Marie de' Medici, touching in its pathetic appeals, 
but yet leavened with a haughty spirit of defiance 
towards her ancient foe. Louis was moved. He 
replied, " I wish, I wish, that I could restore her, 
and bring her back to me ; but I dare not discuss 
the subject with M. le Cardinal. If you can 
prevail, be sure that I will give my sanction ! " 12 
Sometimes Louis appeared to yield to the argu- 
ments of his confessor, at other times he pleaded 
fatigue and refused to listen to a word, then 
again, his confessions were interwoven with ejacu- 
lations expressive of his sorrow for the misdeeds 
of his minister. Caussin at length ventured to 
propose that the Cardinal should be dismissed and 
his place filled by the Due d'Angouleme, natural 
son of King Charles IX., a prince of no knowledge, 
firmness or principle, and who had passed the 
greater part of his life a state prisoner in the 
Bastille. Louis, who loved to hear his minister 



depreciated, and who delighted to discuss pro- 
posals which made clear to him that a stroke of 
his pen would overthrow the omnipotent Cardinal, 
listened with complacency, and replied to the 
pleadings of the Jesuit by nods of assent, but 
refused to commit himself by a single written line. 
At this period the latter months of the year 1637 
the Bishop of Mans died, and at the suggestion 
of Caussin the King gave the vacant bishopric to 
his sub-almoner, the Abbe de la Ferte, without 
previously naming the matter to Richelieu. This 
success fairly turned the scheming brain of the 
Jesuit. M. d'Angouleme one day asked his inter- 
cession with the King to insure the nomination 
of a lady, to whom he had promised his interest, 
as abbess of some sisterhood just deprived of its 
chief. 13 Caussin promised his help, adding that 
soon it would be for Monseigneur to confer favours 
and not to demand them ! Being pressed by the 
Duke for an explanation, Caussin committed the 
folly of betraying the intrigue afloat. The Duke, 
frightened out of all propriety by this alarming 
revelation, implored to be excused from accepting 
a position for which he was totally unqualified, 
adding passionately, " that the intrigue would be 
defeated ; that Louis never meant to dismiss a 
minister who, though a domestic tyrant, had 
filled the world with the glorious renown of France 
and her King ! " " Monsieur," said the Jesuit, 
" you will ere long be called upon to assume the 
presidency of affairs, or to return to your apart- 
ment in the Bastille." The Duke, without further 

1689] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 419 

parley, rushed to the apartments of Chavigny 14 in 
the Arsenal, and with the voice and manner of a 
man who deems his life at stake, implored the 
minister to wait upon the Cardinal at Ruel and 
impart the proposition just made by the reverend 
father, adding " that he had neither share nor 
blame in the concoction of so shameless an 

Subsequent to this astonishing act of folly, 
Father Caussin, in the plenitude of his new-fledged 
power, took upon himself to affirm to the King his 
conviction of the perfect innocence of Anne of 
Austria ; that her late persecution was an egre- 
gious sin, and that the Cardinal had trumped up 
the letters which witnessed against her to serve 
his own unrighteous ends. Louis listened in sullen 
incredulity and wrath ; the animosity of the 
Cardinal's enemies led them into the error of 
exaggeration, and Louis le Juste was ever ready 
to set himself right with his minister by betraying 
and deriding a calumniator. The Cardinal makes 
wrathful entry of the misdeeds of Caussin in his 
Diary : " Of all the persons who misbehaved 
themselves concerning the affair of La Porte, and 
who testified malignant discontent towards the 
government, no one ventured to such lengths as 
good little Father Caussin, who had the temerity, 
the impudence and the folly to say to the King 
some months after the arrest of the said La Porte 
that the discovery which had been made of letters, 
and of the secret intelligences which the Queen 
held in Flanders, in Spain and with the Duke of 


Lorraine, astonished him beyond measure, as he 
could not understand how the Cardinal could find 
it in his heart to treat the Queen as he had done, 
seeing that he was once much attached to her 
Majesty, and it was known bore her yet great affec- 
tion. This insinuation was dictated by the most 
black and damnable malice that could possess 
the mind of any monk whatever. In the first 
place, the Cardinal did not cause the arrest of La 
Porte, but the King did by his absolute authority ; 
neither was it in the power of the said Cardinal to 
prevent the heinous nature of the Queen's letters 
from becoming apparent. Moreover, the said 
Caussin had the audacity to accuse M. le Cardinal 
of a lie, on the simple assertion of a Princess 
convicted of having made false oaths on several 
occasions and on this one especially, when she 
found herself compelled to acknowledge the falsity 
of several matters which she had sworn to be true 
upon the Holy Eucharist." 15 The Cardinal then 
proceeds to relate how the King, sickening at the 
deceit practised by his confessor, paid him a visit 
one morning at Ruel, to denounce these slander- 
ings. His Majesty afterwards declared his resolve 
to dismiss Caussin from his important office of 
confessor, and was moreover desirous that the 
said Jesuit should be exiled from Paris. The 
friends of Caussin relate that the King, convinced 
by his remonstrances, commanded him to be at 
Ruel on the morning of the 9th of December, 
1637, to propose the reforms in the administra- 
tion needful " for our conscience and our welfare, 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 421 

and we will support you." "I pictured to my- 
self," says Caussin, " the Cardinal furious as a 
great dragon, and fit to tear my eyes out so soon 
as I should commence to represent in his presence 
the sins of his administration." 16 Caussin, it is 
asserted, duly presented himself at Ruel where 
the King also arrived. At the last moment accord- 
ing to Caussin the courage of Louis failed, and 
he dared not bring his minister face to face with 
his accuser. The reverend father therefore re- 
ceived a command to retire from Ruel back to his 
convent in Paris. The same evening the secretary 
of state, de Noyers, called upon the Provincial of 
the Order and delivered to him a lettre de cachet 
which directed Caussin to leave Paris on the fol- 
lowing morning for Rennes, under the surveillance 
of an exempt of the guard, and forbidding him 
meantime to hold communication with any per- 
sonages whatever. The prohibition was extended 
to " les convents de femmes," evidently with a 
view to prevent Caussin from visiting La Sceur 
Angelique in the adjacent nunnery of the Visitan- 
dines. Caussin resigned himself to his fate with 
tolerable submission ; his papers were seized and 
carried to the victorious Richelieu. Two months 
subsequently, Caussin, on reading an official state- 
ment in the Gazette on the appointment of his 
successor to the office of confessor to Louis XIII., 
which amongst other things declared " that le 
Pere Caussin had been dismissed for his want of 
discretion, and for conduct so inconsiderate that 
the heads of his Order were surprised that he had 


been so long tolerated at court, rather than 
aggrieved by his dismissal," was imprudent enough 
to indite a letter of absolute denial of the charges 
to de Noyers. This epistle fell of course into the 
hands of Richelieu, who summoned the Provincial 
Binet, and in great rage, after reading the letter 
aloud, insisted that Caussin should be sent on 
a missionary expedition to Quebec. Binet re- 
spectfully observed, " that a mission so perilous 
and therefore glorious, was considered the highest 
reward of saintly virtue, and therefore it was 
impossible so to honour a priest lying under the 
censure of his superiors." Caussin was eventually 
routed from his peaceful retreat in the old city of 
Rennes and confined to the inhospitable and rude 
district round Quimper, where he remained under 
surveillance until the death of the royal penitent 
whom he had risked so much to reform. 17 Made- 
moiselle de la Fayette, on her first interview with 
Louis, ventured to remonstrate, and to decry the 
tyrannous jealousies of the Cardinal. " What 
would you, Madame ! " exclaimed the King, pas- 
sionately. " God bestows upon every unfortunate 
some power of self-defence, my wife is barren 
and she hates me, my mother wishes to dethrone 
me, my brother desires to put my crown on his 
head, my chief nobles dislike me they betray 
me and rebel against my power ; but for M. le 
Cardinal therefore I perhaps should not long 
keep my throne ! " Sceur Angelique however 
ventured to allude to the heavy taxation to the 
alliance of Catholic France with heretic rebels 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 423 

to the oppression of Richelieu's secret police and 
to his ever-ready Bastille warrants. His Majesty 
listened awhile, then suddenly rose and departed 
without uttering a word. In the evening however 
he sent de Noyers to the convent to say " that he 
did not altogether disapprove the liberty which 
Soeur Angelique had taken, and that he would 
pay her another visit in the course of a few days." 
Meantime the arm of St. Isidore arrived, and 
was exhibited in great pomp before the high altar 
of the church of Notre Dame. The Queen, attended 
by her ladies, received the precious relic, walking 
in procession from the Louvre to Notre Dame, 
where pontifical mass was said by the Archbishop 
of Paris. By command of the Cardinal, prayers 
were commanded in every church and chapel in 
the capital to obtain from God the blessing of 
royal progeny. Persons conversant with the daily 
life and habits of the royal pair however knew 
that alienation between their Majesties was never 
so complete and apparently insurmountable. The 
Queen inhabited the Louvre, the King seldom 
approached that palace except for state audiences 
and receptions, but passed his time in wandering 
between the chateaux of Madrid, Fontainebleau, 
Ruel and Chantilly. The apartments once occu- 
pied by Louis in the Louvre were actually without 
furniture. When their Majesties met it was 
observed that, beyond the profound bow which 
Louis made to his consort, or rather to her chair 
of state on entering or leaving the saloon, he 
never addressed his discourse to her, but appeared 


exclusively occupied with Mademoiselle de Haute- 
fort, who had again become the object of the 
King's dreary homage. When her companions 
congratulated de Hautefort on what they termed 
" the return to her of the sunshine of royal 
favour," she replied indifferently, " that she was 
glad only, on perceiving that her influence was 
reviving, in order to serve the Queen her mistress, 
and thereby to parry the cunning thrusts of M. le 
Cardinal." Predictions of the approaching birth 
of a Dauphin, nevertheless, were circulated by the 
hundred through every province of the realm ; 
monks and nuns alike declared themselves in- 
spired and forwarded oracles to the Cardinal- 
minister, to lay before their Majesties. People 
marvelled, and discussed the miraculous revela- 
tion, which after twenty-three years of suspense, 
and at a period apparently the least propitious for 
domestic felicity, and while evil tongues yet spoke 
flippantly of Anne's recent narrow escape from 
divorce, promised so halcyon an event. On the 
3rd of November 1687, the Holy Virgin it was 
averred appeared to le Pere Fiacre, an Augus- 
tinian monk of Paris, while in obedience to the 
edict he was making diligent intercession on her 
Majesty's behalf. The Holy Virgin assured the 
monk that Anne's prayers should be granted on 
condition that the Queen performed three neu- 
vaines in her honour, one of which should be said 
in the church of Notre Dame de Grace of Cot- 
tignac. To convince Father Fiacre that the vision 
was neither a dream nor an illusion, the Virgin 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 425 

appeared to him as she was represented on the 
altar-piece of the church at Cottignac, attended 
by cherubs and surrounded by radiant effulgence. 
Fiacre instantly waited on the Cardinal and de- 
tailed his vision. Richelieu therefore introduced 
him to the Queen, who listened to his narrative 
with mingled trepidation and delight. Anne 
despatched the monk to the church of Cottignac 
to verify his vision by contemplating its famous 
picture, and commissioned him to offer rich gifts 
at the sacred shrine and to perform for her the 
neuvaine due as the condition of the miracle pro- 
mised. 18 Another monk, le Pere Vincent, on his 
return from a pilgrimage to Notre Dame de 
Savona, predicted the approaching birth of a 
Dauphin : 

Enfant, qui doit porter dessus ton front empreint 

Des mille dons du ciel le divin caractere, 
La vertu de Fra^ois, et 1'heur de Charles Quint, 

La cleinence de Henry, la valeur de son Pere, 

In all the Franciscan convents of the realm 
ceaseless petitions were especially offered to obtain 
the much-coveted gift, the servants of Heaven 
made constant prayer and multiplied their acts 
of devotion, principally on the festivals of our 
Lord and his Holy Mother, on the feasts of 
St. Michael the Archangel, Standard-bearer of 
the Heavenly Hosts, on those of St. Denis, St. 
Martin, St. Remy, Ste. Anne, Ste. Genevieve, St. 
Louis and St. Germain. 19 Richelieu meantime 
exhorted the Queen to make overtures of recon- 
ciliation to her husband, who on his side was 
admonished by Mademoiselle de Hautefort to 


accept these submissions, and to restore to her 
his conjugal regard. The new confessor, the Pere 
Sirmond, spoke to Louis earnestly and patheti- 
cally on his systematic alienation from the wife 
united to him by the ministration of Holy 
Church, and prompted by the Cardinal, he dis- 
cussed at length from the confessional the forlorn 
condition of the realm, which might perchance 
rejoice in the security to be conferred by the birth 
of an heir-apparent, if the King actuated by a 
sense ot duty would no longer banish from his 
heart his lawful consort, the sister of the most 
potent monarch in Christendom. 

Louis listened to these unwonted objurgations 
in irritable sullenness, his nerves were shaken with 
intermittent fever and his dejection deepened 
at the perverse independence of Marie de Haute- 
fort, who insisted on the privilege of speaking 
freely in return for the burdensome confidences 
he imposed upon her. The birth of a Dauphin had 
become an indispensable condition of Richelieu's 
future political and personal grandeur. Monsieur 
hated the minister with the spite of a puny intel- 
lect, Madame his consort, and possibly the future 
queen, had vowed a deep vow of vengeance for the 
insults inflicted by Richelieu and for the quibbles 
respecting her marriage and her consequent 
penury and exile. Conde, first prince of the blood, 
and next in succession to Monsieur, owed the 
minister an equivalent for many a humiliation and 
rebuff. Madame la Princesse, Marguerite de 
Montmorency, cried for revenge for the blood of 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 427 

her brother, the ill-starred and gallant Mont- 
morency who perished on the scaffold at Toulouse. 
In the entourage of Gaston the King, Richelieu 
moreover saw Marie de' Medici, returned from her 
ignominious exile, wielding at will the sceptre of 
her incapable and frivolous son, fervid in her 
wrath and ready to execute the oath attributed 
to her : " to cause the head of M. le Cardinal to 
roll in the dust which had licked up the blood of 
that true knight and nobleman, Montmorency ! ?: 
A Dauphin therefore was the only safeguard for 
the life, the liberty and the future power of the 
haughty Cardinal. The steadily declining health 
of the King foretold that at no distant period the 
throne would become vacant ; a vista of power and 
glory absolutely dazzling unfolded before Riche- 
lieu during the consequent long minority, when 
all the functions of the crown might centre in the 
hands of a feeble woman as Regent of France 
a Princess ignorant of politics, bound to her 
minister perhaps by the fetter of a terrible 
secret, and timid in the assertion of her preroga- 
tive as a queen, by the yoke of years of repression 
and seclusion. The King hated his brother and 
abhorred his sister-in-law, whose children he in- 
tended to disown as princes of the blood, but he 
was inspired, in common with the other princes of 
Europe, with chivalrous veneration for his wife's 
kindred, the dynasty of Charles Quint and for the 
power of the Catholic King. This feeling had saved 
Queen Anne from divorce. A son therefore would 
be welcomed it was presumed by King Louis, in 


order to displace Monsieur his heir-presumptive, 
while respect for the august dignity of a Queen- 
Infanta must stifle the impertinent conjecture of 
the captious, even if profane doubts awoke in the 
mind of the princes interested in the purity of 
the succession. Through Father Carre, who still 
diligently performed his functions at court as con- 
fessor to the Queen's ladies and maidens and in- 
former to the Cardinal, SoeurAngelique was enlisted 
to lecture Louis on his domestic delinquencies. 
The month of December, 1637, thus approached, 
the Queen making sojourn in the Louvre and 
being still fettered by the restrictions placed upon 
her intercourse with her friends and the male 
members of her household. Louis resided during 
this period chiefly at Versailles. One afternoon, 
ennui more than usually depressing the royal 
mind, his Majesty resolved to sleep at St. Maur 
where he had a hunting establishment, and on 
passing through Paris to refresh his spirit by a 
visit to the convent of the Faubourg St. Antoine. 
The conversation with La Sceur Angelique lasted 
four hours, and embraced every possible topic. 
Mademoiselle de la Fayette implored the King as 
usual to be reconciled to his consort, to refrain 
from giving undue prominence by the honour of 
his exclusive notice, however innocent, to any lady 
of the court, and finally she again exhorted him 
to restrain the arrogance of Richelieu, and to 
recall the Queen-mother and his late confessor, 
Caussin, from exile. Her words for the moment 
deeply moved the King and he rose to depart 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 429 

lauding the sanctity of his monitress and half 
promising to conform to her counsel. During the 
conference however a great storm of wind and 
snow had arisen, evening was advancing apace, 
and Guitaut, captain of the guard, pronounced it 
alike inexpedient to proceed to St. Maur or to 
return to Versailles. The King, greatly provoked, 
declared his resolve to brave the storm and regain 
Versailles, as his apartments at the Louvre were 
not prepared and none of the officers of his house- 
hold in Paris. " Sire," boldly retorted Guitaut, 
"while the Queen resides at the Louvre you 
cannot want either a supper or a lodging ! " 20 The 
King replied in a vexed tone that he would wait 
awhile, for that probably the weather might 
change. The storm however increased in violence 
and a pouring rain set in. All chance therefore 
of a speedy change of weather vanished. Guitaut 
again pressed the King to take refuge in his 
Louvre. " The Queen sups and retires too late for 
our habits ; we choose therefore rather to claim 
the hospitality of M. le Cardinal," replied Louis. 
After some further debate and delay, the King 
nevertheless, was induced to repair to the Louvre, 
where he arrived about ten o'clock. This decorous 
resolution has been ascribed to the politic counsels 
of Mademoiselle de la Fayette. Anne, previously 
apprised of the probable visit of her lord by her 
zealous friend Guitaut, received the King with 
smiles and welcome, while Mademoiselle de 
Hautefort indicated approval of his presence by 
the warmth of her greeting. The supper was laid 


in Anne's cabinet, and was served by her Majesty's 
maids. The evening passed merrily, for the 
Queen put forth those enchanting graces of 
manner usually reserved for strangers, and for 
which she was renowned. The depression of the 
King was at length dissipated, the smiles of the 
Queen's syrens banished irritating reminiscences, 
Anne's coquettish enticements prevailed and the 
King, won to temporary oblivion of his wrongs, 
accepted her hospitality for the night. 21 Louis 
departed on the following morning for Versailles, 
but invited the Queen to pay him an early visit 
there. Thus it was said was accomplished in the 
year 1637, through the combined influences of the 
elements and the politic counsels of the friends of 
France, that conjugal reunion which had been 
broken by the indiscretions to use no harsher 
term committed by Anne of Austria during the 
embassy in 1626 of the Duke of Buckingham, 
which unhappy impressions were confirmed on the 
King's mind, never more to be effaced, however 
he might dissemble, by the revelations which 
came to light during the trial at Nantes of the 
Prince de Chalais. 

Madame de Chevreuse meantime had been 
received in state by Philip IV. and his Queen, who 
sent royal coaches, drawn by six mules, and a 
military escort, to bring her into Madrid. Her 
charms and vivacity captivated the King and 
Olivarez, who experienced besides malicious 
pleasure in affording so vivid a welcome to a foe 
of Richelieu a lady who had foiled him with his 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 431 

own weapons. The Queen, Isabel of France, 
loved to discourse with Madame de Chevreuse on 
the glories of that court which she had quitted 
when too young to appreciate its fascinations, 
also she held conferences to modify the stiff 
farthingale and other antiquated specimens of 
Spanish attire, so as to assimilate the toilette of 
her ladies with the rich robes and flowing hair of 
the Duchess. Marie notwithstanding her successes 
in Madrid, pined for home and for communica- 
tion with France, which so long as she resided in 
the Spanish capital was closed to her. The Due 
de Chevreuse feared to compromise himself by 
writing to his wife, while Boispille, their con- 
fidential agent, declined to answer letters sent 
from Spain. The Duchess therefore, much to the 
regret of King Philip, quitted Madrid 2a at the 
commencement of the year 1638, and journeyed 
to London, where she was cordially welcomed by 
Queen Henrietta. Madame de Chevreuse was, 
however, suffering from pecuniary difficulties, 
her gorgeous style and munificence agreed badly 
with sequestrated revenues, while she possessed 
but two private sources likely to supply her wants. 
The Queen owed her a large sum of money and 
there remained still to her the resource of pledging 
her superb jewels which she had confided to her 
friend the Prince de Marsillac. Madame de 
Chevreuse therefore wrote to Anne to beseech 
her to repay this debt, she asked her Majesty to 
refund to Richelieu the 10,000 livres he had " in- 
solently " sent her, and remit the remainder to 


London through the ambassador. " I have desired 
my messenger, Madame, to inform you of a strait 
which I can neither forget nor conceal from you. The 
condition in which I find myself prevents me from 
paying this debt, while your position enables you 
easily to acquit it. I beseech you therefore to do 
so, and moreover to make known your indigna- 
tion. If you could repay to me the remainder of the 
debt, believe that it would be a very acceptable 
relief to her who is absolutely yours, the which 
I know that you think. Believe, therefore, that 
you could not render me a more signal service." 23 
Whether Anne found it so easy to acquit the debt 
we have no record, but it does not seem that she 
interested herself in the many petitions addressed 
by the fugitive to Richelieu for permission to 
return home, or to extricate her revenues from 
the lavish profligacies of M. de Chevreuse. Secure 
of the mistress, the Cardinal could now fearlessly 
assume a high patronising tone and easy jocu- 
larity as he discussed the "high-flown romance" 
of Madame la Duchesse, and gibed at the in- 
fluence which she supposed that she exercised 
over " that mad enthusiast," M. de Lorraine. 
When M. le Due de Chevreuse ventured to in- 
tercede, the Cardinal blandly condoled with him 
on the trials he had endured from the capricious 
frenzies of his consort ; when M. le Due de Mont- 
bazon, father of the Duchess, mediated, Richelieu, 
by a witty turn in the discourse poured the 
merriment of the bystanders like a flood on his 
pnlucky petitioner, who though a very great 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 433 

lord, yet from his simplicity and an unfortunate 
habit of saying the very reverse of that which he 
desired to express, was the butt of the court. 24 
To Boispille and to the Abbe Dorat, Richelieu 
condescended to be more explicit. He presently 
intrusted to their care for delivery to the Duchess 
a declaration signed by the King, in which Louis 
granted his pardon for the late misdemeanours 
of Marie de Rohan Chevreuse, in her traitorous 
endeavours to induce M. de Lorraine to refuse 
reconciliation with France. His Majesty therein 
interdicted the Duchess from seeing the Queen, 
from corresponding with any person out of the 
realm, and restricted her residence to the 
chateau de Dampierre. As for la petite pro- 
menade that Madame la Duchesse had thought 
proper to make in Spain, the King consented to 
draw over it the veil of his royal oblivion. When 
this document was presented to the Duchess she 
absolutely refused the offered grace. " I will not 
be pardoned for a fault which I have not com- 
mitted, neither will I be shut up at Dampierre ; 
all that I promise is not to approach within five 
leagues of the court ! " Dorat returned to Paris 
with this answer. Richelieu however was re- 
solved sooner or later to wring a confession of 
guilt from the Duchess, as he had compelled 
her royal mistress to admit her misdeeds. He 
received Dorat's communication with ironical 
smiles, and commissioned him to demand from 
Madame de Chevreuse an avowal, at least, that 
she had joined Anne of Austria in an intrigue 


against his power and fame. Moreover, that she 
had been a consenting party to the insulting term 
of ignominy applied to him by the ex-keeper of 
the seals, Chateauneuf. The spoiled, petulant 
beauty again returned a passionate denial, and 
also addressed a letter of reproach to M. le Car- 
dinal. Richelieu avoided sending a direct answer 
to the Duchess, but wrote a letter to Dorat to be 
shown to and perused by her. Always gallant 
and piquant when addressing a beautiful lady, 
the apparent bonhomie and indulgent reprimands 
of the Cardinal must have been bitter to the 
Duchess, who beheld kings at her footstool. " The 
letter which I have received from Madame de 
Chevreuse," wrote the Cardinal to Dorat, " is 
throughout a bitter upbraiding that I do not 
serve her as she desires, rather than a gracious 
appreciation of the things which I have lately 
done to satisfy her. The civility which is due to 
a lady prevents me from attempting a reply, as 
thereby I should be certain to displease her ; but 
her advantage, nevertheless, induces me to ad- 
dress you, in order that you may represent to her 
certain matters in which she is much interested. 
She is displeased that I desire to extort from her 
some acknowledgment of her secret dealings with 
foreign princes. It is difficult to cure a sick man 
who denies that he has anything amiss. Physi- 
cians, while they expect to be apprised of the 
ailments of their patients, conceal them from 
strangers. You know better than most people 
that, concerning Madame de Chevreuse, I have 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 435 

acted with the secresy of a physician and a con- 
fessor. I do not even scruple to avow that since 
the affair of M. de Chateauneuf, many damning 
proofs of her guilt have fallen into my hands. 
Madame de Chevreuse cannot expect that I 
should shock the feelings of the King by declaring 
her innocent, when his Majesty has before him 
proofs to the contrary. I, nevertheless, herewith 
send her a pardon, pur et simple, such as she 
demands. Madame de Chevreuse however will 
probably deem it strange and irksome that she is 
not permitted to roam all over France at her 
pleasure, such places excepted as may be honoured 
by the presence of the King and the Queen. Be- 
fore she undertook her late excursion into Spain 
Tours was her residence. If since that time she 
has done any thing or deed worthy of commenda- 
tion or of greater consideration, I confess my 
error in not granting her the perfect liberty which 
she demands. If her actions however have not 
been immaculate, she is unreasonable and errs 
against the rules of sound politics in expecting an 
augmentation of grace in proportion to the 
multiplication of her misdemeanours. Time and 
good conduct may bring her the realisation of all 
her wishes ; my power is not potent enough, 
neither is my will so infirm as to decree a liberty 
prejudicial to the realm, and by its temptations 
unbecoming to Madame de Chevreuse. You will 
nevertheless assure her that in every true 
interest I will help her with cordial affection, I 
will even bow admiringly before a mind such as 


hers, when not swayed by selfish passion or by 
unlawful prejudice." 2S The Duchess, however, 
relieved from her most pressing pecuniary necessi- 
ties, laughed at the objurgations of her wary foe, 
danced with Queen Henrietta at Whitehall, 
flirted with King Charles, despatched exquisite 
little caricatures of Richelieu to Madrid for the 
edification of her friends, prayed publicly for 
Queen Marie de' Medici and for all the unfor- 
tunate exiles driven from France, and scandalised 
the ambassador of King Louis until electrified 
by the astonishing news that the pregnancy of 
Queen Anne of Austria was officially proclaimed 
throughout France. 

The calamities of the war and the alleged 
tyranny of the able minister were forgotten in the 
delirious joy occasioned by this event. In France 
no one stayed to cavil or to criticise, in the over- 
whelming thankfulness felt that an heir to the 
sceptre of Henri Quatre might be born, and 
the realm delivered from probable civil war on 
the death of Louis XIII., or from the unsteady 
rule of Monsieur. Processions perambulated the 
streets. Te Deums were chaunted in Notre 
Dame and in all the principal cathedrals, alms 
never before so inundated the kingdom, and 
jubilee resounded even amid the frightful soli- 
tudes of La Grande Chartreuse of Grenoble. The 
countenance of Louis Treize however did not 
grow more cheerful, and though he walked in the 
chief processions yet their object might have been 
penitential rather than jubilant to judge by the 


gloom-stricken face and careless garb of the 
monarch upon whom such a blessing had been 
bestowed. In Rome masses were celebrated for 
the Queen's safe delivery and for the birth of a 
male heir to Bourbon. In Madrid a court 
procession to the chapel of the Virgen de Atocha, 
testified the participation of their Catholic Ma- 
jesties in an event so important to the Infanta 
Queen of France. By the advice of Richelieu and 
of Le Pere Joseph, Louis was induced to make a 
solemn dedication of himself and his realm to the 
Virgin Mary, through whose direct interposition 
the prayers of all France had been miraculously 
answered. This consecration was performed with 
great pomp during the month of February 1638, 
in the church of Notre Dame. 26 Abroad, where 
public sentiments were not fettered by interest, 
respect or by the hand of arbitrary authority, 
speculations the most derogatory to the majesty 
of the crown and personally mortifying to the 
King prevailed. Lampoons, pamphlets, 27 para- 
graphs in the public gazettes, hinted that the 
devotion of M. le Cardinal de Richelieu for the 
future prosperity of France had comprehended 
and embraced every function and privilege of 
majesty. Other pamphleteers, more audacious, 
feigned to bewail the future calamities of Europe 
when a crowned son of Richelieu should wield the 
destiny of the nation. In Holland especially such 
libels abounded. In England they fluttered for 
an interval but were finally put down by the high 
hand of authority. The vanquished Huguenots 


of France ventured on a feeble lampoon in verse, 
which beginning with the Dukes of Orleans and 
Buckingham enumerated the alleged egarements 
of her very Christian Majesty. Most of these 
squibs and satires penetrated into the interior of 
the Louvre and became fiery darts in the bosom 
of the suspicious Louis, who persuaded that he 
had been before betrayed by the Queen was 
only too accessible to sinister impressions. Anne 
herself was elated and triumphant ; from being 
considered a personage secondary in importance 
almost to the Duchesse d'Aiguillon, she found the 
state saloons of the Louvre crowded when she 
appeared in public, for the King had again firmly 
refused to annul his ordinance of the year 1626, 
which interdicted gentlemen from paying their 
respects in private to the Queen. 

Louis continued to find some solace in the 
society of Mademoiselle de Hautefort and in 
conning over military details. The smiles of the 
latter during the month of June were however 
eclipsed by the angry discussions which arose on 
the appointment of the household of the expected 
enfant de France. Mademoiselle de Hautefort 
asked that her grandmother, Madame de la 
Flotte, should be nominated to the high office of 
gouvernante to the expected Dauphin, or Madame 
Royale. The Cardinal however had other views ; 
the cradle even of the heir of France must not be 
rocked by an enemy Madame de la Flotte was 
garrulous and swayed by her grand-daughter 
who had shown herself inimical. Madame de 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 439 

Lansac, a near relation of Richelieu's and 
daughter of M. le Marquis de Souvre, ex-preceptor 
to Louis XIII., was selected for the coveted 
honour, while Mademoiselle de Hautefort was 
propitiated by her own nomination as survivante 
to the office of dame d'atours, then filled by 
Madame de la Flotte. This favour conferred upon 
Marie de Hautefort the title of Madame, and it 
was a distinction which had never before been 
bestowed on an unmarried lady. The Queen 
passively submitted to the nomination of Madame 
de Lansac, and when the latter presented herself 
to tender homage received her with great affa- 
bility. Madame de Lansac had received ample 
instruction from the rapid pen of Richelieu how 
she was to conduct herself and what she was to 
say on her first audience, in her new capacity, 
with the Queen. All Richelieu's agents moved 
and spoke and thought at his dictation, his 
forethought embraced every possible casualty, 
and even when burdened with the weight and 
responsibility of a war, he could prescribe the 
trifling etiquettes of a court audience. " Madame 
de Lansac is hereby informed," wrote Richelieu, 
" that the King has written to the Queen to inform 
her Majesty that he has chosen her to fill the office 
of governess to the child which it may please God 
to give him. When her Majesty shall be pleased 
to send for Madame de Lansac and shall ask the 
said lady whether she is aware of the honour 
about to be conferred upon her, the said lady 
shall candidly answer that rumour having placed 


her on the list of the personages eligible for 
the honour, and being apprised that the King 
had seen her name without displeasure, her 
reluctance to be thought importunate and pre- 
suming had prevented her thenceforth from 
paying frequent court as usual to her Majesty." 28 
Madame de Lansac was then instructed to whisper 
her grief that it had been reported such nomina- 
tion might be unwelcome to her Majesty. She 
was then directed, upon leaving the royal apart- 
ments, to visit Mesdames de Hautefort and de la 
Flotte, " so that nothing mischievous to Madame 
de Lansac may be insinuated by these persons to 
her Majesty." Anne of Austria played her part 
to perfection, declared herself perfectly satisfied 
with the appointment and overwhelmed the 
future gouvernante with flattering indications of 
approval. Madame de Lansac however was not 
deceived by these demonstrations, she was a 
shrewd, self-possessed woman of a certain age, 
proud of being a Souvre and the intimate friend 
of Madame d'Aiguillon, and devoted to the glory 
and to the prosperity of her kinsman the great 
Cardinal. She was aware that Richelieu dis- 
trusted Madame de Senece and Mesdames de 
Hautefort and de la Flotte, and that she was 
placed at the Louvre to keep the Queen under 
surveillance not indeed rudely to interfere with 
Anne's pleasures and pastimes, or to force advice 
upon her Majesty, but simply to keep the Cardinal 
an courant with the Queen's domestic avocations 
and intimates. 


King Louis meanwhile wandered discon- 
solately from St. Germain to Versailles and back 
again, in despair at the ireful and unforgiving 
mood of Madame de Hautefort who declined 
his confidences and refused either to look at him 
or to speak to him. Richelieu had taken his 
departure for the seat of war in Picardy, and 
to Amiens were the letters addressed which 
described to his Eminence the " doings " at St. 
Germain. Le Pere Carre, Chavigny and Bullion 
wrote daily and sometimes thrice a day, alarming 
despatches relative to the royal despair and the 
obduracy of Madame de Hautefort. These de- 
spatches must have been heavy burdens on the 
unfortunate ministers, they are dated at all 
hours some at midnight, others were written at 
three o'clock in the morning. Chavigny, whose 
amusing pen lightens the details of many a dreary 
despatch, seems to enter into the ludicrous 
position ; in various letters, all following closely, 
he gives the Cardinal the following scraps of 
information : " Monseigneur will have heard of 
the indisposition of the King by the letters of 
M. Bouvard (the royal physician in ordinary). 
His Majesty is a prey to incredible indecision, he 
is ready to fall on his knees before sa dame and 
pray for pardon. This evening in the circle 
there was little conversation. When we were 
alone, the King after a long argument on the 
subject of de Hautefort of which I had the best, 
exclaimed, ' Lost ! lost ! I am impatient to see 
her. I love her better than all the rest of the 


world combined. I will kneel to ask her par- 
don ! ' " " The King during the last two days 
has been at Versailles on account of the continua- 
tion of his quarrel with Madame de Hautefort. 
The said lady now declares a fresh cause of offence, 
inasmuch as the Duke de Montbazon was indis- 
creet enough to say to her in the presence of the 
King, c that the reason she hated Madame de 
Lansac was that the latter lady would not permit 
her son to marry the said de Hautefort ' the 
which disobliging remark his Majesty con- 
firmed. . . . This afternoon his Majesty wrote to 
your Eminence to state that the displeasure and 
dissatisfaction which he experienced from de 
Hautefort would compel him to send her from 
court. His Majesty however countermanded 
the courier, being determined to make a last 
effort this evening to reconcile himself with the 
said lady." 29 " The King did me the honour to 
assure me," writes Bullion, " of the affection and 
confidence which he felt towards your Eminence. 
His Majesty said, ' Madame de Hautefort has 
observed to me that M. le Cardinal and myself 
are great friends, nevertheless, mark my words, 
Regnum meum non est de hoc mundo ; for neither 
M. le Cardinal, nor myself, nor my good servants 
find favour at St.-Germain.' I said that I was 
aware that efforts were made to unite the interests 
of the Queen and Madame de Hautefort, and 
that by the mediation of a young lady whose 
name I could not remember. 6 Ah ! ' said the 
King, * you mean Beaumont, but she gives de 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 443 

Hautefort bad advice. At St. Germain they do 
nothing but quarrel, "so much so that I am weary 
and long to be with M. le Cardinal. La Hautefort 
does nothing but sting Madame de Lansac. Upon 
the matter of the Queen's letters, de Hautefort 
told me to-day that Madame de la Flotte did not 
now deem it a part of her duty to inform me 
when her Majesty writes and to whom ! ' Upon 
which I remarked, ' that his Majesty ought to 
thank God for the wise counsels of your Eminence 
in advising the nomination of Madame de Lansac, 
as evidently, on the dicta of Madame de Haute- 
fort, he cannot place confidence in the zeal of La 
Flotte.' " 30 Such were the puerile despatches 
which harassed Richelieu at the seat of war. His 
Eminence wrote three long letters of condolence 
to the King ; he also addressed Madame de 
Hautefort, and represented the responsibility 
which she incurred by agitating the mind of the 
King as yet only imperfectly recovered from 
fever. Perhaps the ferment frightened de Haute- 
fort, or the entreaties of Anne of Austria were 
united with those of the ladies of her household 
in praying Marie to receive the King again into 
favour. A smile from the syren, which beamed 
the more brilliantly after information had been 
conveyed to her by Chavigny that the King had 
despatched a missive to Sceur Angelique, and the 
reconciliation was achieved, Louis promising 
to Madame de la Flotte the survivance of the 
charge of lady of honour, then filled by Madame 
de Senece. Richelieu indicates his joy at the 


restoration of concord in the following pithy 
sentences : "I am enchanted to learn that 
harmony again subsists between your Majesty's 
dignity and your partiality ; the latter, in my 
opinion, will ever be innocent and pure. I feel 
extreme gladness that the King now finds con- 
tentment in his innocent recreations, and I pray 
God with all my heart that such may long time 
endure ! " 31 

The great event of the accouchement of the 
Queen was now approaching. On the 1st of Sep- 
tember 1638, the Princesses and ladies nominated 
to be present on the occasion arrived at St.-Ger- 
main-en-Laye. Monsieur also appeared, captious 
as usual, and greatly incensed that his wife had 
not received a special summons, that the recog- 
nition of her claims might be made on so supreme 
an occasion. Whilst the Duke of Lorraine her 
brother was at war with his liege the King of 
France, Marguerite deemed it prudent not to 
venture within the grip of her enemy the Cardinal- 
minister, unless specially protected by a safe- 
conduct which Louis had indignantly refused to 
grant. The Queen felt the first symptoms of 
labour at two o'clock on the morning of Sunday, 
September 5th. At four o'clock, Anne sent for 
her almoner the Bishop of Lisieux and com- 
manded a mass to be celebrated in her room, 
there being present only the midwife Madame 
Peronne and Mademoiselle Filandre chief tire- 
woman, the indisposition of her Majesty being 
kept secret by her special command. At five 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 445 

o'clock, Filandre caused the King to be apprized 
of the approaching event. 32 Louis arose and 
commanded the presence of all official personages, 
and that his medical staff should repair to the 
large saloon. In twenty minutes the inmates of 
the chateau were wild with excitement and 
expectation. The guard was posted and every 
avenue leading to the palace kept by a strong 
piquet of soldiers. The gentlemen of the King's 
Swiss guard, bearing their battle-axes and hal- 
berts, ranged themselves in the vestibule of the 
palace. At six o'clock, the ladies whose right it 
was to be present in the Queen's chamber entered 
and took their seats on chairs covered with cloth 
of gold. These were the Princess de Conde, the 
Countess de Soissons, the Duchess de Vendome, 
the mistress of the robes Duchess de Mont- 
morency, the Duchess de Bouillon, the Marquise 
de tansac, Mesdames de Sendee and de la Flotte. 
In a saloon adjoining, were Seguier the chancellor, 
Chavigny, Bullion, Mesdames de Guemene, de la 
Trimouille, de Villauxclers, de Hautefort, de 
Liancour, and de Mortemar. The prelates were 
the Archbishop of Bourges, the Bishops of 
Lisieux, 33 Chalons and Meaux. 34 In another 
lofty chamber several hundred personages of 
minor condition waited the event. At nine 
o'clock a sensation of terror pervaded the assem- 
blage, the Queen was reported to be in extreme 
peril and a hasty message from Dame Peronne 
summoned the surgeons in waiting. Seguier, 
also, went to inform the King of this crisis, who 


does not appear to have paid any previous visit to 
his consort. Louis then entered the apartment 
pallid and downcast ; he approached the tem- 
porary altar, and kneeling, prayed aloud that God 
would grant a safe and speedy delivery to the 
Queen his consort. Masses were then commenced 
by the Bishop of Lisieux in the royal chamber ; 
while the Bishop of Meaux recited the Divine 
Office in the saloon, which was fervently joined 
in by all present. 35 

The King, meantime, discoursed with Madame 
de Hautefort who was weeping bitterly. At 
half-past ten, Madame de Senece approached 
with a message from the Queen to her royal 
consort. Anne sent her greeting, an assurance of 
her courage and an entreaty that the King would 
retire to partake of his accustomed collation at 
eleven o'clock. Louis consequently retired after 
a brief conference with Bouvard. He had scarcely 
seated himself at table when the sound of a great 
commotion was heard, and several messengers 
rushed unceremoniously into the royal presence 
with the news that the Queen's delivery was near. 
Shouts of exultation greeted the King as he again 
approached the chamber. " C'est un Dauphin ! 
C'est un Dauphin ! 5! Madame de Senece met the 
King at the door of the chamber and placed in 
his arms the new-born babe, who gave token of 
vigour by shrill cries. 36 The company simultane- 
ously gave thanks on their knees to Providence 
for so inestimable a gift. 

The Queen meantime, overwhelmed with the 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 447 

tumult and the heat, fainted away ; but presently 
reviving, she clasped her hands and returned 
thanks to God for her preservation, and for the 
birth of a Dauphin, who was brought to her by 
the Dame de Giraudiere, his wet-nurse. As yet 
the King had never approached the couch of his 
consort. Anne had now given a Dauphin to 
France ; Louis heard himself hailed as happy 
father and fortunate prince ! Etiquette there- 
fore required that congratulations between the 
royal pair shoud be exchanged in the presence of 
the august personages around. " The King," 
relates Madame de Motteville, " was obliged to 
be urged to approach the Queen his consort and 
to embrace her after her accouchement. ' ' The child, 
by the command of the King, was immediately 
baptized by the Bishop of Meaux, and received 
the name of Louis. 

During the hour of his wife's greatest peril the 
King stood at a window talking to Madame de 
Hautefort. This discourse is reported by the 
author of the " Life of Madame de Hautefort," 
lately published for the first time by M. Cousin. 
The author who describes herself as the intimate 
friend, and one of the last earthly companions of 
Marie de Hautefort, vouches for the perfect 
accuracy of her narrative. A passage so strange 
and painful requires almost the confirmation of 
more than one narrator ; nevertheless the conduct 
of the King throughout the hours preceding 
the birth of Louis XIV., and the indifference he 
afterwards manifested towards the Queen, give 


an aspect of truth to the statement, which must 
prevent it from being altogether rejected as 
apocryphal. " The King, seeing Madame de 
Hautefort standing near a window, approached 
her. Perceiving that she was weeping, the King 
in a whisper bade her not afflict herself so greatly 
as she had no reason to do so. Madame de Haute- 
fort, surprised to hear such a speech at a moment 
so critical, replied angrily c that she wondered at 
the unfeeling observation of his Majesty, consider- 
ing the dangerous condition of the Queen.' The 
King, with a cheerful manner, said c I shall be 
pleased enough if they save the child it is quite 
enough. You, Madame, I think, would find no 
reason to regret the loss of the mother ! ' Madame 
de Hautefort thereupon cast down her eyes, and 
showed plainly to the King that she had no 
pleasure in such discourse. The Queen passed a 
bad night. His Majesty also never slept nor 
retired to bed, but occupied himself with La 
Chesnaie, one of his principal valets de chambre, 
in examining a History of France, to find a pre- 
cedent for the marriage of a King of France with 
a subject." 

At mid-day, September 5th, Louis proceeded 
in state to the chapel of the castle, escorted by a 
hundred gentlemen-at-arms, to be present at the 
Te Deum chaunted for the auspicious birth of a 
Dauphin. Pontifical mass was next celebrated, 
during which Louis made rich offerings. The King 
then returned to the Queen's chamber, to be 
present while M. le Dauphin was escorted in the 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 449 

arms of his nurse to his own apartments, which 
were hung with white silk damask, and where he 
was received by his gouvernante, Madame la Mar- 
quise de Lansac. Louis then held a council, at 
which missives were written and despatched to 
the potentates of Europe and to the municipal 
authorities of the realm. In Paris the news was 
already known ; the cannon of the Bastille and 
of the Arsenal thundered through the streets, and 
the bells of Notre Dame and of the Sainte- 
Chapelle rang merry carrillons. On the quay in 
front of the H6tel de Ville tables were spread, at 
which, for three days, every comer was welcome 
to drain a goblet or to eat a morsel in honour of 
M. le Dauphin. At night the capital was a blaze 
of illuminations, such as had never before been 
witnessed ; fireworks of wonderful conceits and 
brilliancy being also displayed. The faades of the 
Louvre, the Tuileries, the Palais Cardinal, the 
Hotel d'Aiguillon, the Spanish and English Em- 
bassies, shone with resplendent light. The festivi- 
ties lasted for several days with undiminished 
splendour ; never before had the birth of an 
heir-apparent been celebrated with rejoicings so 
magnificent. In the provinces the pageants almost 
surpassed in splendour and variety those of the 
capital. The great religious houses of the realm 
proclaimed largesse and gave bounteous alms and 
prayers. " Vive le Prince Dauphin, Vatlente de la 
France ! " was the greeting often heard to be ex- 
changed between individuals in the first fervour 
of their enthusiasm. 37 


The Cardinal de Richelieu meantime was at 
St. Quentin, directing the progress of the campaign 
in Picardy, but more especially the operations of 
the siege of St. Omer, which, under the Marshal 
de Chatillon, were not attended with desirable 
success. " The great Armand, Cardinal Due de 
Richelieu, was at St. Quentin when he received 
the very happy and very agreeable news of the 
birth of a Dauphin, by several couriers despatched 
by their Majesties," relates Hilarion de Coste. 
" His Eminence immediately repaired to the large 
church to chant the Canticle of Thanksgiving, and 
to give in person benediction to the people who 
flocked in numbers to the service. There were 
present Charles de Valois, Due d'Angouleme, and 
all the lords in the army of Picardy, M. de Noyers, 
M. de Choisy and many other privy councillors. 
His Eminence ordered a brilliant display of fire- 
works and a salute of all the artillery in the 
place." Richelieu, on the following day, enter- 
tained the officers at a superb banquet, and com- 
manded the poor in St. Quentin and Amiens to be 
entertained at his expense. His letter of congratu- 
lation to King Louis was terse but expressive : 
" Sire, The birth of Monsieur le Dauphin has 
ravished me with joy. I pray that as he is Theo- 
dosius, the gift which God has given you, so may 
he be, by possession of the great and heroic quali- 
ties which adorned the Emperors of that name. 
I earnestly pray that God may overwhelm your 
Majesty with benedictions as many and fervent 
as he prays who is for ever your Majesty's devoted 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 451 

subject and servant." 38 To the Queen, Richelieu 
wrote : " Madame, Great joy is not loquacious ; 
therefore I know not how to express to your 
Majesty that which I feel for her happy accouche- 
ment, and for the birth of Monseigneur le Dauphin. 
I believe and trust that God has given him to 
Christendom to appease and to allay troubles, 
and to confer upon us the benediction of peace. 
I vow to Monseigneur from his birth and hence- 
forth the devotion and zeal which has always 
inspired me to serve the King and your Majesty. 
I am, your Majesty's eternal and devoted subject, 
The Cardinal Due de Richelieu." 39 

The recovery of the Queen was rapid, and on 
the 26th of September the ceremony of " church- 
ing " was performed in Anne's audience chamber 
by the Bishop of Lisieux and other prelates. The 
King had already quitted St. Germain to solace 
himself with the pleasures of the chase at Chan- 
tilly. Anne, now a proud and happy mother, sat 
under her canopy of state, Madame de Lansac 
standing on her right holding the young prince. 
While the prayers of the Offertory were being 
recited, the Queen arose, and taking the babe in 
her arms, traversed alone the vast apartment, and 
kneeling at the altar, " made an oblation of her- 
self and her new-born son to the King of Kings, 
and afterwards devoutly received the Holy Eu- 
charist." The Abbot of St. Denis and the Bishop 
of Brieux held the stole over the head of M. le 
Dauphin during the ceremonies at the altar. When 
the Bishop of Lisieux began to read the Gospel, 


the royal child fixed his eyes earnestly on the 
prelate. It was considered, likewise, as remark- 
able that in reciting certain words of the Gospel, 
when the bishop took the hand of the little Prince, 
he squeezed the prelate's finger with wonderful 
strength and vigour. 40 On the 27th of September 
Richelieu arrived in Paris, and on Wednesday, 
the 29th, he repaired to St. Germain to visit the 
Queen and her son. Louis met the Cardinal at St. 
Germain and conducted him to the presence of 
her Majesty. " It would be impossible," writes a 
famous chronicler, " to describe the transports of 
his Eminence and with what joy he was possessed 
on beholding that admirable child in the arms of 
his mother a babe which had been the object of 
his ardent aspirations and whose birth fulfilled 
his fondest desires. His said Eminence then took 
leave and departed for Ruel." 41 

As soon as Anne was able to go abroad, the 
King, Queen and court walked in procession from 
the Louvre to Notre Dame. The shrines of St. 
Landry, St. Denis, St. Eleutherius and St. Gene- 
vieve were carried in the procession, which con- 
sisted of the court, the ecclesiastics and monks 
and nuns of the capital, the trade guilds and the 
municipality of Paris. The glorious strains of Te 
Deum Laudamus echoed along the vaulted aisles 
of the grand old cathedral, while the people on the 
line of procession rapturously cheered the royal 
pair. Cardinal de Richelieu and the Papal Nuncio, 
in pontificalibus, received their Majesties at the 
porch of the church and preceded them to their 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 453 

chairs of state. The congratulations of his Holi- 
ness being especially cordial, Louis wrote thus to 
the Pope on the birth of his son : 


" VERY HOLY FATHER, As it has pleased 
Almighty God always to give us grace to over- 
come tribulations contrary to the peace of our 
realm, we ever maintained a good hope that He 
would at length confer upon our royal consort and 
ourself the one remaining blessing so ardently 
desired by our subjects. God has at length granted 
us a son which the Queen has brought forth 
safely. As this child has been given to us many 
years after our marriage, we regard his birth as a 
special benediction from God, bestowed upon us 
and upon the Queen, and whilst we return thanks, 
and while our subjects throng the churches for the 
same object we have thought good thus to address 
your Holiness. 

" Your devoted son, 

" Louis." 42 

The Pope deputed Cardinal Sforza to proceed 
to France on a special mission of congratulation, 
and to present to the royal child the splendid 
robes, cradle, linen, cushions and hangings, 
blessed by the pontifical hand the customary 
offering made by the Popes on the birth of the 
heir of the Eldest Son of the Church. 43 

When rejoicing ceased for the birth of M. le 
Dauphin, and excitement was allayed, people fell 
again into their old train of speculation. Monsieur 


quitted St. Germain declaring himself highly 
dissatisfied and highly perplexed, while his ad- 
herents openly counselled him to take up arms to 
proclaim the illegitimacy of the so-called Dauphin 
and to assert his own rights. In Paris itself a 
pamphlet of the most scandalous and odious 
nature 44 appeared, which was eagerly circulated. 
A story was likewise whispered, proceeding, it was 
rumoured, from the high authority of a very 
virtuous lady of the palace, that the Queen had 
given birth to twin sons, the last born of whom 
had immediately and mysteriously disappeared. 
The friends of Monsieur asserted that Chavigny, 
the Cardinal's second self, had remained during 
the Queen's labour, against all precedent, in the 
antechamber of her oratory, which opened close 
to the ruelle of the royal bed ; that much mystery 
had been observed, and that the King had not 
been present when the child called " the Dauphin " 
was born all of which were allegations proved to 
be true. Other writings were published, alleging 
that for certain reasons well known to many 
the so-called Dauphin could not be the son of 
Louis XIII. 45 No confirmation of these suspicions 
however could be extracted from the placid mien 
of the Cardinal or from the extreme veneration 
which he displayed towards the royal babe, never- 
theless it was deemed strange that his Eminence 
should have been absent at St. Quentin at a 
moment so important to the realm as the birth of 
the future king. The antecedent history of the 
Queen unfortunately gave probability to these 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 455 

suspicions. The events of the year 1637, though 
arising altogether from her own indiscretions, 
were perilous, and the danger greater than she 
had ever previously incurred. The King was ready 
to visit her offences with the utmost possible 
retribution, being no longer deterred by the fear 
of a declaration of war with Spain, as hostilities 
with that realm were then absolutely pending. 
The dreadful indispositions which, every six 
months, menaced the life of Louis XIII., made 
Richelieu dread a speedy fall from power, the 
confiscation of his vast wealth and probable 
exile from the realm. It was said, and with what 
truth may never now be known, that Anne and 
her old enemy Richelieu, apprehending persecu- 
tion and degradation on the accession of the Duke 
of Orleans, combined, in order to maintain their 
power and influence ; that the mind of the Queen 
was hard and determined, and that her detesta- 
tion of Louis XIII. was such that no crime against 
him would deter her from following her own 
interests. The silence of Marie de' Medici was 
also looked upon as ominous, for the Queen- 
mother it was averred, would on so joyful an 
occasion have given some signal mark of sym- 
pathy with the nation. King Louis XIII., never- 
theless, did not disown his Dauphin nor display 
any doubt respecting his legitimate birth. It 
might be that he shrank from a contest with the 
Queen, supported by the power of the Spanish 
monarchy, by Richelieu and by the wishes and 
wants of the nation. 


In after times, when in the days of the Fronde 
Paris rose against the Regent and her minister 
Mazarin, the conduct of Queen Anne had been 
such, that many, who had previously disbelieved 
the rumours connected with the birth of Louis 
XIV., a vowed their conviction that such surmises 
probably had not arisen without foundation. 

As soon as the Queen removed to the Louvre a 
fresh surprise awaited the public by the dismissal 
of all her chief ladies a measure which did not 
tend to allay the impertinent conjectures current. 
Madame de Senece had never become cordially 
reconciled to Richelieu after the profession of her 
niece la Fayette ; she moreover dared to speak 
and act independently of the minister. The Mar- 
quise was a lady of the highest rank, and possibly 
Richelieu deemed it indispensable to appoint to 
so confidential a post a personage of less exalted 
birth, and devoted to his will. Whether the Queen 
privately gave her assent to this measure does not 
appear probably she did ; outwardly however 
she evinced dissatisfaction and even sorrow and 
made angry comments when the dismissal of her 
old friend was notified to her by the following brief 
note brought by Chavigny, written and signed by 
the King. 


" These three words are to inform you that I 
have resolved, for certain considerations as im- 
portant to you as to myself, to dismiss Madame 
de Senece, as the Sieur de Chavigny will more 


1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 457 

amply explain and in whose words you will place 

33 46 

As the Queen was accustomed to receive such 
communications in a mutinous spirit, which she 
could not at once discard, Richelieu drew up a 
summary of the replies advisable for the King to 
adopt in answer to his consort's expected ex- 
postulations. " When her Majesty shall arrive at 
St. Germain, his Majesty may, if he so pleases, 
greet her with the words : ' I made known to your 
Majesty that when Madame de Senece shall have 
obeyed me, I will listen willingly to anything you 
may have to allege on her behalf. If she has really 
departed from Paris on her way home, you may 
speak, but Madame, before argument, I insist 
upon obedience.' Then if the Queen persists in 
pursuing the discourse, it will be advisable for 
your Majesty to add : 6 You are aware of the 
many impertinences of which Madame de Senece 
has been guilty, I have seen you smile at them a 
hundred times. You may say that people are not 
dismissed because they sometimes make impudent 
speeches. I answer that I have not banished 
Madame de Senece for this cause only. You 
also know the kind of spirit which she harbours 
towards him who has the conduct of my affairs. 
Upon this subject you probably know more than 
myself, but I also know facts which are concealed 
from you. I know the persons whom she employs 
to anger me when I am out of temper. I have 
knowledge of the warnings which she has given 


against all truth, to certain persons, that I in- 
tended to arrest them. There are many other 
matters, and I appeal to you, Madame, whether 
I should be well advised to keep such a person 
at my court ? ' " 47 

Such was the objurgation which Richelieu 
prepared and forwarded to his royal master. 
The helplessness of Louis XIII. is pitiable. 
Whether Louis used the words thus put into his 
mouth is doubtful, for the Queen took the resig- 
nation of Madame de Senece with marvellous 
tranquillity, appearing occupied solely with M. le 
Dauphin whom she drove out daily in her coach. 48 

The Countess de Brassac received the office 
vacated by Madame de Senece : she was a Ste. 
Maure, 49 and aunt of the Marquis de Montausier. 
Her husband had once professed the Huguenot 
faith, and had served the cause as governor of St. 
Jean d'Angely, but like many other officers, on 
the fall of La Rochelle, he had conformed to the 
orthodox faith, and through the patronage of 
Pere Joseph, received the splendid reward of the 
government of the provinces of Saintonge and 
Angoumois. " Madame de Brassac," says Talle- 
mant, " was a very gentle and modest person, 
who understood Latin and amused herself 
with theology and mathematics. She is said to 
have understood Euclid. Her chief delight was 
dreamy meditation. When she was appointed as 
lady of honour, she told the Cardinal that she 
preferred a retired life, and that it would be easy 
for him to find another lady whom the office would 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 459 

better suit, moreover that she could not pretend 
to offer him the services with the Queen that his 
Eminence had a right to expect. Nevertheless, she 
behaved so well that she pleased both the Queen 
and the Cardinal, although the Gospel tells us that 
we cannot serve two masters. The Queen praised 
her to everybody, which is not faint eulogy." 
M. de Brassac received at the same time the office 
of steward of the Queen's household, in the room 
of M. Sanguin. The Bishop of Limoges was dis- 
missed from his office of almoner to the Queen, 
which was bestowed on the Bishop of Lisieux. 
Many of the Queen's maids, Mesdemoiselles de 
Beaumont, d'Aiches and de Polignac were dis- 
missed; other ladies were also doomed by the 
Cardinal, amongst whom were Madame de Haute- 
fort and her grandmother, Madame de la Flotte 
for to rid the court of these personages Richelieu 
now discovered a way. 

At this period, the beginning of the year 1639, 
the Cardinal stood high in the good graces of their 
Majesties. The cabal of the Queen and her late 
confidentes looked on with amazement at the 
entente evidently ratified between their royal mis- 
tress and her late enemy. " The Queen receives 
M. le Cardinal with every demonstration of bien- 
veillant friendship." Another writer, in a letter to 
the exiled Bishop of Limoges, relates : " The loves 
of the King do not go better than usual. On the 
contrary, from bad to worse, as it seems. It is 
rumoured that we shall soon see further changes." 
The secret of the discord alluded to between 


Madame de Hautefort and the King was, that 
after their former quarrel, Louis had promised 
Madame de la Flotte, dame d'autors, the place of 
lady of honour whenever such became vacant by 
the resignation of the Marquise de Senece. The 
office having fallen at the disposal of the crown, 
Marie de Hautefort insisted that Madame de la 
Flotte should be installed in the coveted post, 
which would have given Mademoiselle de Haute- 
fort increased rank at court, as she had been 
gratified with the survivance of her grandmother's 
office, and would therefore succeed her as dame 
d'atours. Louis returned a positive refusal, and 
stormy interviews were succeeded by intervals of 
sullen alienation. Richelieu had long sought to 
discover an antidote to the ill-humours of de 
Hautefort, which increased the morbid despon- 
dency of the King to a degree often unpleasantly 
manifested during the transaction of business of 
state. Not one of the ladies, her companions in 
office, was capable of performing the role of la 
Fayette. Mademoiselle de Chemerault, who alone 
seemed to attract any portion of the royal notice, 
was silly and frivolous, and quite incapable of 
sustaining that solid and sentimental discourse in 
which the King professed to delight. Amongst the 
pages of honour in the service of Richelieu was 
Henri Cinq-Mars d'Effiat, youngest son of the 
Marshal d'Effiat, a beautiful and brilliant youth 
of eighteen, an adept in all the arts and pastimes 
of courts. The early boyhood of Cinq-Mars had 
been spent in the solitudes of his father's wild 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 461 

domain in Auvergne. Left to his own devices, and 
without companions of his own age or rank, Cinq- 
Mars had become a proficient in the sports and 
outdoor pastimes in which boys of his age de- 
lighted. He was an expert snarer of birds, a good 
horseman, he could fish, wrestle, run, and loved 
the wild life of the woods, through which he used 
to roam with ever-increasing delight. At the age 
of fifteen, the Marshal 50 sent for his son and en- 
rolled him as page in waiting to the Cardinal, who 
was a kinsman of d'Effiat. Cinq-Mars quitted 
Auvergne in despair ; but once installed at the 
Palais Cardinal, his good looks, quickness and 
natural grace attracted the notice of Richelieu. 
The boy was at once, by his command, placed 
under suitable masters, all of whom he enchanted 
by his good humour and merry spirit. Soon Cinq- 
Mars became the accomplished cavalier and grand 
gentleman, and indulged to the bent of his desires 
by the Cardinal, presently assumed the airs of the 
most finical petit-maitre. " This young cavalier," 
writes a contemporary, " by the charm of his dis- 
course and by the grace of his manners gained 
all hearts. Nature had lavished upon him choice 
gifts." Unfortunately there was no basis of educa- 
tion and moral culture to support these brilliant 
but superficial gifts. Cinq-Mars was vain, caprici- 
ous, irritable, self-indulgent, and seeing himself 
the idol of the Cardinal's household, conceived so 
high a notion of his own importance as greatly to 
amuse, but yet perplex, his patron. Richelieu 
nevertheless resolved to introduce Cinq-Mars to 


the King, and moreover to recommend him to 
Louisas a suitable and amusing companion for his 
leisure hours. He therefore gave him the office of 
master of the wardrobe, and recommending pru- 
dence, submission and good humour, installed 
Cinq-Mars in the royal household. Louis at first 
disdained Cinq-Mars, whose levity had been repre- 
sented to him by some personage of the court who 
was probably jealous of the favourite page of M. le 
Cardinal. Among his other gifts, Cinq-Mars pos- 
sessed a melodious voice, and the King over- 
hearing him one day singing some melancholy 
cadence from one of the royal compositions, im- 
mediately took him into favour. The early pur- 
suits of Cinq-Mars then greatly aided his rise to 
favour. He talked to the King of piscatory ex- 
ploits, taught his Majesty a new way to snare 
magpies, advised the King on the management 
of his kennels at St. Maur and Fontainebleau, 
and whittled away with Louis on the wooden toys 
which his Majesty manufactured during his hours of 
recreation. After the lapse of a few months, there- 
fore, the influence of Cinq-Mars was in the ascen- 
dant and that of Marie de Hautef ort on the decline. 
Meantime, through Mademoiselle de Cheme- 
rault, who was now told to do his bidding, Riche- 
lieu kept vigilant watch over the household at St. 
Germain. In this correspondence the personages 
of the court have each a nom de plume : for 
instance, the King and Queen have the sobriquet 
of Cephale and Procris ; Madame de Hautefort 
is Aurore ; Madame de Lansac, La Baleine ; 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 463 

Madame de la Flotte, La Vieille. The disorders 
and the perpetual dissensions, meantime, arrived 
at such a pitch that the Cardinal found it expe- 
dient to strike. He therefore humbly represented 
that a further clearance of the intrigantes of the 
court was requisite, unless his Majesty chose to 
release him from the burden of affairs. Louis 
abruptly asked if there was not an antidote 
without proceeding to such extremity. Richelieu 
replied by cunningly demanding the exile of 
Madame de Hautefort for a fortnight only, " to 
prove to unprincipled agitators that the said lady 
was not the most powerful person in the realm." 
The King, who had quarrelled with de Hautefort 
on account of some sarcasms which she had 
uttered concerning Cinq-Mars and his airs, con- 
sented to the proposition, and desired his minister 
to see that his will was notified. The day pre- 
viously Louis had returned from a hasty visit to 
Amiens, and on seeing de Hautefort in the circle, 
he angrily accosted her in these words : " Madame, 
I understand that you have been slandering Cinq- 
Mars, take care in future of your words take 
heed, I again repeat, or I shall know how to 
punish with due severity ! 5! 

As soon as the consent of Louis had been ex- 
torted, Richelieu despatched Chavigny to signify 
to Madame de Hautefort the order for her depar- 
ture on the morrow, without farewell audience of 
the King. He also recommended that Madame de 
la Flotte and Mademoiselle de Chemerault should 
likewise retire for a season. In one of their most 


confidential interviews, however, Louis had ad- 
jured and commanded Madame de Hautefort on 
no account to quit the court without obtaining an 
interview with him, in defiance even of his own 
assumed command. She therefore determined to 
brave the wrath of the Cardinal and not to leave 
Paris without an audience. Indignation and pique 
at treatment so unceremonious agitated Marie de 
Hautefort, and she flew to the Queen's chamber 
to impart the news. Anne wept and sobbed aloud 
as she clasped her friend in her arms. The Queen, 
however, declined to interfere, but suggested 
that probably the report of her approaching mar- 
riage with M. le Comte de Gesvres had angered the 
King, and which a few words would explain. The 
homage of the brave young Count de Gesvres, 
captain of the King's guards, had been com- 
placently received by Madame de Hautefort, who 
weary of cabals naturally inclined towards so 
advantageous an alliance. The cancans of the 
court reached the King's ear during his visit to 
the camp. Inflamed with wrathful jealousy, Louis 
sent an exempt of the royal guard to M. de 
Tresmes, father of de Gesvres, to express his 
indignation that the latter had presumed to seek 
the hand of la Dame de Hautefort, domestique de 
la Reyne, without his royal permission ; but as 
such indecorum had been committed, the King 
commanded M. de Gesvres to espouse the said 
lady before the approaching season of Lent. If the 
said de Gesvres declined to do so, the Count de 
Tresmes, under peril of the royal displeasure, was 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 465 

to seek out another bride for his son before the 
above-mentioned period. The displeasure of 
Louis XIII. was no passing cloud, both de 
Gesvres and his father disavowed the intention 
the former thanking his Majesty for the gracious 
permission he had given him to seek the hand of 
Madame de Hautefort in marriage. Returning to 
St. Germain after this piece of tyranny, the King, 
embittered by his past annoyance, addressed the 
severe reproof to Marie concerning Cinq-Mars. 
Richelieu knew how to time his opportunities, and 
probably insinuated that a temporary exile would 
render de Hautefort more submissive and careful 
for the future. 61 

Madame de Hautefort, early the following 
morning, presented herself at the door of the royal 
apartment to see the King before he proceeded to 
hear mass. The halberts of the sentinels were 
instantly crossed to bar her ingress into the apart- 
ment, while the officer in the guard-chamber 
explained " that the King had given orders to deny 
admittance to Madame de Hautefort." Pale with 
anger, Marie refraining from useless clamour 
descended to the guard- chamber through which 
the King had necessarily to pass on leaving the 
chapel. As she waited there, perhaps bitter 
thoughts crossed the mind of Marie de Hautefort 
of another adventure, when in a still more gloomy 
chamber she had borne the jibes and curious 
glances of the soldiers, on behalf of a royal mis- 
tress who now declined to make one single effort 
on her behalf. After a short interval the door 



opened, and Louis leisurely entered attended by 
Cinq-Mars and followed at a little distance by a 
troop of courtiers. He started when he beheld 
Madame de Hautefort and retreated a step in 
confusion. Marie approached with dignity : 
" Sire," said she, " relying on your royal word, 
I have not believed or obeyed the order which I 
have received in your name to leave the court, 
neither, after your protestations, can I believe it 
unless I receive the command from your own 
lips ! " Louis confusedly replied " that he had 
given such command and avowed it, and that 
her exile was to extend over only fifteen days, to 
which he had assented with extreme regret for 
certain important reasons of state ! ?: ic Sire, the 
fifteen days will extend to the end of your Majesty's 
life ! Therefore I bid you eternal farewell ! " Louis 
made no reply but hurriedly passed on. 52 

Madame de Hautefort, perceiving that appeal 
would be useless, and irritated by a low and mock- 
ing obeisance from M. de Cinq-Mars as he passed 
her, retired and prepared for immediate depar- 
ture. Her last interview with the Queen added to 
her discomposure. Anne, though she took from 
her own ears a pair of superb diamond earrings and 
gave them to de Hautefort, yet manifested a calm- 
ness and indifference most mortifying. When 
informed that Mademoiselle de Chemerault had 
likewise been dismissed, Anne declined to make 
her a parting gift, or to give her a written testi- 
monial of satisfaction at her services. De Cheme- 
rault, whom Madame de Hautefort considered her 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 467 

bosom friend, had since the affair of the Val de 
Grace been the spy of the Cardinal, and had not 
only betrayed her friend but the Queen also in 
various little trifles which came under her observa- 
tion. Probably Anne knew more on this subject 
than she chose to avow. Madame de Hautefort 
nevertheless, indignant at her dismissal and at 
the indifference manifested by their Majesties, 
addressed a letter of reproach to the Queen before 
she quitted the Louvre. " Madame," wrote de 
Hautefort in the first glow of her wrath, 53 " if I 
might be permitted to judge your Majesty's senti- 
ments by my own, I should never dare to say to 
you adieu for ever, dreading lest that cruel word 
might endanger your life, as it does my own even 
while I write it. But as God has conferred upon 
you the gift of resignation, such as you have 
shown in many other emergencies, I should wrong 
Providence and your own constancy if I pre- 
sumed to fancy that my disgrace and misfortune 
could disturb either your health or your repose. 
It is therefore for ever, Madame, that I say to 
you this word, Adieu ! I beg your Majesty to 
believe that in whatever part of the world fortune 
may lead me, I shall persevere in that fidelity and 
attachment to you which is the true cause of my 
persecution, regretting only not to be able to 
suffer more evils for the love of you." 

Madame de Hautefort proceeds to rate the 
Queen in the same sarcastic strain for her il- 
liberality to Mademoiselle de Chemerault, who 
had been dismissed without gratuity, with the 


payment only of her salary of 4000 crowns, " and 
in the same summary manner, Madame, that you 
would discharge Michelette ! 64 Madame, if a great 
Queen like yourself has not money in hand to 
reward and help a girl whom she has professed 
to love, at least a present might be vouchsafed, a 
pension promised, or a letter written to prove to 
the girl's mother that your Majesty feels satisfied 
with her past services. Although I have heard with 
intense mortification the dread which you now mani- 
fest to displease him 65 who tears me from you, I 
protest, Madame, that your timidities and conces- 
sions grieve and pique me more for your own sake 
than for my own, as I might find consolation for my 
own wrongs, if I could be certain that this injury 
is the last that you will receive from his hands." 
Generous, warm - hearted and imprudent, 
Madame de Hautefort left many friends at court, 
and the renown of a spotless reputation. She was 
attended from Paris to Mans by M. de Villers, an 
intimate friend of her family, and followed by 
the Marquis de Noirmoutier who had long been 
madly enamoured of her, and who hoped to 
receive in her adversity that encouragement for 
his honourable proposals which Madame de Haute- 
fort had before denied him when at court. 56 


1 Cousin, Vie de Madame de Hautefort. 

2 Tallemant des Reaux, t. 2. 

3 Fra^ois, second Due de la Rochefoucauld, born in 1613, author of 
the Maxims, and of the History of the Regency of Anne of Austria. The 
duke married the only daughter and heiress of Andre de Vivonne, 
Seigneur de la Ciiateigneraie. He died March 17, 1680, 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 469 

4 Cousin, Vie de Madame de Chevreuse. Tallemant, t. 1. 

5 La Rochefoucauld, Mem. p. 326-7, et seq. 

6 Extrait de 1'Information faite par le President Vignier de la sortie 
de Madame de Chevreuse hors de France. Bibl. Imp. Du Puy. 499-500. 
Published also by M. Cousin, Vie de Madame de Chevreuse. Mem. de 
La Rochefoucauld. 

7 " Voila ou elle s'assisa en me disant adieu ; et ou elle me dit quatre 
paroles qui m'assommarent ! " exclaimed the illiterate prelate, in the 
fervour of his grief. One day he had a melodrama on the story of 
Mariamne performed to please the Duchess : " Monseigneur," said the 
Duchess, " il me semble que nous ne sommes point touches de la Passion 
comme de cette comedie." "Je crois bien, Madame," replied the 
Archbishop ; " ceci c'est histoire ! Je 1'ai lu dans Josephe ! "- 
Tallemant des R6aux, t. 2. 

8 Mem de La Rochefoucauld. Mem. de Motteville. 

9 Bibl. Imp. MS. Suppl. Fr. 4068. Nouvelle Declaration de la Reine 
de la main de Le Gras. 

10 Marie de Burges. 

11 Mademoiselle de la Fayette soon edified her community by the ardour 
of her devotions and the ingenuity of her penances. One day some fruit 
was served on the refectory table, so worm-eaten and covered with ants 
as to be rejected by the nuns. La Sceur Angelique, however, ate the 
fruit with unction as an act of penance, to the great admiration of the 
sisterhood. La Sceur Angelique eventually quitted the convent for 
that at Chaill ot which needed reform and discipline. She eventually 
became abbess of this community, and lived in intimate friendship with 
Queen Henrietta Maria, who patronised the convent, in which she spent 
much of her time. 

12 Griffet, Hist, du Regne de Louis XIII. 

13 Probably the community of Avenay in the vicinity of Rheims, which 
had just lost its young abbess, Benedicte de Gonzague de Cleves-Nevers. 

" II y a trois semaines que nous cherchons ce qui met le Roi de si 
mauvaise humeur, et le voila trouve ! Je vous promets que j'en infor- 
merai M. le Cardinal a votre avantage, et que vous serez bientdt delivre 
de toute inquietude," replied Chavigny, laughing. Griffet. 

15 Journal du Cardinal de Richelieu. Amsterdam. 

16 Griffet, Regne de Louis XIII. Bernard, Hist, de Louis XIII. 

17 " On disoit du Pere Caussin, ' qu'il avait mieux fait ses affaires a la 
Cour Sainte (in allusion to his celebrated book), qu'a celle de France.' " 

18 De Coste. fildges des Dauphins de France. 

9 Ibid. Fondations Royales Discours, par 1'Abbe Richard. 

20 Griffet, Siri, Dreux du Radier, La Rochefoucault, Le Vassor, Motte- 
ville, Marana, Journal de Verdun, &c. &c. 

21 Quattro hore spese il re in quel colloquio, si che 1'hora trovatasi 
troppo tarda per ritornare, quella notte nevosissima (correndo il mese di 
Dicembre), a Groisbois, convenne per forza necessita dormire a Parigi ; 


e rimasto il letto del re a Groisbois, la regina colla cena gli fece parte del 
suo. Siri. Hilarion de Coste, filoges des Dauphins de France. 

22 In a Memoire sent by the Duchess to the Cardinal through Boispille, 
she assures his eminence of the discretion of her conduct while resident 
at the Spanish Court : " Madame de Chevreuse ne s'est obligee a rien 
de tout en Espagne ni en Angleterre ; ne se trouvera pas qu'elle ait pris 
un teston fors les bonnes cheres et traitements. Les dernieres paroles 
que le roi d'Espagne lui dit furent, de faire ses recommandations en 
Angleterre ; et que si elle allait en France qu'elle assurat la Reine sa 
bonne-so3UT, de ses bonnes volontes. Elle a parle comme elle devoit en 
Espagne, et croit que c'est une des choses qui 1'a le plus fait estimer par 
le Comte-Duc, lequel, elle croit, n'a pas rabattu de 1'estime qu'il faisoit 
de son Eminence." Bibl. Imp. MS. Colbert. 

23 Cousin, Vie de Madame de Chevreuse. 

24 One day M. de Montbazon was conversing in the presence of the 
Queens Marie de' Medici and Anne of Austria, and let slip the words : 
" Vive Dieu, je ne suis ni Italien, ni Espagnol ; je suis homme de 
bien ! " Tallemant, t. 6. 

25 Galerie des Personnages Ulustres de la Cour de Louis XIII., t. 4. 
Le Cardinal de Richelieu a 1'Abbe Dorat. MSS. de Colbert, Bibl. Imp., 
t. ii. fol. 18. 

86 Hilarion de Coste. filoges des Dauphins de France, p. 198. Declara- 
tion du Roi par laquelle S. M. prend pour Protectrice de ce Royaume la 
tres sainte Vierge Marie. Lancelot Recueil, MS. 

27 One of these, Harmonie de I'amour, et de la justice de Dieu, by 
Fran9ois Davesne, was circulated privately, and was published never- 
theless in 1650. Another pamphlet written by Vergerius, a German 
nom de plume, was also circulated, especially in England. 

28 Cousin, Appendice, Vie de Madame de Hautefort. Archives des 
Affaires fitrangeres, t. 88, fol. 409. M6moire pour Madame de Lansac. 

29 Archives des Affaires Etrangeres, France, t. 89 ; Chavigny au 
Cardinal. All published for the first time by M. Victor Cousin, Vie de 
Madame de Hautefort, Appendice. 

30 Archives des Affaires fitrangeres, France. Bullion au Cardinal, 
23 Aout, 1638. 

81 Archives fitrangeres, France, t. 89, fol. 105, fol. 122. 

32 Godefroy, Grand Cerem. de France, t. 2. 

33 Philippe Cospean. 

34 Dominique Seguier. 

35 De Coste. filoges des Dauphins de France. Godefroy, Naissance de 
Monseigneur le Dauphin, a present le Roy Louis XIV., p. 209, et seq. 

36 Vallot, the royal physician in ordinary, attributed the strength and 
liveliness of the child to the copious doses of " quinquina et vin 
emetique," which he had caused the Queen to swallow. 

37 Godefroy, Grand Cerem. de France, t. ii. p. 209, et seq. Naissance 
de Monseigneur le Dauphin, a present le Roy Louis XIV. 

1639] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 471 

38 Aubery, Mem. pour servir al'Hist. du Cardinal de Richelieu, t. v. 

39 Ibid. 

40 Godefroy, Grand Cerem. de France, t. 2. 

41 Ibid. The Queen likewise received warm congratulations from the 
Cardinal de la Valette, and writes to thank him, " et lui temoigner com- 
bien elle avait eu agreable la part qu'il prenoit a ses contentements." 
MS. Bibl. Imp., F. Dupuy, 569, fol. 37. 

12 MS. Bibl. Imp., Dupuy, 549. 

43 Godefroy, Grand Cerem. de France. 

44 D'un Cas Extraordinaire, &c. &c., Paris, 1638. A suggestion was 
made by this author, relative to the favour bestowed by the Queen on 
Mazarin. At this early period of Mazarin's French career, he is certainly 
unjustly reflected upon. Mazarin was created by the Pope Legate of 
Avignon, in 1635. In the year 1636 he paid a brief visit to Paris, and 
returned to Avignon. In October of the year 1637 he was recalled to 
Rome by the Pope, where he remained until the year 1639. 

45 The royal physician, Valot, expresses himself thus, in a curious MS. 
of the Bibl. Imperiale, brought to light by M. Paulin Paris. He says : 
" Que la France avait presque perdu toutesles assurances d'une heureuse 
succession ; car le Roi commen9ait a se ressentir d'une faiblesse sin- 
guliere causee avant age par ses longues fatigues : et I'opiniatrete d'une 
longue maladie 1 'avait reduit en 6tat de ne pouvoir esperer une longue 
vie, ni une plus parfaite guerison," etc. 

46 Archives des Affaires Etrangeres, t. 88. Cousin. 

47 Archives des Affaires iEtrangeres, t. 89. Cousin, Appendice Vie de 
Madame Hautefort. 

48 "La Reine n'abandonne guere le petit prince, qui est gros et fort. 
Elle prend grand plaisir a le faire jouer, et a le mener promener dans 
son carrosse quand il fait beau ; c'est tout son divertissement, aussi n'y 
en a-t-il point d'autres dans la cour." Mademoiselle Andrieu, Femme- 
de-chambre de la Reine, a Madame de Senece. 

49 Catherine de Ste. Maure. 

50 Antoine Coiffier, Marquis d'Effiat, born 1581, died 1632 ; Grand 
Master of Artillery, and a Secretary of the Treasury. 

51 Cousin, Vie de Madame de Hautefort. 

52 Ibid. Dreux du Radier, Vie de Madame de Hautefort. 

53 Vie Inedite de Madame de Hautefort. Cousin. 

54 Anne de Pluviers de St. Michel, fille-demoiselle de la chambre. 
This Mademoiselle de St. Michel appears likewise to have been one of 
the caballers of the household. 

55 The Cardinal de Richelieu. 

56 Mademoiselle de Hautefort retired, in the first instance, from the 
Louvre to the Convent des Dix Vertus ou Madelonettes, where she 
remained some six weeks as a boarder. On the 27th of December, 1639, 
she quitted Paris, " resolue comme un capitaine," as le P. Carre reported 
to Richelieu. 




THE agents of Richelieu kept all the banished 
ladies under surveillance. Madame de Fargis had 
sought refuge from persecution in Holland, where 
she lived in extreme penury, avenging herself for 
her sufferings by surpassing even Dutch pamph- 
leteers in animosity. Madame de Chevreuse 
continued to toy with the great Cardinal and 
to carry on a correspondence, half-friendly, 
half-menacing. Richelieu demanded unreserved 
confession of past misdemeanours, unreserved 
submission, and unreserved confidence in his good 
will. Madame de Chevreuse, almost broken- 
hearted at her prolonged exile, complied at length 
so far as to consent to sign a document in which 
" she deplored her past bad conduct, and 
promised to pay no more clandestine visits to 
Paris." * Richelieu thereupon sent an agent to 
London, with a large sum of money sufficient to 
acquit the debts of the Duchess, and a very friendly 
letter exhorting her to return immediately 
to Paris. The day was fixed for the Duchess to 
present herself at Whitehall to say farewell to 
their Britannic Majesties, the coach which was 
to convery her to Dover was ordered and every 
preparation made, when she received the follow- 



ing anonymous letter of sufficiently alarming 
import : " If you love Madame de Chevreuse, 
save her from the ruin which is sure to overtake 
her in France. This warning is not a mere 
supposition. The advice I give must be followed 
if Madame de Chevreuse wishes for security ; M. 
le Cardinal has said too much evil respecting her 
and her traffickings with Lorraine and Spain to 
grant oblivion. There is no resource for Madame 
de Chevreuse but patience for the present, or 
perdition attended with the keen regrets of the 
writer." Neither date nor any other indication 
betrayed the author of this note. Madame de 
Chevreuse suspected that the writer was Queen 
Anne, but carefully suppressed her suspicions. 
A few hours subsequently the Duke of Lorraine, 
who was the devoted friend of the Duchess, wrote 
thus in dismay to protest against the rashness of 
her unconditional return to France : " Madame, 
I am advised that it is the design of M. le Car- 
dinal de Richelieu to offer to you every imagin- 
able concession to persuade you to return, but 
afterwards he means to cause you to perish 
miserably." 2 The enmity of Richelieu was doubt- 
less greatly exaggerated. The probabilities are 
that if Madame de Chevreuse had returned she 
would not have been permitted to reside in Paris, 
as the dislike manifested by the King for the 
partner of his consort's past transgressions, and 
the newborn prudence of the Queen, must have 
rendered unavailing any counter entreaty pre- 
ferred by the Duchess. M. de Lorraine, at the 


period when he thus addressed Madame de 
Chevreuse, was actuated by intense indignation 
at the protection accorded by King Louis to his 
forsaken wife Nicole, whom though the true 
heiress of Lorraine he had abandoned for the 
beautiful Beatrice de Cusance, Princesse de 
Cantecroix. Madame de Chevreuse, nevertheless 
declined to continue her journey ; she showed the 
warning letters to Boispille, and instructed him 
to take copies, which he was to lay on his return 
before M. le Cardinal. The Duchess, moreover, 
honourably returned the money sent by Richelieu, 
and professing intense desire to receive an ex- 
planation from his Eminence relative to the 
mysterious letters addressed to her, she prepared 
to wait events in Brussels. Another and more 
ominous signal of danger the Duchess descried in 
the coldness of Anne of Austria, and in the 
Queen's marked change of opinion relative to the 
expediency of the return of her friend, which until 
recently she had urged and discussed as perfectly 
feasible. Seeing the Due de Chevreuse one day 
at St. Germain, Anne inquired after the health of 
the Duchess his wife. The Duke, who was not 
overburdened with wit, after satisfying her 
Majesty, pathetically deplored the exile of his 
dear consort, adding " that her Majesty was 
responsible for her absence which she might now 
terminate at pleasure." The Queen, in her most 
icy manner replied, " that M. le Due was unjust 
to attribute the absence of Madame de Chevreuse 
to want of zeal on her behalf, that she still loved 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 475 

the Duchess and would be glad to see her, 
nevertheless she counselled her never to return 
to France ! " The result was duly transmitted to 
the Duchess who wisely thereupon resolved to 
follow the counsel. Much correspondence ensued, 
which is still extant, between Madame de 
Chevreuse and Richelieu, but the gist of all the 
letters written by the Duchess merged in the 
remark with which she terminates one of the last 
of the series : En attendant il vaut mieux souffrir 
que de perir." 

Madame de Hautefort led a tranquil though 
unexciting life at the chateau de la Flotte, where 
she was joined by her mother. No further com- 
munication seems to have passed between de 
Hautefort and the King. Anne's faithful servant 
La Porte often partook of the patronage and hos- 
pitality of the chateau de la Flotte. Madame de 
Hautefort also made the acquaintance of Scarron s 
during her exile in the neighbourhood of le Mans, 
and her favour and countenance in happier times 
first introduced the merry poet-buffoon to the 
salons of the capital. Madame de Senece lived in 
a style of feudal splendour in her grand old 
ancestral castle of Randan, maintaining always a 
close correspondence with the court, in which 
like Richelieu she had her swarm of venal spies 
and adherents. 

The King, meantime, did not find all the satis- 
faction which he had anticipated in the society of 
his new favourite Cinq-Mars. The last new habit 
or the last sally of boyish passion of M. de Cinq- 


Mars sufficed to convulse the court. Elated by 
his extraordinary favour the head of this young 
cavalier was fairly turned, his will was law. He 
entered the royal apartments at pleasure, con- 
tradicted the King publicly, emptied the royal 
purse and assumed privileges which bewildered 
the nobles of the grande entree. The first gift of 
the infatuated Louis was a large pecuniary bene- 
faction, given after the capture of Hesdin. In the 
space of a few months the Due de Bellegarde 
resigned the office of Grand Ecuyer, in considera- 
tion of an indemnity of 100,000 francs, which Louis 
immediately bestowed on his young favourite. 4 
Cinq-Mars and his royal master bickered and 
disputed like schoolboys ; often their quarrel 
ended by a written treaty, gravely signed by 
Louis and his protege, and witnessed by the 
gentleman in waiting. The King kept a diary in 
which he regularly entered the details of these 
ignoble quarrels, which at the end of a certain 
period his Majesty forwarded to Richelieu for 
his perusal. Soon the lever of " the young 
adventurer " was crowded by veterans, courtiers 
and by ministers, anxious for his good word and 
support in the royal closet. These devoirs were 
pleasant to render. Cinq-Mars had a sunny 
smile and a voice most courteously toned for all, 
he was merry and communicative, liberal with the 
royal purse, and showed infinite relish for a good 
story, or for a morsel of well-flavoured scandal. 
His handsome face and good figure recommended 
him to the fair ladies of the court, some of 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 477 

whom rapturously lauded in verse his auburn 
curls daintily perfumed with musk and amber- 
gris. Of the Cardinal, Cinq-Mars stood in whole- 
some awe ; but yet a sensation of exulting 
triumph reigned when he perceived that even the 
great minister, his former patron, approached him 
with caution as if he also was dazzled with the 
greatness of his rise. So long as Cinq-Mars aspired 
only to lead the fashions of the court and to 
amuse the King's solitary hours Richelieu per- 
mitted him to revel in his self-sufficient pride. 
Cinq-Mars paid profound respect to Anne of 
Austria, who now lived in almost utter seclusion 
at St. Germain absorbed by her young son and 
by her beautiful gardens. No palace fetes en- 
livened the court : the stars of Paris society were 
the Duchess d'Aiguillon, the Duchess de Mont- 
bazon, Madame de Rambouillet, Madame de 
Sable, the beautiful Princess Marie de Gonzague 
Nevers, and the Princess de Conde. The splendid 
entertainments given by these ladies were assid- 
uously frequented by M. de Cinq-Mars, who 
soon excited the speculation of all his friends by 
the warmth of his homage to the Princess Marie 
de Gonzague who had been once secretly affianced 
to Monsieur a pretension which the King angrily 
ridiculed. Another kind of entertainment which 
Cinq-Mars patronised were the receptions of the 
notorious courtezan Marion de Lorme ; 6 and 
Louis, who loathed such irregularities, perpetually 
tormented and irritated him by injunctions to fore- 
go this intimacy. Cinq- Mars retorted insolently ; 


and puzzled his Majesty by desiring him to ask his 
Eminence the Cardinal whether the soirees of such 
a fascinating siren as the Demoiselle de Lorme 
were to be lightly relinquished. 

Such was the progress of the domestic life of 
King Louis until the 21st of September of the year 
1640. At ten o'clock in the evening of that day 
Queen Anne presented her husband and the 
nation with a second son. The Queen was ill only 
for two hours ; and the royal babe was born in the 
presence of the King, and of Mesdames de Conde, 
de Vendome, de Montmorency, de Lansac, and de 
Brassac. The Cardinal, as before, was absent 
from the capital at the camp near Chaunes, bat 
a messenger was immediately despatched to carry 
the joyful news to his Eminence. The child was 
baptized in the Queen's bed-chamber by the 
Bishop of Meaux and was named Philip. 6 " I 
have heard the Queen say that the King testified 
more joy at the birth of this son than he did when 
M. le Dauphin was born," relates Madame de 
Motteville. " The reason doubtless was that his 
Majesty did not expect the great happiness of 
beholding himself the father of two sons he who 
never hoped to see himself a father." Great re- 
joicings ensued throughout the realm for the birth 
of M. le Due d'Anjou ; the child however was weak 
and puny, and very different in strength and 
vivacity to Anne's beautiful first-born. Madame 
de Lansac had the charge of both the children ; 
but the Queen was a devoted mother, and spent 
hours in watching the slumbers of her infants. 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 479 

From the birth of Louis, whom the people 
surnamed Dieu-donne, Anne appears to have 
relinquished her correspondences with Spain and 
with other princes inimical to France. Although 
the Queen treated the Cardinal in public with cold 
hauteur, letters often passed between them, and 
it was remarked that when she had any petition 
to prefer to the King it was Richelieu's assist- 
ance which she now sought. Madame d'Aiguillon 
was evidently welcome to the Queen, and on 
more than one occasion her Majesty accepted 
fetes from the Cardinal at Ruel, where the Duchess 
presided as hostess a condescension which she 
had never before vouchsafed. 7 The marriage of 
the niece of the Cardinal, Claire Clemence de 
Maille, with the Due d'Enghien, son of Conde, was 
well received, against all expectation, by Anne, 
who overwhelmed the timid young bride with 
caresses and favours. Whilst M. d'Enghien was 
gaining that experience in arms which rendered 
him one of the greatest captains of the age, the 
bride of the future Great Conde was sent by her 
uncle to the convent of the Carmelites de St. 
Denis to complete her education. " Our minis- 
ter," writes la Grande Mademoiselle, 8 " ought 
apparently to have repaid this great honour of 
alliance by marriage with the royal house, by 
submission and assiduous duty to M. le Prince de 
Conde ; it was quite the contrary, however, M. 
le Prince asked the Cardinal almost on his knees 
to give Mademoiselle de Breze to his son, as if 
she had been the queen of the whole world. To 


testify to the minister that he wished for no other 
interests or attachments, he actually requested 
him to unite his nephew, M. le Marquis de Breze, 
with Mademoiselle de Bourbon ! M. le Cardinal 
replied that he had no objection to give gentle- 
women to princes, but not simple gentlemen to 
princesses : he therefore only did M. le Prince the 
favour to grant Mademoiselle de Breze to M. 
d'Enghien. They were affianced in the chamber 
of the King. A ball followed, at which Made- 
moiselle de Breze, being extremely little, fell 
whilst she was dancing a couranto, because to 
make her look taller they had given her such 
high-heeled shoes that she could scarcely stand. 
All the company laughed, not excepting M. 
d'Enghien who had consented with great regret 
to this alliance in order not to displease Monsieur, 
his father." 

In the midst of all his magnificence and succes- 
ses the health of Richelieu languished. Out- 
wardly the smooth intellectual face showed no 
sign of suffering, and the upright, majestic 
figure bravely bore the burden of fifty years and 
of the political cares which seldom permitted 
respite from toil. The Cardinal constantly 
suffered from abscesses in his side and on his 
shoulders, which at times caused him excruciating 
agony. He was subject also to violent pains in 
the head, and to sleeplessness ; yet the bright, 
brave spirit struggled on. In the camp and in the 
council-chamber Richelieu was ever at his post, 
writing voluminous despatches with a hand and 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 481 

arm sometimes partially disabled by pain, but 
alluding therein only casually to his sufferings. 
The Cardinal usually retired for the night at 
eleven o'clock : he slept for four hours, and at 
three o'clock his secretary entered with writing 
materials and a despatch-box. Richelieu rose 
and dictated despatches until six o'clock, when he 
again retired to bed for two hours. Every 
Sunday he received the Holy Eucharist at dawn. 
He dined at one o'clock, then considered to be a 
very late hour. The afternoon was spent with 
the King, in granting audiences, in receiving 
artists, men of letters, and in taking exercise on 
foot and an airing along the fashionable pro- 
menade of Paris, Le Cours de la Reine, which was 
close to the Luxembourg palace, the unfinished 
residence of the unfortunate Queen-mother. At 
night Richelieu supped magnificently a banquet 
of which it was considered the highest honour to 
partake. Cards, music and conversation were 
then the pastimes of the salons of the Palais 
Cardinal until eleven o'clock, when the Cardinal 
withdrew except on special occasions. 

Early in the New Year, 1641, the everlasting 
disputes of the King and his favourite more than 
ever harassed Richelieu. Both the King and 
Cinq-Mars appealed to him to settle their silly 
bickerings. Though the torment was irksome, 
yet to Richelieu it was not unacceptable inas- 
much as it assured him that his influence was 
dominant. As a specimen of the ludicrous cor- 
respondence which troubled the repose of the 



great minister, is the following epistle from the 

" From St. Germain, this 5th day of January, at 

four o'clock of the evening, 1641. 
" I regret much to trouble you again with the 
bad tempers of M. le Grand. On his return from 
Ruel he gave me the packet which you sent. I 
opened, and read its contents. I then said to M. 
le Grand, * The Cardinal writes to me that you 
have testified to him much anxiety to please me ; 
nevertheless, you still refrain from giving me 
content on a subject which I often speak upon, 
that is your extreme laziness.' M. le Grand re- 
plied, 6 that you had been remonstrating with 
him thereon; but upon that chapter it was not 
his intention to change, nor did he intend to do 
better than heretofore.' This speech made me 
angry. I said : c A man of your rank ought to 
render himself worthy of high military commands, 
you have always assured me that such is your 
ambition, but idleness, I can tell you, is very con- 
trary to such aspirations.' He then rudely re- 
plied, * that he had never such idea, nor intended 
to aspire to military commands.' I replied that 
he had so done, but refrained from pursuing the 
theme. I presently resumed my remarks upon 
slothfulness, observing ' that this vice rendered 
a man incapable of any good thing, and that it 
was worthy only of the loungers of the Marais, 
who thought of nothing but pleasure ; and that 
if it was his intention to continue this life of sloth 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 483 

he had better retire thither.' He then arrogantly 
replied, c that he was quite ready to retire.' I 
then said * If I possessed not more self-control 
than yourself, I know what I should answer you ; ' 
adding, that being under such obligations to me, 
he ought not to speak in such uncouth fashion. 
M. le Grand then said, with his usual insolence, 
* that he did not want my benefits and was ready 
to give me back all that I had bestowed, and that 
he could do very well without me, and was just 
as content to be simply Cinq-Mars as M. le Grand ; 
but as for changing his habits and way of life, he 
could not and would not.' We then continued to 
rally one another in this manner until I descended 
into the courtyard of the castle, expressing my 
wish, 'that while he continued in the same evil 
humour he would refrain from presenting him- 
self before me.' He replied, c that he would 
willingly refrain.' I have not seen him since. 
All this passed in the presence and hearing of de 
Gordes. " Louis. 

" P.S. I have shown this letter to de Gordes, 
who testifies to have read nothing therein but the 
truth." 9 

Cinq-Mars, in the same style of excitement, 
writes on this occasion both to Richelieu and to 
M. de Noyers. To the former he prefers an en- 
treaty that he will abandon him to his fate and to 
the anger of the King, as he finds his position at 
court insupportable. 10 To de Noyers he is more 
explicit. " You may judge of my miserable con- 


dition, by contemplating the extremities to which 
I am constantly driven. I conjure you, if you 
ever felt friendship for me, combine no longer to 
force upon me so wretched a life, but consult 
with his Eminence on the means of my deliverance 
so that the aversion of the King may no longer 
persecute me. This is all that I wish and all 

that I desire. Effiat de Cinq-Mars." ll A few 

hours after writing these epistles, the King and his 
favourite had made friends, and had again become 
inseparable to the consternation of all persons 
foolish enough to have interfered in the quarrel. 
Whenever the King sulkily refused to see Cinq- 
Mars who usually sat with his Majesty at night 
until he fell asleep the valets and pages in wait- 
ing concealed him in a dark corridor, and when 
his accustomed time for retiring arrived, Cinq- Mars 
boldly walked from the ante- chamber of the royal 
apartment, bowing to the courtiers who waited 
to attend him to his own chamber, as if his vigil 
had been accomplished. The attachment which 
Cinq-Mars entertained for the Princess Marie de 
Gonzague, and his hopes of gaining her hand, 
gradually produced that reformation in his habits 
which Louis had vainly recommended. During 
the course of the summer of 1642, his self-posses- 
sion and apparent steadiness of conduct gained 
for him commendation and increased influence 
over the mind of his royal master. The silent but 
irresistible influence of the Cardinal minister from 
thenceforth set in, to check the career of the 
favourite and to circumvent his ambitious pro- 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 485 

jects. Marie de Gonzague bade Cinq-Mars obtain 
the sword of Constable of France, with the patent 
of duke and peer, as the price of her hand. One 
day therefore M. le Grand with characteristic 
audacity waited on the minister and asked for 
the interest of the latter to procure the hand of 
the Princess Marie and the rank of a duke. 
Richelieu eyed his suppliant with a glance of 
mingled amusement and irony ; chiding the 
ambitious young man for his presumption, while 
absolutely refusing the patent he craved. " As 
for the Princess Marie, you must be crazy, Mon- 
sieur, to aspire to the hand of a Princess who was 
once destined to be the bride of Monsieur ; while 
Madame Marie herself is mad if she has given you 
the encouragement you are bold enough to pro- 
claim!" 12 Cinq-Mars however believed in his 
own destiny, and in the attachment of Marie de 
Gonzague. He haughtily left the presence of 
Richelieu, resolved as he declared to follow the 
example of the late Duke de Luynes who foiled 
the Queen-mother, and had won the baton of 
Constable of France and with it the hand of 
Marie de Rohan. 

Some time elapsed, and it happened that M. le 
Grand was with the King, when Richelieu and the 
lords of the privy council entered to confer with 
his Majesty. Louis, after some hesitation, took 
his favourite by the hand, saying in a weak voice 
addressing Richelieu : " In order that this, my 
dearest friend, may one day be capable of serving 
me, it is my will that he now takes his seat in my 


council." The Cardinal smiled his affable smile, 
complimented M. le Grand, but submitted to his 
royal master documents of trivial moment only, 
and took his leave. At the usual hour Richelieu 
had his private audience : M. de Cinq-Mars was 
then summoned, and briefly informed by the King, 
in his driest voice, that his admission to the 
council-board was cancelled ! The King also 
added several uncomplimentary allusions to the 
dissipations in which he was informed that 
M. le Grand habitually indulged. 13 From that 
moment Cinq-Mars was the deadly enemy of 
Richelieu, and resolved to compass his overthrow 
or to perish in the attempt. The old elements of 
cabal were still dispersed throughout the realm, 
but a wiser and more subtle man than Cinq-Mars 
would have avoided renewing the life and vitality 
of a combination which had always dissolved 
before the test of Richelieu's genius. There was 
Monsieur pining in discontent at Blois, whose 
mind was always in a chronic state of rebellion ; 
there was the Duke de Bouillon, whose stronghold 
of Sedan rendered him a giant in civil coftimo- 
tions, who had just coyly accepted the minister's 
overtures of reconciliation, and had been invested 
with the command-in- chief of the army of Italy ; 
there was Madame de Chevreuse and Queen Marie 
de' Medici exiles, women of parts and vindic- 
tive, ready to assail their foe even with the 
weapons of treason ; there was moreover Queen 
Anne of Austria, still shy, reserved and supposed 
to be devoted to her brothers ; and still the un- 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 487 

relenting opponent of Richelieu. The change in 
Anne's position was not considered ; for it never 
entered the calculations of the eager conspirators 
that the mother of the Dauphin of France might 
be inspired with other views and designs than the 
narrow prejudices which had actuated the child- 
less Queen. 14 The aim of the new conspiracy 
professed to provide for the government of the 
realm after the death of the King, to secure to 
the Duke of Orleans his rights as lieutenant- 
general of the realm, and to the Queen her law- 
ful position as guardian and tutoress of the young 
King. To render this distribution of power even- 
tually possible, it was deemed necessary to over- 
throw Richelieu, to annihilate his power by the 
authority of the King, and to divide among the 
princes of the blood the functions which he had 
usurped. The personage who negotiated the 
treaty between Cinq-Mars, the Duke de Bouillon, 
and the Duke of Orleans, was M. de Thou, the 
eldest son of the famous historian of that name. 
De Thou had also certain liberty of access to the 
presence of Anne of Austria, as in former days he 
had advanced money at the request of her Majesty 
to assist the necessity of the Duchess de Chevreuse 
and other of the banished ladies. Monsieur 
eagerly entered into a conspiracy, the aim of 
which was to exalt him so highly. Bouillon also 
suffered himself to be persuaded the object of 
the conspiracy, he flattered himself, was patriotic, 
and trenched neither on the royal power nor the 


Meantime, Cinq- Mars laboured assiduously to 
imbitter the spirit of Louis against his minister ; 
all Richelieu's shortcomings were aggravated, his 
omissions proclaimed, and the suspicions with 
which the world had echoed were assiduously 
poured into the royal ear. The faults of M. 
d' Orleans were on the contrary palliated, and 
a pathetic picture was drawn by the wily favourite 
of Monsieur's unhappy condition, banished from 
the heart and the court of his brother and sub- 
jected to a surveillance dishonouring to the royal 
blood. Maudlin tears ran from the King's eyes as 
Cinq-Mars drew an affecting picture of the perse- 
cution and restraints to which his Majesty was 
himself subjected by his ungrateful minister. 
Finally Cinq-Mars wept himself at the scenes 
which his imagination portrayed. Louis, who 
never enjoyed a luxury so keen as that conferred 
by a sentimental scene of the kind, replied in 
broken murmurs to the plaints of his favourite, 
echoed all his aspirations for release from a condi- 
tion of such grinding tyranny, pitied his brother, 
and groaned under the burden of the sin and 
the cost of a war directed against the orthodox 
dynasties of Austria and Spain. Cinq- Mars, young, 
inexperienced and unacquainted with the wonder- 
ful calibre of the royal mind, fell into raptures of 
gratified ambition. Puffed up with conceit, M. le 
Grand clasped the King in his arms and besought 
him to trust to him for aid and deliverance, boast- 
ing that he had conceived a project which ere long 
would bring them happy emancipation. Louis 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 489 

started, looked curiously on his young favourite 
and solemnly bade him beware of the arts and 
irresistible power of M. le Cardinal. Cinq-Mars 
smiled, entreated Louis to be silent and cautious, 
to invite M. d'Orleans to court, and steadily to 
decline the proposal of the Cardinal to undertake 
the siege of the fortress of Perpignan in person. 15 
Won by the caresses and submissiveness of his 
favourite, and really shrinking from the yoke of 
Richelieu, Louis became gloomy in the company 
of his minister, but not communicative. Sickness 
and repeated meditations on death, and the 
almost daily use of the confessional, had rendered 
the King unwilling to pursue the war or to remain 
the ally of the heretic sovereigns of Europe. The 
aptness of Cinq-Mars, his newly adopted habits of 
industry, and his majestic person as it ripened 
into manhood inspired Louis with the hope that 
he had at length found a minister able to bear the 
burden of affairs, and also to become the delight 
and companion of his own leisure hours. The 
eloquence of M. le Grand had done more to under- 
mine the power of the Cardinal de Richelieu than 
the machinations of any previous enemy. A plot, 
however, under the guidance of Monsieur, directed 
by the inspirations of M. de Cinq-Mars, imbibed 
from the fitful humours of his royal master, was 
almost certain to fail in some important link. The 
first overtures had been wilily concerted ; dis- 
content was rampant amongst the high noblesse 
of the realm, and a coalition amongst the friends 
and adherents of the banished nobles, such as the 


Dukes de Vendome, de Bellegarde, de la Valette, 
and d'Elbceuf, might have seriously embarrassed 
the government of Richelieu. The chief conspira- 
tors, however, Cinq-Mars, Bouillon and Monsieur, 
wanted speedy action the minister held posses- 
sion of the fortified places of the realm ; the 
humour of the King might change ; the co-opera- 
tion of Anne of Austria seemed uncertain against 
the urgent counsel and entreaties of M. de Thou, 
it was therefore resolved to negotiate a treaty 
with Spain. One M. de Fontrailles, cousin to Cinq- 
Mars, a person of wit, judgment and courage, 
was chosen for the dangerous mission to Madrid. 
Fontrailles had a deformed person, and specially 
detested the minister for some sharp witticisms 
which had greatly wounded his vanity. 18 Fon- 
trailles, therefore, departed for Madrid, em- 
powered to place the realm of France under the 
protection of Philip IV. The Catholic King was 
to be asked for a subsidy and for troops to garrison 
Sedan and other places, and also to give a pledge 
that Spanish troops should enter France at the 
bidding of the conspirators. The Count-duke 
hesitated, so many intended invasions of France 
had brought disgrace to the arms of Spain, and 
ruin to the promoters of such design. The name 
of Monsieur no longer carried prestige, for his 
inconstancy and want of mental balance pre- 
cluded confidence. When informed, however, 
that Cinq- Mars and the Duke de Bouillon were to 
be partners in the proposed treaty, Olivarez, with 
some misgiving, accepted the alliance, as any 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 491 

diversion likely to draw off the armies of France 
from before Perpignan might be considered an 
advantage. It was first expressly stipulated that 
no enterprise should be undertaken at variance 
with the interests of Queen Anne or of M. le 
Dauphin and his brother. 17 The document pro- 
vided that Philip IV. should furnish a force of 
12,000 foot soldiers and of 5000 horse ; that a sum 
of 400,000 crowns should be placed at the disposal 
of the confederates ; that Sedan should be garri- 
soned with Spaniards on the written request of 
Bouillon ; and that that fortress should be placed 
at the disposal of the Queen, should she deem it 
prudent to flee thither for refuge with M. le 
Dauphin, for which purpose 300,000 livres were 
to be provided by his Catholic Majesty for the 
strengthening of the fortifications. 18 The expe- 
diency of removing the principal obstacles to the 
designs of the confederates, by taking the life of 
Richelieu, was discussed and enjoined on M. de 
Fontrailles to recommend to his patrons. This 
treaty, being signed by Philip IV., was brought 
back to France in triumph by Fontrailles, who 
repaired with it to Chambord, where the Duke of 
Orleans was enjoying the pleasures of the chase 
as unconcernedly as if no momentous issue de- 
pended on his fidelity and prudence. Fontrailles 
then left the realm ; no persuasion sufficing to 
induce him to incur the risk and the certain ruin 
of a premature discovery of the treaty which he 
had negotiated. 
The Due de Bouillon, meantime, had joined the 


army in Italy, having first signed an order ad- 
dressed to his commandant in Sedan, empowering 
that officer to deliver up the fortress on any sum- 
mons from Monsieur, from Queen Anne, or from 
M. le Grand. The negotiations with Spain, mean- 
time, were not of course confided to King Louis. 
As long as the secret of a conspiracy was hidden 
from the Cardinal and its object the downfall only 
of Richelieu, to be brought about by a confederacy 
of French nobles, the King evidently had no objec- 
tion to the undignified position of one of the cabal. 
In their foolhardy presumption, Cinq-Mars and 
Bouillon and the Duke of Orleans had now ven- 
tured many steps farther ; they had insolently 
trenched on the prerogative in providing for the 
future government of the realm, and had rendered 
themselves guilty of high treason by the crimes 
of speculating on the demise of the King, and by 
negotiations with a foreign power than which, in 
the opinion of the jealous and sombre Louis, there 
could be no more abominable offence. A con- 
spiracy to bring about the fall of an obnoxious 
minister, having the sovereign as its true, though 
concealed leader, needed no foreign aid to compass 
its end. The progress, however, was slower than 
suited the keen fears of Cinq-Mars and Bouillon. 
The dubious conduct of Anne of Austria perplexed 
them and inspired dread. Without due caution 
they had confided to her the outline of their first 
project ; but Anne had since sedulously avoided 
intercourse with M. le Grand. When some of the 
details of the plot which, as long as the conspira- 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 493 

tors were only subjects and Frenchmen, was 
declared to be undertaken to secure the eventual 
rights of Monsieur, brother of the King were con- 
fided to her Majesty by M. de Thou, she had ex- 
hibited the greatest agitation and had commanded 
silence. The suspicion, therefore, flashed on the 
minds of the three conspirators that after all the 
surmise might be true, that Anne and her recon- 
ciled but late enemy had privately resolved the 
matter of the rights of Monsieur and the future 
government of the realm, and that her Majesty 
was not inspired with any desire to behold the 
claims of Monsieur vindicated. On the first word, 
therefore, spoken by Anne of Austria, Riche- 
lieu held their lives in his hand. To save them- 
selves from this peril, Cinq-Mars had resorted to 
the expedient of a treaty with Spain the be- 
loved Spain of Anne's youthful years making 
therein a distinct recognition of the claims of the 
Queen to the regency in the event of a minority. 
Anne, however, steadily declined any communica- 
tion, hints were lost upon her, and each of the 
ladies in intimate daily commune had been placed 
in the palace by Richelieu. 19 One day Cinq-Mars 
pointedly asked the Queen whether she had lately 
heard from the King her brother ? Anne replied 
in a voice made purposely audible to every one 
present, " that she had altogether refrained, 
during many months past, from correspondence 
with his Catholic Majesty or with any Spanish 
personage, such intercourse having been forbidden 
by her lord the King." The communication, 


therefore, of the treaty concluded with Spain 
seems to have been deferred and left to the 
ambassador of his Catholic Majesty. 

Cinq-Mars attended his royal master from St. 
Germain on the 23rd of January to Perpignan, 
while Anne seems to have permitted Richelieu to 
leave Paris for the seat of war without revealing 
the important secret, as far as it had come to her 
knowledge, nor did she even make an attempt to 
lighten the cloud of apprehended disgrace which 
pressed upon the mind of the minister. The Queen 
appears to have been restrained by a certain sense 
of honour from making revelations confided to 
her in the belief that she was swayed by former 
political partialities ; probably she also hoped, 
knowing or suspecting nothing of the negotiations 
with her brother, that a project so crude and of 
such imperfect development might be eventually 

The King took leave of the Queen on the 23rd 
of January 1642. His adieux were harsh and 
threatening. He forbade the Queen to leave St. 
Germain during his absence, even to visit Paris ; 
and again renewed his interdict againt her corre- 
spondence with Madame de Chevreuse or with 
any foreign potentate. Neither was Anne to visit 
the Val de Grace nor the Carmelite convent ; nor 
was she to withdraw the young princes even for an 
hour from the surveillance of Madame de Lansac. 
In case the Queen disobeyed these injunctions, his 
Majesty gave orders to the captain of his guards, 
M. de Tresmes, to conduct the dauphin and his 

1642] ANNE OP AUSTRIA 495 

brother, attended by Madame de Lansac, to Vin- 
cennes, there to reside until his own return from 
the South. " Monseigneur, the little dauphin," 
relates Madame de Motteville, " had not com- 
pleted his third year before he began to give his 
father umbrage. The Queen did me the honour to 
relate that the child, seeing his father one evening 
wearing his nightcap after his return from a 
hunt, began to cry, simply because, as he had 
never before seen the King in that guise, he was 
frightened. The King, nevertheless, became very 
angry, and scolded her Majesty, saying ' that she 
brought up her sons to hate him, and therefore 
it was his intention soon to take them both 
entirely from her care and society ' a threat 
which, had Louis lived, he doubtless would have 
put into execution." 

The King, accompanied by Cinq-Mars, at length 
set out for Perpignan. Louis treated Richelieu, 
who also attended him, with imperious disdain f 
and appeared more and more infatuated with his 
handsome favourite. At Briare the court made 
sojourn for a few days, and here Cinq- Mars de- 
signed the arrest or the assassination of his 
Eminence. There was a majesty and a constancy 
of purpose in the aspect of Richelieu which seemed 
to defy fate. A few hours before the proposed 
assassination (which was to be effected after the 
model of that of the Admiral de Coligny), the nose of 
M. le Grand began to bleed. The persons around 
interpreted the seizure into an omen of approach- 
ing danger ; and superstitious dread, therefore, 


induced Cinq-Mars to recall his sanguinary com- 
mands. 20 At Briare, however, Richelieu fell so 
dangerously ill that his life was despaired of, an ab- 
scess having formed on the left lung, which caused 
him excruciating torture. Cinq-Mars, therefore, 
believing that a natural death would soon rid 
him of the benefactor whom he was betraying 
with such scandalous ingratitude, induced the 
King to hasten forwards to Narbonne, leaving the 
Cardinal at Briare, to resume his journey if return- 
ing strength permitted. Richelieu recovered suffi- 
ciently in the course of a few days to follow the 
court ; but not wishing in his sickness and pros- 
tration to confront his foe, he turned aside and 
proceeded to Tarascon, where he again took to his 
bed. Chavigny, il Pastor Fido, as he is termed in 
the secret ciphers used by the adherents of the 
minister, alone followed his benefactor, confident 
still in the bright star of Richelieu. Cinq-Mars, 
meanwhile, felt stricken under the weight of his 
secret. Monsieur had left Chambord, and was then 
enjoying himself in a boisterous state of elation 
at the baths at Bourbon, and whether the impor- 
tant parchment, on the safe preservation of which 
the lives of the confederates depended, was left 
behind at Chambord or was carelessly tossing 
amongst the baggage of the Duke, was uncertain. 
From Paris, the Princess Marie de Gonzague 
sent warnings that rumours of an alarming nature 
were abroad, that the Queen was sad, and re- 
ported to be in constant correspondence with the 
Cardinal, whose return to favour was predicted. 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 497 

To allay these anxieties, M. le Grand despatched 
an urgent summons to the Duke de Bouillon, who 
was at Casale to return to France, so that they 
might be delivered from disquietude by the 
prompt overthrow of their enemy. 

Meanwhile the Spanish charge d'affaires in Paris 
proceeded to St. Germain, and after much solicita- 
tion, obtained a stolen interview with Queen 
Anne. From the lips of the envoy, the Queen first 
received a detail of the treaty recently negotiated 
with the Spanish cabinet, and at once disavowed 
all knowledge of or connivance in the deed. 
Much surprised, the envoy left a copy of the 
treaty with her Majesty. A few days subsequently, 
as the Cardinal de Richelieu was lying on his bed 
in his lonely chamber at Tarascon, a packet was 
brought to him which had arrived by courier from 
Paris. The feeble fingers of Richelieu nervously 
grasped the papers, and he commenced their 
perusal. Soon his eyes sparkled with triumph, he 
raised himself from his pillow and the hue of life 
again mantled his pallid face. " Surely," exclaimed 
he, " Providence must watch with special love over 
Richelieu, and the welfare of this great realm ! 5: 
The paper in his hand was a facsimile of the 
treaty executed between Philip IV. of Spain and 
the subjects of his Christian Majesty Orleans, 
Cinq-Mars, Bouillon, and Fontrailles. It never 
transpired publicly who was the sender of the 
document, and whose, therefore, had been the 
hand to restore Richelieu to life and hope. A paper 
moreover accompanied the document, containing 



certain hints which implicated M. de Thou and 
others. 21 Amidst the variety of speculations upon 
the quarter from whence the Cardinal derived 
this most opportune succour, two suggestions only 
obtained credence with the public. 

The first and most generally believed opinion 
was that Anne of Austria had forwarded the docu- 
ment to the Cardinal, perfect understanding now 
subsisting between the Queen and Richelieu. 
Anne, it was alleged, beheld with intense dis- 
approbation a foreign raid on the future dominions 
of her son, aided by a conspiracy of the nobles, 
and therefore it was her Majesty's intention to 
lend powerful support to the minister with whom 
she was agreed in all matters concerning the pre- 
sumed long minority of the future King. More- 
over, it was observed that the Queen often gave 
cordial and confidential greeting to M. Mazarin, 
the Papal Nuncio, who was in the Cardinal's 
confidence and had been especially recommended 
to her royal bienveillance by Richelieu. The second 
surmise respecting the good genius who had sent 
the minister such precious intelligence was that 
Madame de Chevreuse was that person. Fontrailles 
retired to Brussels where Madame de Chevreuse 
was sojourning ; he might therefore have be- 
trayed the secret to the Duchess, or she might 
have been apprised thereof by the Archduke, 
governor of the Low Countries. These last sup- 
positions will hardly stand the test of examina- 
tion ; it was not likely that Fontrailles, who was 
one of the conspirators, should furnish the Duchess 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 499 

with arms against himself ; 22 neither does it seem 
probable that the generous and impulsive Marie 
de Rohan would gratuitously betray her friend 
de Thou with whom she was in intimate cor- 
respondence, and to whom she was, moreover, 
heavily in debt for to his liberality she owed the 
payment of her English creditors. 

As soon as Richelieu had made himself master 
of the details of " the infamous league concocted 
by M. le Grand," he summoned Chavigny to 
his bedside. A long and important conference 
ensued, at the termination of which Chavigny 
departed for Narbonne, the bearer of the treaty, 
and of a letter from Richelieu to lay before the 
King. 23 Louis was horrified at the revelation and 
could scarcely be persuaded to believe in the guilt 
of Cinq-Mars. The subtle tongue of Chavigny, 
however, destroyed every doubt : and pointing 
to the fatal treaty, he drew so overpowering a 
picture of the perils of the realm ; of the black 
ingratitude of M. de Cinq-Mars, of the treachery 
of the Duke of Orleans, and of the dark league 
to which both his Majesty and his faithful minister 
had nearly fallen victims, that the unhappy King 
shivered at the retrospect. Chavigny's pertinent 
remarks on the perfidy of his idol did not, how- 
ever, vanquish the intense reluctance of the King to 
grant a warrant for the arrest of all the delinquents 
this time not excepting even Monsieur. The 
agitation of touis was pitiable to behold, and his 
lamentations moving in their accent of helpless 
misery. Suddenly he threw himself on his knees 


before a crucifix hanging in the alcove close to his 
bed, and prayed long and fervently. He then 
caused his confessor, the Abbe Sirmond, to be 
summoned. Sirmond, however, declared that it 
was the duty of the King to exact exemplary 
punishment for crimes of so heinous a nature. 
The wrath of Louis was rising, and presently he 
signed an order for the arrest of M. le Grand which 
he gave with his own hand, though with tears, to 
Charost, captain of the guard on duty at Narbonne. 
The decisive order given, the mind of Louis again 
became disturbed by doubt. So sombre and 
wrathful was his mood that de Noyers wrote in 
dismay to Tarascon to request that M. Mazarin 
might be sent to allay, by persuasive logic, the 
royal disquietude. " I fear that it will be neces- 
sary to devise some plan by which M. Mazarin 
may discourse with the King, who has now strange 
reveries. His Majesty said to me yesterday that 
he had suspicions that beloved names had been 
substituted for those of the true criminals. The 
King was very ill all night, at two o'clock his 
Majesty took a draught and afterwards slept for 
two hours." 24 In another letter, likewise ad- 
dressed to Chavigny by his colleague in office, who 
had returned to consult with the Cardinal, the 
latter writes, " It is my opinion that the sooner 
M. Mazarin arrives the better. His Majesty re- 
quires consolation, for his heart is very big with 
grief." 25 Again, in a despatch to Richelieu, de 
Noyers sends the intelligence " The King said in 
my ear to-day, that ' Sedan was worth the price of 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 501 

a pardon, but that as for M. le Grand he never 
will pardon him but would leave him to the judg- 
ment of his peers.' : Sentiments of compassion 
and remorse for the share he had had in the 
conspiracy of Cinq-Mars, and the humiliation of 
reconciliation with Richelieu likewise harassed 
the mind of Louis. His Majesty wrote two letters 
to Richelieu, inviting him to return, and filled 
with professions of everlasting gratitude for the 
' watchful vigilance which never slumbered and 
that had again guarded his realm." 

Cinq- Mars, meantime, received positive intima- 
tion of the menaced catastrophe ; the reserve, 
besides, of the King's manner on dismissing him 
for the last time from the presence attracted his 
attention. Every indication the presence of 
Chavigny especially, and the sudden resolve of 
the King to remain at Narbonne might have 
warned him of lurking peril. An assignation with 
the daughter of a gunsmith proved his ruin. 
While at this woman's house on the night of the 
13th of June 1642, a friend hurriedly apprised 
him of the order issued, and that Charost was then 
out to effect his arrest. Through by-streets the 
unhappy young man fled back to his chamber in 
the archiepiscopal palace ; the royal apartment, 
however, was strictly guarded, and no access was 
possible to the King. Cinq-Mars then despairingly 
threw himself on horseback and galloped towards 
the gates of the town, whilst Charost and his 
archers were searching the house he had just 
quitted. The gates were closed and guarded. 


Cinq-Mars alighted from his horse, and in the 
darkness of the night again made his way back to 
the abode of his mistress. The soldiers had just 
quitted the house. Cinq-Mars therefore crept into 
a stable and hid himself under some trusses of 
hay. Unfortunately the master of the house, one 
M. Burgos, returned home and discovered the 
fugitive. Burgos consulted a friend, who advised 
him not to incur the wrath of the King by con- 
cealing a culprit whose capture was certain on the 
morrow. Burgos therefore informed Charost where 
his intended prisoner lay concealed, and a party 
of soldiers soon dragged the unfortunate man 
from his hiding-place. 26 Cinq-Mars was then 
placed in a coach and immediately conducted 
to the citadel of Montpellier. M. de Thou was 
arrested the same night and despatched under a 
guard to Tarascon, to be subjected to the search- 
ing cross-examination of the Cardinal. An officer, 
M. Duplessis Praslin, was sent to arrest the 
Due de Bouillon at Casale and to commit him 
to close custody in that citadel ; all of which 
was achieved after some little resistance and 
an attempt at concealment on the part of the 
duke. 27 

The Duke of Orleans on the first rumour of the 
arrest of Cinq-Mars fled into the province of 
Auvergne, hiding in the old dilapidated chateaux, 
or roving about in disguise amid the mountainous 
districts. The Abbe de la Riviere was sent to 
Tarascon to assure the Cardinal that the Duke 
had been more sinned against than transgressing. 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 503 

The betrayal of the league with Spain was not 
then known to Monsieur, who had not even con- 
fided the matter to his envoy, La Riviere. The 
Abbe was therefore so taken by surprise as to 
utter several damaging observations relative to 
his master's case on being shown the treaty by 
Richelieu. The latter now seemed at the summit 
of triumph ; his enemies had fallen with signal 
defeat, and the realm exposed to the treacherous 
machinations of rebels and of their foreign ally 
had need of his support. The King was again at 
his feet, humbled, feeble, desolate, and sick with 
bodily infirmities aggravated by agitation and 
distress. But the health of Richelieu also was 
evidently sinking, and his sufferings were palpable 
enough to enable him to exact as a crowning con- 
cession that his royal master should pay him the 
indispensable visit of reconciliation. The inter- 
view took place at the little hamlet of Montfrin, 
distant about three miles and a half from Taras- 
con. Both the King and his minister were too ill 
to sit up. Louis travelled in a litter, and was 
lifted therefrom on to a couch, upon which he was 
carried into the Cardinal's bed-chamber. 28 The 
interview passed in dejection and submission on 
the part of the King, and in tears and eloquent 
appeals by Richelieu. Again the destiny of the 
kingdom was confided to Richelieu's wisdom, 
and absolute power given him over the fate of 
all the prisoners under arrest. At this interview 
doubtless the secret of how he came by the treaty 
was revealed by Richelieu to his royal master 


Fabert, a lieutenant of the royal guard, who 
arrested Cinq-Mars, stated that the persons in 
possession of this secret were MM. de Chavigny 
and de Noyers, secretaries of state, the King, the 
Duke of Orleans, the Queen, Mazarin, and him- 
self, but that they all took heed not to divulge so 
important a fact. " One day some importunate 
person asked M. le Prince de Conde how the treaty 
with Spain had been discovered," relates Talle- 
mant. " M. le Prince replied in a whisper. 
M. Voiture, who was present, said afterwards to 
M. de Chavigny, ' You make so much fuss about 
your grand secret, nevertheless M. le Prince 
knows it.' Chavigny replied, ' M. le Prince de 
Conde does not know our secret, nevertheless if 
he did he would not dare to reveal it ! ' Voiture 
therefore understood that the information came 
from the Queen, besides it was remarked that 
no more was said about taking her children from 
her as the King had threatened. It may be urged 
however that if such conjecture was true, Madame 
de Lansac would not have dared to draw back the 
curtain of the Queen's bed and tell her abruptly 
that M. le Grand was arrested. This in my 
opinion," continues Tallemant, "is no contra- 
diction of the supposition. Madame de Lansac, 
for obvious reasons, was permitted nay perhaps 
ordered to make such sudden revelation to avert 
suspicion." Tallemant, moreover, might have 
added that Anne's betrayal of the conspiracy 
having been made with the greatest secrecy, 
Madame de Lansac was not likely to suppose that 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 505 

her royal mistress suspected even the probability 
of so sudden an arrest. 

In the archives of the French Foreign Office, 
however, M. Cousin discovered invaluable docu- 
ments, which disclose the sentiments of the Queen 
on the arrest of Cinq- Mars. On being apprised of 
the event Anne wrote, through Le Gras her con- 
fidential secretary, to Richelieu, a letter full of 
congratulation and indignation at the criminals : 
" The extreme ingratitude of Cinq- Mars inspires 
her Majesty with a horror which she is attempting 
to express in a letter to the King, which she prays 
M. le Cardinal to present." 29 " The Queen," writes 
M. de Brassac, "is so rejoiced at the propitious 
termination of the conspiracy that the indisposi- 
tion from which she was suffering vanished under 
the influence of her joy." 30 When Chavigny 
returned to Paris at the end of July, to institute 
commissions to try the prisoners, he paid his 
respects to the Queen at St. Germain, and writes 
to report his interview to the minister : "I found 
the Queen so grateful and mindful of the great 
obligations which she owes to your Eminence, that 
I firmly believe it would be a task of great diffi- 
culty to induce her to act in anything without 
your counsel and permission ; she has resolved 
to follow your wishes in all matters, and has 
commanded me to give you this assurance on her 
behalf. . . ." Again Chavigny writes, August 12th, 
" I am more than ever persuaded that the tender 
regard which the Queen testifies towards you, 
Monseigneur, is sincere ; and that there is now 


nothing easier than to keep her in this mind, as 
she aspires to no other favour in the world than to 
be with her children, without pretending to direct 
their education, which she passionately hopes that 
your Eminence will superintend. The Queen com- 
manded me to say to your Eminence that she is 
inspired with the greatest impatience to greet you 
again." 31 Fontrailles, in a deposition 32 made when 
all peril was over, states " that M. de Thou, in the 
last visit which he paid him, informed him that, 
to his surprise, the Queen knew of his (Fontrailles) 
mission to Spain, and its object ; and that it was 
his opinion her Majesty learned the event from 
Monsieur, and was in her heart glad at a con- 
spiracy which would act as an earthquake in the 
court, and from the results of which she might 
herself derive good rather than harm." Another 
piece of circumstantial evidence which seems to 
affix the betrayal of the conspiracy upon Anne 
was her sudden fear lest Madame de Chevreuse 
should be permitted to return to France. The 
Duchess was in a position to hear much at the 
Spanish court of Brussels ; besides her warm 
friendship for M. de Thou might induce her to 
make inconvenient endeavour to clear up the 
mystery. The Queen, openly faithless at last to 
her oldest and most devoted friend, sent for 
Chavigny one morning and asked him whether it 
was true that the Cardinal was about to yield to 
the importunity of the Duchess de Chevreuse and 
permit her to return to France. " Without wait- 
ing for my reply," writes Chavigny to Richelieu, 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 507 

" her Majesty proceeded to inform me that she 
should deeply regret the return of the said lady ; 
for that she now valued her at her proper worth. 
The Queen then directed me to request your 
Eminence, in her name, not to permit the Duchess 
de Chevreuse to return to France, but that if 
your Eminence had any inclination to confer a 
favour on the said lady Duchess it might not be 
that of her recall. I then assured her Majesty you 
would give her satisfaction on this point. I never 
saw indications of more sincere satisfaction than 
that shown by the Queen when I delivered 
your message. She moreover protested that she 
would nevermore permit Madame de Chevreuse 
to approach her person, but has taken the firm 
resolve, which she intends to maintain as if her 
salvation depended thereon, never to suffer any 
person to speak to her or to give her counsel 
which tended to the violation of the smallest of 
her duties and of her promises." 33 In the 
generous enthusiasm of her disposition Madame 
de Chevreuse relied on Anne's friendship, though 
sorely puzzled by the reports wafted to the court 
of Brussels of the Queen's strange indifference to 
those whom she used to term her friends. She 
heard with surprise of the Queen as being present 
at the sumptuous fetes of the Palais Cardinal, 
even when the King was too indisposed to be the 
guest of Richelieu ; that her Majesty's fair face 
now beamed with smiles and condescension when 
speaking with the minister, who on the occasion 
of her visits, gave pompous entertainments and 


stood during the evening behind Anne's chair 
arrayed in splendid robes of scarlet velvet glitter- 
ing with gems.* 4 Madame de Chevreuse, neverthe- 
less, still believed in the Queen ; attributing all 
that appeared strange in her Majesty's deport- 
ment to the inevitable exigencies of her position. 
If any event could have tempered the exulta- 
tion which possessed the heart and mind of Riche- 
lieu, it must have been the tidings which reached 
him while at Tarascon of the death of Marie de' 
Medici, his earliest friend and benefactress. The 
Queen expired at Cologne on the night of the 3rd 
of July 1642. Her disorder was dropsy and ulcera- 
tion of the legs, consequent it is supposed on 
ignorant medical treatment. Such had been the 
forlorn desolation of this great Princess, mother of 
a King of France and of the Queens of England 
and Spain, of a Duchess Regent of Savoy and of 
Monsieur, that during the early winter months of 
1642 bread and fuel had absolutely failed her ! 
" Marie wearied all the world and was herself 
in turn wearied to such degree that she sought 
throughout the universe for a resting-place, and 
found none. England through the intrigues of 
Richelieu rejected her, Spain through dread of 
what she might betray closed the portals of the 
Low Countries, Holland daunted by the frown 
of Richelieu declined to receive her. At length she 
repaired to Cologne, where she resided during 
nine months reduced to indigence, and compelled 
to use the wooden furniture and cupboards of her 
apartment for fuel, during the cold of that most 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 509 

rigorous season of 1642." " France, it was true, 
could not hold Richelieu and the Queen- mother, 
and one was obliged to succumb before the genius 
and fortune of the other. Marie, ill-advised to her 
last hour, stifled the generous remorse which on 
several occasions arose in the bosom of her great 
adversary, by the vindictiveness of her impotent 
threats, and by the vow she had registered, if 
ever she returned to France, to compass the 
judicial death or the assassination of Richelieu. 
It was unjustifiable, nevertheless, to sequestrate 
her revenues, to dishonour the pecuniary drafts 
which her necessity compelled her to give on the 
exchequer of her son the King, and to poison 
the ear and alienate from the friendless Princess 
the regard of the potentates, her nearest kinsmen, 
by mendacious slanders, listened to only because 
they were propounded by the envoys of mighty 
France. On her dying bed Marie forgave all her 
enemies and Richelieu by name. The Papal 
Nuncio, who assisted her in that solemn hour, 
asked her whether as a supreme act of faith and 
humility she would send a bracelet she then wore 
on her arm to the Cardinal ? The dying Queen 
turned impatiently away. " Ah, c'est trop!" ex- 
claimed she with energy, and spoke no more for 
several hours. The last will and testament of 
Marie de' Medici was witnessed by the Nuncio, by 
the Archbishop of Cologne and by other Church- 
men of note. Marie's bequests were numerous, as 
she left legacies to all her servants and officers. 
To Anne of Austria she bequeathed the diamond 


ring of her own betrothal to Henri Quatre. To her 
daughter Henrietta, Queen of England, her frag- 
ment of the true Cross encircled by pearls and 
diamonds. 36 The remains of the Queen were 
interred in the cathedral of Cologne ; subsequently 
the coffin was exhumed during the regency of 
Anne of Austria and transported to France, where 
it was placed in the royal mausoleum at St. Denis. 
The death of Marie de' Medici inspired no mer- 
ciful promptings in the heart of Richelieu. Though 
crippled with bodily infirmities he panted for 
vengeance on those who had so nearly compassed 
his overthrow. The King, incensed by his vivid 
representations, seemed to find solace only in 
vituperations on the career of his late unhappy 
favourite. Louis now declared that he had never 
truly liked Cinq-Mars, whose idleness le faisoit 
vomir ; his Majesty further exclaimed with 
childish inanity, " That great, fat, idle, wicked 
boy Cinq-Mars never said a pater, nor could he 
ever induce him to try." When the King was at 
Lyons on his road back to Paris, Cinq-Mars sent 
an impassioned appeal for pardon and for an in- 
terview. Louis, when he received the message, 
was pleasantly engaged in his apartment over a 
stove, boiling a composition of sugar and treacle, 
which schoolboys in the nineteenth century call 
lollipop. " No," said his Majesty in reply to the 
appeal, taking the pan off the fire and shaking its 
contents, " No ! the soul of Cinq-Mars is as black 
as the bottom of this pan ! I will give him no 
audience ! " * 7 M. de Thou, meantime, was put 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 511 

on board a barge under a guard of soldiers, and 
followed in the train of the Cardinal up the Rhone 
to Lyons. His fate does not appear to have 
evoked from his contemporaries that tribute of 
sympathy which posterity has assigned him. 
Possessing a name illustrious in legal and literary 
annals, de Thou displayed a sensitive eagerness to 
be recognised as an equal by the feudal princes of 
the land. His mind was inconstant, restless and 
craving for novelty. His character was so un- 
decided that it is recorded, when he left home he 
sometimes lingered for an hour on his doorstep 
before he could make up his mind in what direc- 
tion to walk. He entered into the designs of M. 
le Grand from delight at the notoriety they were 
likely to confer. He had attached himself to the 
car of Madame de Guemene, and bore patiently 
the caprices of so great a lady, solely that his name 
might be linked with hers en rapport, as one of 
her accepted admirers. Cinq-Mars had nicknamed 
de Thou " Son Inquietude," ( as he was always in 
a chronic state of excitement and never happy 
except in a state of ferment. 

The commission for the trial of MM. Cinq-Mars 
and de Thou was issued on the 6th of August, 
1642. The royal commissioners were the Chan- 
cellor Seguier and six other judges. Louis pub- 
lished a manifesto, addressed to the Parliament of 
Paris, in which he brands his late unfortunate 
favourite with angry epithets. The King states 
that the cunning policy of the Sieur de Cinq-Mars 
was to proclaim evil tidings and to hide happy 


events, to depreciate the policy of Richelieu and 
to laud that of Olivarez, to mock at religion with 
a facility which testified that the love of God was 
far from his heart. " His imprudence, impudence, 
flippancy, and the intelligences which he held in 
our army," continues his Majesty, " confirmed our 
growing suspicions. We afterwards discovered 
that his evil-balanced mind had betrayed him into 
forming a league against our realm ; that the Due 
de Bouillon was to open at Sedan the portals of 
our kingdom to foreign armies, at the head of 
which our very dear brother the Due d 5 Orleans 
was to march, and that this miserable man was 
to join them, in case he could not serve his faction 
better by remaining near our person and ruining 
the influence of our cousin the Cardinal de Riche- 
lieu." Louis thus continues, and states the items 
and condition of the treaty. 18 The Chancellor, 
after subjecting the accused persons to one in- 
terrogatory, repaired to the town of Villefranche 
in the Beaujolais ito question Monsieur, who had 
been reduced to a pitiable condition of terror on 
being apprised that his doings with Spain were 
known to his brother. He therefore avowed all he 
knew with the most naive candour, and declared 
himself ready to assist M. le Cardinal in forward- 
ing the ends of justice on the persons arrested. 
This contemptible prince confirmed by his con- 
fession that which was already known. 89 He vin- 
dicated de Thou from being an accomplice in the 
Spanish treaty, but acknowledged that he was 
aware that such a document had been obtained. 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 513 

Finally Monsieur delivered up to the Chancellor 
the original treaty which had been brought to 
Chambord by M. de Fontrailles. 

The prisoners Cinq-Mars and de Thou were 
both confined in the fort of Pierre Encise of 
Lyons, to which place the former had been trans- 
ferred. Richelieu during the trial remained in 
the neighbourhood of Lyons with his niece, 
Madame d'Aiguillon, and other friends. The 
fatal treaty was evidence sufficient to procure 
the condemnation of Cinq-Mars, who behaved 
throughout the trial with a courage and lofty re- 
signation which affected even his judges. He was 
condemned to the question, ordinaire et extra- 
ordinaire, but by command of the King was only 
led into the torture chamber and there required 
again to make solemn affirmation that he had 
nothing more to confess. De Thou was likewise 
condemned to suffer the extreme penalty of the 
law because il avail brouille, and had not de- 
nounced the traitorous conspiracy to which he had 
been all along privy. Sentence of decapitation 
was pronounced on both the prisoners, September 
12th, 1642, which was executed the same day. 
Cinq-Mars died like a hero and a Christian, he 
forgave his enemies and with steady resolution 
laid his head on the block, which was severed from 
his body at the first blow. The spectators melted 
into tears as they witnessed the cruel fate of a 
cavalier so accomplished and beautiful, and 
whose errors had been fostered and encouraged by 
the selfish indulgences of the King. De Thou met 

2 K 


his fate calmly but with less outward courage. 
His face was pallid as he ascended the scaffold 
streaming with the blood of his unfortunate 
friend, and it was observed that his arms 
trembled. Less fortunate than Cinq-Mars, the 
headsman, unnerved by the tragedy already 
enacted, failed at the first stroke to sever the 
head. The blow descended on the skull but for- 
tunately rendered the unhappy sufferer senseless, 
while the horror of the spectators was such, as the 
executioner finished his dreadful task, that women 
fainted and the mob with groans and cries of 
indignation pressed towards the scaffold, and 
were restrained only from tearing it down by the 
advance of troops from the garrison. 40 It was 
supposed that the torture had been spared Cinq- 
Mars by the craven fears of Louis XIII. lest the 
former might betray the plans which they had 
formerly discussed to the detriment of the Car- 
dinal. Probably had Cinq-Mars known less of 
the King's secret sentiments, his life might have 
been spared to the agonised supplications of his 
mother. " Madame," wrote the Cardinal from 
Lyons to the unhappy mother, 41 " if your son had 
been only guilty of the many plots now come to 
light for my destruction I would forget my own 
injuries to grant your desires, but your son 
having been convicted of most perfidious infidelity 
towards the King, and having placed himself at 
the head of a league to disturb the prosperity of 
his master's reign and to betray him for strangers 
and foreigners, enemies of this realm, I must 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 515 

decline to interest myself in his affairs altogether. 
I pray, Madame, that God may console you." 
The Duke of Bouillon, meantime, had remained a 
prisoner in the fort of Casale, from whence, after 
the death of Cinq-Mars, he was removed to Lyons. 
His ultimate fate excited many discussions in 
council. The Duke, admonished by the fate 
of M. de Montmorency, and therefore relying 
little on the consideration due to his august rank, 
wrote to the Cardinal offering to submit to any 
terms he might think fit to impose short of exile 
and confiscation of his wealth and dignities. 
Madame de Bouillon, 42 who was a woman of 
courage and spirit, rendered the Duke's letter the 
more emphatic by writing to the Cardinal implor- 
ing his powerful intercession with the King, but 
stating in positive language that if the persuasion 
of his Eminence failed she intended to deliver 
up the fortress and principality of Sedan to the 
Spaniards. The Prince of Orange, uncle of the 
Due de Bouillon, also sent the Count d'Estrades 
to Paris to offer intercession. The Prince, during 
Richelieu's temporary eclipse, had stood his firm 
friend in genuine admiration of his administra- 
tive talents. The Prince had directed the Dutch 
ambassador to wait upon King Louis before his 
departure for Perpignan, to express the regret of 
the States that the Cardinal de Richelieu seemed 
to have fallen from the royal favour, which 
declension occasioned great uneasiness to the 
German allies of the crown, who, by their con- 
fidence in the ability of the great Cardinal, were 


restrained only from concluding a peace with 
Spain. This good office Richelieu resolved to 
requite by sparing the life of the Due de Bouillon. 
A private arrangement was therefore concluded. 
Bouillon confessed his guilty connivance in the 
machinations of Cinq-Mars, and gratefully ac- 
cepted the terms of pardon imposed which were, 
" the cession of the fortress and principality of 
Sedan to the crown, with all the neighbouring 
lands appertaining to Bouillon, and the artillery 
and munitions in store, in return for life and 
liberty, which the Duke humbly craves may be 
accorded to him within the next fourteen days." 43 
The possession of Sedan was more important to 
the King of France than the enforcement of the 
law against Bouillon, for the death on the scaffold 
of the Duke could not have been followed by the 
legal confiscation of his principality which he 
held independently of the crown. The Duchess, 
therefore, might have called Spanish troops to her 
aid, or what was most probable after the death 
of the Duke she would have delivered up Sedan 
to the Prince of Orange and a Dutch garrison 
to hold in trust for the young Duke her stepson. 
A pardon under the great seal was issued on the 
15th of September by the King, " in consideration 
of the earnest intercessions of our cousins, the 
Prince of Orange and the Landgravine of Hesse." 
The following day Bouillon was set at liberty and 
retired to his chateau de Turenne. 44 Mazarin 
negotiated the treaty and was sent by Louis to 
take possession of Sedan on behalf of the crown. 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 517 

He narrowly escaped capture by the Count de 
Bucquoy, an officer in the pay of Spain, who set 
an ambuscade of 800 cavaliers near to Donchery 
to attack the Cardinal and his escort, which 
consisted of twenty-two companies of Swiss and 
royal guards. Mazarin, however, happily avoided 
the peril by travelling by night. He entered 
Sedan where he was received by the Duchess de 
Bouillon, who delivered up the fortress and its 
stores in accordance with the treaty signed by her 
husband and thus the great chieftains of La 
Marck ceased to be sovereign princes. 

" Sire ! your enemies are dead and Perpignan 
is yours ! " wrote Richelieu from Lyons to the King 
on the 14th of September. The great southern 
fortress, reported to be impregnable, had fallen 
most opportunely, so as to enable the Cardinal to 
proclaim its surrender in the same despatch which 
informed the King of the execution of Cinq-Mars 
and of M. de Thou. The glory of the capture 
of Perpignan remained with the Marshal de la 
Meilleraye who commanded the last storming of 
the iron walls of the citadel, which, perched on 
the summit of an almost perpendicular rock, 
could not be mined. There was one weak point 
only by which the garrison might be driven forth 
the want of water : the assault given by the 
Marshal destroyed the only well of the fortress, 
and ten days afterwards the garrison capitulated. 

Richelieu now prepared for his triumphant 
advance to the capital. The temper of the King 
was not satisfactory ; he simply expressed his 


obligations to his minister, and there was a gloom 
and reserve in his communication which disturbed 
Richelieu. The Queen hastened however to 
write to the Cardinal ; and she sent him a portrait 
of M. le Dauphin, which attention, as he observed 
to the Duchess d'Aiguillon, greatly comforted 
him : "I cannot sufficiently thank your Majesty 
for this favour. I revere the portrait of M. le 
Dauphin, as I shall all my life revere his person. 
May God grant that my successors in office may 
render him the faithful services that I have always 
offered to the King and to your Majesty." 4S 

From Lyons the Cardinal travelled to the 
capital with the pompous progress of a sovereign 
prince. His infirmities were now so great that he 
could not bear the motion of any kind of carriage 
drawn by horses. The greater part of the 
journey therefore was performed by water. The 
Cardinal had thus a comfortable journey from 
Tarascon to Lyons, but from Lyons to Roanne, 
the place where he was to embark on the Loire, 
many miles of country intervened. A large 
chamber of wood was therefore built, having 
windows and doors, draped on the outside with 
red damask and ornamented with gold mouldings. 
In wet weather a cover of oil cloth was prepared 
to case the damask and to render the chamber 
waterproof. Inside was a bed, a couch, a table, 
a mirror and a chair for the secretary of the 
minister or for the occupation of Madame 
d'Aiguillon. Twelve gentlemen of the guard bore 
along this sumptuous litter by gilded staves resting 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 519 

on their shoulders. In this state the Cardinal 
was borne from Lyons to embark on the river 
Loire by his devoted gentlemen in turn who all 
persisted in marching bareheaded. His barge was 
superbly adorned and his couch was placed on 
deck under a velvet canopy. The barge was 
followed by that of Madame d'Aiguillon, then 
came the superb litter in a boat surmounted by 
the royal standard and by the banner of Riche- 
lieu. The flotilla was attended by a number of 
smaller barges and boats which gliding up the 
river presented a picturesque spectacle. On 
either side of the river a squadron of cavalry 
followed the state barge to watch over the safety 
of the great minister. Every night Richelieu 
landed and was borne, reclining in his litter, to 
the lodgings prepared in each of the large towns on 
his route. No obstacles were suffered to impede 
his progress, walls were thrown down to facilitate 
the passage of his litter, the windows of houses 
were taken out to give it admittance into the 
chamber prepared ; if the lodging happened to be 
on the second story of a house, a gradual ascent 
from the street or the courtyard to an aperture 
on a level with the chamber was constructed of 
planks railed in on each side up which he was 
borne by his faithful body-guard. 46 When his 
Eminence arrived at a town a deputation of 
municipal authorities received and attended him 
to his abode, the bells of the town rang merrily 
and the flag of Richelieu was seen floating side 
by side with the banner of the fleurs-de-lis. The 


pompous landing at Nevers was witnessed and 
described by the Abbe de Marolles, 47 the faithful 
friend and almoner of the Princess Marie de 
Gonzague-Nevers, who heart-broken at the 
execution of Cinq-Mars, had retired to the palace 
of her ancestors to deplore her fault in having 
stimulated the ill-regulated ambition of that un- 
fortunate man. 

The Cardinal rested for an interval at Fontaine- 
bleau, and arrived at Ruel about the middle of 
October 1642. * 8 The acute pains which con- 
stantly racked his limbs rendered him irritable 
and more than ever inclined to domineer over 
a master only too ready to concede. Indeed 
Richelieu's pretensions and demands showed 
that for the future he intended to share the royal 
splendour as well as the power of the throne. 
Louis paid his minister a visit on his arrival at 
Ruel ; the Cardinal did not rise as his Majesty 
entered the chamber. His bodily infirmities were 
probably the occasion of this disregard of proper 
etiquette, and as such Louis would have excused 
the omission. The Cardinal however coldly re- 
marked, " that princes of the Church were not 
bound to show deference to any secular power, 
and that for the future he should avail himself 
of his privilege." Queen Anne and her Dauphin 
visited Ruel on the same day. Richelieu kissed 
her Majesty's hand and asked permission to 
embrace Monseigneur, but did not rise from his 
couch/ 9 Against M. d'Orleans the anger of 
Richelieu burned fiercely, and he made no 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 521 

attempt to conceal his sentiments of profound 
contempt and indignation. In this feeling Louis 
entirely sympathised with his minister, and be- 
tween the two an edict was concerted to deprive 
Monsieur and his posterity of their rights to the 
succession in the event of the extinction of the 
issue male of Louis XIII. : a forfeiture justly 
incurred by his repeated and malignant treason. 
This edict was likewise to debar the Duke for ever 
from holding executive or military functions in 
the realm ; it again denied the validity of his 
marriage with Marguerite de Lorraine, and in- 
terdicted his residence in Paris or wherever the 
court might be sojourning. The secret was con- 
fided to Mazarin, to Chavigny and to de Noyers. 
It was proposed to present the Act of Deprivation 
for the sanction of the Parliament of Paris, and 
subsequently to convoke the States of the realm 
to give it final ratification. The death of the 
Cardinal however intervened before this great 
judicial decree was ready for presentation either 
to the council of state or to the Parliament. 
Cardinal Mazarin meantime had been promoted 
to the place vacant by the death of Father 
Joseph 50 that of confidential adviser and bosom 
friend of the minister. The charming manners of 
the subtle Italian, his pliability and keen intellect, 
his vast conceptions of the power of the sovereign 
prerogative, and his unaffected sympathy for the 
woes, mental and bodily, of Richelieu, rendered 
him an indispensable personage at the Palais 
Cardinal. Mazarin's 61 soft words and winning 


appeals fell like oil on the billows of royal wrath, 
and often under his soothing expostulations 
Louis' troubles subsided. It was remarked by 
all the habitues of the Louvre that since the death 
of Cinq-Mars the temper of the King had become 
more morose, and that at times his Majesty 
could scarcely conceal his fear and his detestation 
of his minister. So threatening was the temper 
of the King, that Richelieu remembering the fate 
of the Marquis d'Ancre seldom ventured to the 
Louvre. About this time therefore he demanded 
that his guards might attend him to the palace 
and wait his exit in the guard-chamber of the 
Louvre. The request threw the King into a 
paroxysm of wrath, which was increased when 
one afternoon Chavigny appeared with a per- 
emptory demand from the minister for the dis- 
missal of four officers of the household to wit, 
Troisville, lieutenant of the famed Mousque- 
taires du Roi ; of MM. Tailladet, La Salle, and 
des Essarts, captains in the body-guard. The 
Cardinal pleaded that his life was not safe from 
the violence of these gentlemen ; that M. de Cinq- 
Mars had deposed at his trial that the King on 
introducing to him M. de Troisville said, " Behold 
M. le Grand, a truly faithful man who will any 
day at my command rid me of M. le Cardinal ; ?: 
that if his Majesty should be pleased to deny his 
request he must retire from the perilous burden 
of affairs. " But, M. de Chavigny," replied the 
King, " consider Troisville 52 serves me faith- 
fully, and he has received abundant proofs of my 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 523 

satisfaction at his services ! " " Sire ! " retorted 
Chavigny, " consider also how well M. le Cardinal 
has served you ! consider that he is faithful and 
moreover indispensable to your government. You 
ought not to weigh a M. de Troisville in the same 
balance ! ?: Louis made no reply and the secre- 
tary of state therefore withdrew to report to 
Richelieu the result of his audience. " What, M. 
de Chavigny, you said nothing more ! You did 
not press the King more urgently, you did not 
tell his Majesty that he had no alternative but to 
comply ! " exclaimed the Cardinal, fiercely. 63 A 
few days elapsed during which Richelieu caused 
rumours to be bruited abroad that he was about 
to resign the conduct of affairs. The panic was 
great, and the Dutch ambassador again asked 
audience of the King to impart the fears of his 
government. He intimated that the appoint- 
ment of a minister professing a less liberal policy 
than M. le Cardinal would necessarily be followed 
by a treaty of peace between the States of Holland 
and his Catholic Majesty, as it did not seem 
probable that a minister of rigid orthodoxy would 
long maintain the alliances of the French crown 
with the heretic Powers of Europe. The same 
remonstrances were spdken by Grotius on behalf 
of the young Queen Christina of Sweden. The 
adherents of Monsieur also took heart and began 
to show themselves in Paris. The Cardinal was 
enraptured at the ferment, which completed the 
despairing perplexity of the King. Chavigny 
therefore soon afterwards appeared at St. 


Germain, and presented a paper which contained 
the formal resignation by Richelieu of his offices 
and a demand for permission to withdraw to the 
chateau de Richelieu. The fury of the King was 
now vehemently excited. " Leave me ! ' : ex- 
claimed his Majesty, " leave me, sir, and carry 
back this paper to him who sent you, and say that 
I mistrust those around him far more than he 
suspects the worthy lieutenant of my musketeers 
and the three honest captains he names ! I refer 
to you, Chavigny, and to your friend de Noyers. 
If Troisville and the others are exiled I will 
banish you both from court at the same time." * 4 
Notwithstanding the displeasure of the King, 
Richelieu persisted in his demand of retiring from 
office. On the 26th of November therefore the 
three captains received conge. The King made 
one more effort on behalf of Troisville, whom 
he highly esteemed, but this resistance was a 
further incentive to the Cardinal to insist upon 
his dismissal. " Perseverance, like faith, removes 
mountains," observed his Eminence to Mazarin ; 
" Troisville shall decamp." Louis was com- 
pelled by his inert habits and his inaptitude for 
affairs to accept this alternative rather than the 
resignation of his minister. He however refused 
to nominate other persons to the posts vacated, 
but decreed that his exiled officers should continue 
to receive their pay regularly as if in actual service. 
On the 1st of December Louis sent a gracious 
message to Troisville. " I am expressly ordered 
by his Majesty," said the King's envoy, " to 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 525 

assure you of his favour. If he has reluctantly 
consented to your exile from the importunities of 
the Cardinal his Majesty has diminished towards 
you nothing of his accustomed bienveillance, he 
permits you to leave the court but only for an 
interval. The King commands you to retire to 
Moustiers, your pensions and your pay will be 
remitted to you as usual, the only difference being 
that his Majesty increases them by one half and 
bids you remember him with affection." 5S Trois- 
ville left the Louvre with tears of regret, ready to 
perpetrate any deed at the bidding of his master. 
He quitted Paris, omitting the usual formality of 
leaving his name at the Palais Cardinal. Mazarin 
then repaired to St. Germain, and with his sleek 
tongue and ready plausibility tried to soothe the 
King, and to induce him to receive again the 
two secretaries of state Chavigny, who was 
popularly nicknamed " the Cardinal's jackal," 
and de Noyers. 

A greater Master, however, than the one whom he 
so recklessly braved demanded from the Cardinal 
an account of his stewardship. The agitation of 
his conflict with the King had greatly exhausted 
his strength. On the 1st of December, the day 
upon which Troisville left Paris, Richelieu awoke 
in a shivering fit and suffering intolerable pain in 
the right side and in the chest. The physician bled 
him and applied blisters. On the following days, 
Sunday and Monday, Richelieu was no better ; 
his respiration was laboured and his sufferings 
constant. On Tuesday mass was said by Lescot, 

526 THE MARRIED LIFE OF '[1639- 

bishop- designate of Chartres and confessor to his 
Eminence. Afterwards the Cardinal received the 
Holy Eucharist with great outward demonstra- 
tions of fervour. On this day also prayers for his 
recovery were said in all the churches of the capital. 
During the afternoon of this same day the suffer- 
ings of Richelieu became so intense that his 
physicians, believing that he could not survive 
many hours, recommended that a despatch should 
be sent to St. Germain to inform Louis of the 
extremity of his minister who earnestly desired 
an interview. The King immediately repaired in 
somewhat ungracious mood to the Palais Car- 
dinal. 68 The scene in the sick man's chamber was 
striking and impressive. Richelieu, propped up by 
pillows and gasping for breath, was supported 
by the Duchess d'Aiguillon, by his nephew the 
Marshal de Breze and by Chavigny on one side ; 
on the other side of the couch stood Mazarin and 
the bishop of Chartres. The room was filled by a 
throng of courtiers, bishops and attendants, 
whose glances were riveted on the agonised face 
of the sufferer. At a little altar not very distant 
from the bed, Seguier, bishop of Meaux, offered 
intercessory prayers and read passages from 
POffice des Mourants. All retired as King Louis 
entered attended by the Marquis de Villequier. 
The fast-fleeting strength of Richelieu seemed 
restored on beholding the King. " Sire," said he, 
" I now say to you adieu for ever in this world. 
In taking my leave of your Majesty, I behold your 
kingdom more puissant than ever and your 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 527 

enemies vanquished ; the only recompense I 
presume to beseech is your favour and protection 
for my nephews and kinsmen. Your Majesty has 
many learned and competent personages in your 
council retain their assistance." Faintness com- 
ing over the sufferer, Louis took a cup from the 
hand of an attendant and himself administered 
a restorative. Richelieu's voice had sunk to a 
whisper ; he afterwards, it was said, recommended 
Mazarin as his successor. 67 The King made a 
general promise to attend to the advice given him 
and hurriedly took his leave of the dying man. 
Afterwards his Majesty addressed a few words to 
the Duchess d'Aiguillon, who sat apart [weep- 
ing bitterly. He then leisurely strolled through 
Richelieu's matchless gallery of pictures, before 
returning to the Louvre, with an air of heartless 
unconcern which occasioned many comments. 68 

After the departure of the King, Richelieu lay 
in silence and exhaustion for upwards of an hour. 
He then called his physicians and asked how long 
he was likely to survive. These personages declared 
that they even then did not despair of his life, as 
Providence would doubtless work a miracle on 
behalf of a personage so indispensable to the 
realm. A murmur of impatience escaped the 
lips of the Cardinal, and beckoning to Chicot, 
physician in ordinary to the King, he said : " Mon- 
sieur, I conjure you as a Christian gentleman and 
not regarding your medical capacity, to tell me 
how long I have to live." " Monseigneur, I be- 
lieve that within four-and-twenty hours you will 


be either cured or at rest." " I understand : you 
speak like an honest man," replied the Cardinal. 
Addressing his confessor, Lescot, he then requested 
that Extreme Unction might be administered 
with as little delay as possible. The Cardinal then 
conversed for a few minutes in a whisper with his 
niece, Madame d'Aiguillon, and extorted from her 
a promise that she would relinquish her resolve to 
embrace a monastic life. 69 At midnight, Decem- 
ber 3rd, the last Sacraments were administered. 
The Host was borne to the bedside of the dying 
man by the Cure de St. Eustache. He rose from 
his pillow and with outstretched arms exclaimed, 
pointing to the Ciborium, in a voice which had 
suddenly recovered its loud ringing tones : " Be- 
hold my Judge and my Saviour ! I pray Him to 
condemn me, if I have not preferred before all 
things the welfare of religion and the prosperity 
of this realm ! Speak to me, M. le Cure ; speak as 
to a great sinner treat me as one of the least of 
your penitents ! '' The priests present then recited 
the Lord's Prayer and the Apostles' Creed. " Do 
you, Monseigneur, faithfully believe and hold all 
these articles of the Christian Faith ? " " With- 
out simulation ; if I had a thousand lives I would 
give them for the Faith and for Holy Church," 
replied Richelieu. " Monseigneur, do you pardon 
your enemies ? and if it should please God to 
restore you to health, do you purpose to serve 
Him with tenfold zeal, tenfold devotion ? ' "I 
forgive my enemies, even as I pray for pardon 
If God in His Omniscience foresees that hereafter, 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 529 

should my life be granted to me, I might fail in 
my devotion, may He rather smite me with 
instant death ! ' replied the Cardinal ; adding 
feebly, after an interval, " God's will be done ! 
I ask not, I pray not for life. His will be done ! " 
The sacred rites were then administered. " I was 
smitten with wonder and amaze at beholding a 
man raised to the very pinnacle of fortune show 
so little regard for life, and depart willingly from 
so magnificent and heroic a destiny," writes one 
of the spectators of the last hours of Richelieu to 
the ambassador in Rome, M. de Fontenoy Mareuil. 
" I admired the gravity and sweetness displayed 
by him who had charmed all hearts and won all 
intellectual minds during the last fleeting moments 
of life." 

The sensation in Paris, meantime, was tremen- 
dous the portals of the Palais Cardinal stood open 
and personages of distinction were passing and 
repassing every hour during the day and night. 
While the last Sacraments were being adminis- 
tered a crowd kept possession of the neighbouring 
streets, awaiting with anxious interest the reports 
of the messengers hourly despatched to the 
Louvre.* 1 Within the palace the vast apartments 
were thronged even the bedchamber of the dying 
man was thrown open for the convenience of the 
more eminent amongst the courtiers, who desired 
to gaze upon the last mortal agonies of the great 
minister. The following morning, being Decem- 
ber 4th, a slight improvement in the Cardinal's 
condition was reported. He again engaged in 



prayer, bade farewell to Chavigny, and thanked 
his physicians for their care. As the morning 
advanced however it was evident that Richelieu 
was fast passing away. At eleven o'clock he 
fainted but recovered again, and about midday 
he expired, apparently without much suffering. 
After recovering from his sudden faint, Richelieu, 
though speechless, continued in possession of his 
other faculties up to the last moment. 62 Solemn 
silence fell on the assemblage present after the 
great master-spirit of the age had passed from 
earth. Madame d'Aiguillon then tenderly kissed 
the lifeless lips, and was led to the door of the 
appartement by the Due de Breze. 

The friends of Richelieu then slowly approached 
to gaze on the corpse. MM. de Guiche and de 
Breze advanced first ; they were followed by 
Mazarin and by Chavigny who both wept bitterly. 
An hour thus elapsed, when by command of the 
Due de Breze, nephew of the deceased Cardinal, 
the folding doors of the chamber were closed to 
enable the attendants to perform the last sad offices. 

Information of the death of the Cardinal de 
Richelieu was conveyed to the King by de Noyers. 
Louis was sitting alone in his dreary chamber over- 
looking the Seine. He heard the tidings in silence, 
but a pallor overspread his cheek. At length his 
Majesty observed while waving his hand in sign 
of dismissal to de Noyers : " Voila un grand 
politique mort ! " 63 

A post-mortem examination of the Cardinal's 
remains was made immediately after his death. 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 531 

His lungs were extensively diseased ; and the 
immediate cause of death was found to be the 
breaking of an abscess on the left lobe of the 
lungs. The body was embalmed and lay in state 
for five days. The funeral obsequies were cele- 
brated with little pomp in the church of the Sor- 
bonne, where the body of the great Cardinal was 
deposited in the magnificent mausoleum which he 
had caused to be constructed before the high altar 
of that church. 

By his last will and testament Richelieu con- 
firmed to the King his previous donations of the 
Palais Cardinal, of his superb golden altar 
vessels, and of his largest diamond. He, moreover, 
bequeathed to the King tapestry hangings for 
eight spacious chambers and three state beds, 
which were to be selected by the Duchess 
d'Aiguillon. To Armand de Maille, 64 Due de 
Breze, his nephew and god- son, he bequeathed the 
duchy of Fronsac, the duchy of Beaufort, and 
other lands and manors together with a sum of 
several millions of livres. To his niece, the 
Duchess d'Aiguillon, he bequeathed the Hdtel 
du Petit Luxembourg and his chateau de Ruel, 
with an immense revenue, the whole to revert on 
her death to the Due de Richelieu. The Duchess 
also inherited her uncle's jewels and his cele- 
brated service of gold plate. The eldest son of his 
brother-in-law, the Marquis de Pontcourlay, was 
the Cardinal's principal heir. 65 To him the duchy 
of Richelieu was bequeathed, the ancient barony 
of Barbezieux, the principality of Mortagne, the 


counties of Cosnac and Saugeon, and the rich 
manors of La Ferte, Bernard, Brouage, and d'Hiers, 
besides a sum of more than three millions sterling. 
All the furniture of the Palais Cardinal excepting 
that bequeathed to King Louis the splendid 
galleries of paintings and sculpture, the collec- 
tions of china, the cabinet of gems and enamels 
and Venetian glass, were left to the future Due de 
Richelieu to furnish the Hotel de Richelieu. His 
library was bequeathed by the Cardinal to the 
nation, under the perpetual guardianship of the 
members of the College de Sorbonne, from amongst 
whom the librarians were always to be chosen. 
The amount bequeathed by Richelieu in legacies 
to his friends and servants alone exceeded the 
sum of two millions of francs. 66 


1 " On soup9onnoit a la Cour de France que Chevreuse vint a Londrea 
pour proposer un mariage entre le Prince d'Espagne, et la fille ainee du 
Roi de la Grande Bretagne." Bibl. Imp. MS. de Colbert, t. ii., pub- 
lished by M. Cousin. Vie de Madame de Chevreuse. 

2 Ibid. 

3 Paul Scarron, born 1610, the first husband of Madame de Main- 
tenon. Madame de Hautefort, on her return to the court, presented the 
poet to the Regent Anne. " Madame, permettez que je sois votre 
malade, en titre d'office," exclaimed Scarron, facetiously. Scarron was 
already crippled and deformed from an immersion of many hours in the 
river Sarthe to escape the consequences of a youthful frolic in which 
he had incurred the indignation of his townsmen. 

4 Vie de M. de Cinq-Mars, Grand ficuyer de France. Galerie des Per- 
sonnages Illustres de la Cour de Louis XIII. Tallemant des Reaux. 
" Nous avons un favori a la cour, qui est M. de Cinq-Mars, fils de feu 
M. le Marechal d'Effiat, dependant, tout-a-fait de Monseigneur le 
Cardinal. Jamais le roi n'a eu passion plus violente pour personne que 
pour lui. Sa Majeste recompense la charge de Grand Ecuyer qu'a M. 
de Bellegarde, pour la lui donner. Ce n'est pas un trop vilain debut 
pour un homme de dix-neuf ans." Lettre de M. de Chavigny & M. de 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 533 

5 Marion de 1'Orme, born in 1611, died in 1650. " C'etoit une belle 
personne," relates Tallemant ; "le nez lui rougissait quelquefois, et 
pour cela elle se tenait les matinees entieres les pieds dans 1'eau." She 
used to visit Richelieu : " deguisee en page ; il la re9ut en habit de 
satin gris de lin, en broderie d'or et d'argent, botte, et avec des plumes." 
Tallemant, t. 2, p. 194. 

6 Godefroy, Grand Cerem. de France, t. ii. Naissance de Mon- 
seigneur le Due d'Anjou, Philippe de France. Hilarion de Coste, 
filoges des Dauphins de France. 

7 " La petite cour de la reine ressembloit a des pensionnaires en recre- 
ation Madame d'Aiguillon faisoit les honneurs avec le Cardinal." 
Mem. d'Anne de Gonzague, Princesse Palatine. 

8 M^moires de Mademoiselle de Montpensier, t. 1. Galerie des Person- 
nages Illustres de la Cour de Louis XIII., t. 4. 

9 Aubery, Mem. pour servir a 1'Hist. du Card, de Richelieu, t. 5. 

10 Ibid. 

11 Ibid. 

12 Proces Verbal du Proces de Cinq-Mars et de M. de Thou. Tallemant 
des Reaux. Vie de M. de Cinq-Mars. Galerie des Personnages Illustres 
de la Cour de Louis XIII., t. 4. 

13 Galerie des Personnages Illustres de la Cour de Louis XIII., t. 4, 
p. 518. 

14 Many persons, however, thought that the Queen, moved by insatiable 
ambition, and even fearful that untoward revelations might hurl her 
from the throne, encouraged the malcontents so long as their machina- 
tions were confined to France. " M. le Grand a ete pousse a son mauvais 
dessein par la Reine-mere, par sa fille, par la Reine de France, par 
Madame de Chevreuse, par Montagu, et autres papistes d' Angle - 
terre." Archives des Affaires Etrangeres, France, t. 101. Lettre, 44. 

16 " Le Roy s'est afin retourne dans son lit, et m'a dit d'une voix 
attendrie : ' Bon soir, faite pour le mieux ; mais ne commettez point 
d'imprudence.' Jugez, ma chere princesse, si je ne suis pas autorise a 
tout entreprendre ! " Lettre de M. de Cinq-Mars a la Princesse Marie 
de Gonzague de Nevers. 

16 Louis d'Astarac, Vicomte de Fontrailles. The Cardinal one day 
encountered Fontrailles in an antechamber of the Louvre, as his 
Eminence was advancing in haste to receive some ambassador. "Rangez- 
vous, rangez vous, Monsieur ! " exclaimed Richelieu, hurriedly. "Ne 
vous montrez pas ! Get ambassadeur n'aime pas les monstres ! " 

17 Mademoiselle asserts that the Queen was secretly apprised of the 
treaty by the Duke of Orleans, that she did not disapprove, but 
resolutely refused to share the peril. The duke was the only personage 
who was aware of Anne's knowledge, and of her resolve to take no share 
in the proceedings, but on the contrary, to disavow all relations with 
the conspirators. The Queen never ceased, it is alleged, to suspect 


Richelieu, whatever might be the near liaison between them ; " Sa 
Majeste," writes the Due de Bouillon, "ne douta point que si le Roi 
venait a mourir, le ministre ne voulut lui 6ter ses enfants pour se faire 
donner a lui-meme la regence ; aussi par le moyen de M. le Grand, elle 
voulait assurer sa puissance." 

18 Hist, du Regne de Louis XIII. , Le Vassor. Bernard. Mem. de 
Bouillon, de la Rochefoucauld, &c. 

19 The Duke de la Rochefoucauld, in his Memoirs (p. 362, et seq. ), affirms 
that Anne knew of the negotiations of Cinq-Mars with sundry vassals of 
the crown, and sent M. de Thou to inform him, " de sa liaison avec M. le 
Grand, et qu'elle lui avait promis que je serois de ses amis." The duke, 
however, acquits the Queen of any knowledge of the dealings of the con- 
spirators with Spain, of which he states that her Majesty was perfectly 
ignorant, and disclaimed with horror when they came to light. 
Apparently Anne wished to profit by the conspiracy, but to avoid its 

20 Vie de M. de Cinq-Mars ; Hist, du Card. Due de Richelieu. 

21 Anne distrusted the Duke of Orleans, who never ceased to make open 
declaration of the illegitimacy of the young Dauphin and his brother. 
Her Majesty, it was alleged, wished to secure the regency by any 
method, but she shrank in displeasure before a combination, 
strengthened by the adhesion of Spain, and of which Monsieur was 
chief, which might hereafter be used against the rights of her son. 

22 Fontrailles replied, in answer to the solicitations of Cinq-Mars not 
to abandon France : " ' Pour vous, Monsieur, vous serez encore d'asser 
belle taille quand on vous aura ot6 la tete de dessus les epaules, mais 
en v6rit6 je suis trop petit pour cela.' H se sauva en habit de capucin, 
comme il 6toit all 6 faire le traite en Espagne." 

23 Richelieu draws a frightful picture in this letter of the probable 
troubles lurking over the realm : amongst other subjects of alarm he 
instances, les lettres du Prince d'Orange ; la gazette de Brussels et 
celle de Cologne ; les pr6paratifs de la reine-mere pour venir en France j 
ce qui s'6crit par lettres sures de Madame de Chevreuse ; les avis que 
viennent d'ltalie ; les esp6rances des Espagnols ; et la resolution que 
Monsieur a prit de ne pas venir a la Cour. 

24 Lettre de De Noyers a Chavigny, retourne a Tarascon. Archives des 
Affaires fitrangeres, t. 102. Cousin, Vie de Madame de Chevreuse, 

25 Ibid. 

26 Vie de Gnq-Mars. Galerie des Personnages Illustres de la 
Cour de Louis XIII. San Treijo. Le Vassor. Mem. du Cardinal do 

27 Langlade, Vie de Frederic Maurice de la Tour d'Auvergne, Due de 
Bouillon. Paris, 1692. 

28 Le Vassor, Hist, du Regne de Louis XIII. Bayle Diet. Article 
Louis XIII. Nouvelle Vie d'Anne d'Autriche, t ? 1. 

29 Vol. MS. 101 f 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 535 

80 Juillet, 1642. Ibid. vol. 102. Archives des Affaires fitrangeres de 

31 Ibid. MS. 

32 Fontrailles. Relation des choses particulieres de la Cour pendant la 
faveur de M. de Cinq-Mars. Pettitot, vol. 54. 

33 MS. Archives des Affaires fitrangeres, vol. 102. Lettre 28 Juillet. 

34 At one of these entertainments, called " Le Ballet des Prosperites 
de I'arm6e de France, "the Bishop of Chartres handed the salver of 
refreshments to the Queen. The salver held twenty silver dishes piled 
with preserved fruits, sweetmeats, and marmalade. Mem. de 1'Abbe 
de Marolles. 

35 Dreux du Radier. Vie de Marie de' Medici. Mem. de Brienne, t. 2. 
Motteville Memoires, t. 1. Siri M6m. Recondite. The following verse 
was composed in allusion to the place of her interment, near the shrine 
of the Three Kings in the Cathedral of Cologne : 

" Tres Reges mihi dona ferunt : dat thura BRITANNUS, 
Aurum IBER ; at myrrham tu mihi, NATE, dabis." 

36 Testament de Marie de' Medici, Reine, Mere du Roi. Journal de 

37 Tallemant des Reaux. The royal words were, " L'ame de Cinq-Mars 
est aussi noire que le cul de ce poelon." 

38 Lettre de Cachet au Parlement de Paris sur les Deportments de 
M. de Cinq-Mars. Archives Curieuses, t. 5, 2me series. 

39 Ibid. Richelieu assured Monsieur that this submission to the royal 
will " ne lui porterait aucun deshonneur ; et qu'au contraire s'il le 
faisait resoluement et noblement, elle passerait pour une acte de bont6 
et de generosite tout a fait digne d'un grand prince ! " When Richelieu 
had extorted from the craven Prince all he wanted he speedily changed 
his tone ! 

40 Proces de MM. de Cinq-Mars et de Thou : Archives Curieuses, t. 5. 
Vie de M. de Cinq-Mars. Galerie des Personnages Illustres de la Cour de 
Louis XIII., t. 4. 

41 Aubery, Mem. pour servir a 1'Histoire de Card, de Richelieu, t. 5. 
Marie de Fourci, Mar6chale d'Effiat. Cinq-Mars had one sister, Marie 
Coiffier : she was first betrothed to Jean d' Aligre, Seigneur de Beauvais, 
but eventually married Charles de la Porte, Marshal Due de la Meilleraye. 
Their only son was the husband of the heiress of Mazarin, Hortense 

42 Langlade : Vie du Due de Bouillon (Fred. Maurice). See the letters 
which passed between Richelieu and Madame de Bouillon, Aubery, t. v. 

43 " On arreta," writes Langlade, " que le Roy auroit la place ; qu'il en 
donnerait la recompense en terres dans le royaume ; que pendant qu en 
travailleroit a 1'execution des conditions, le due sorterait de prison." 

44 " La chaque jour le due donnait quelques heures a la lecture des 
Saints Peres, et a la pri ere. "-Langlade, Vie du Due de Bouillon. 


45 Aubery, Mem. pour 1'Hist. du Card, de Richelieu, t. v. 

46 " Comme le Cardinal etait incommode, il trouva moyen de marcher 
sans se lever de son lit, y etant couche et porte par seize personnes. 
Jamais il n'entroit par la porte dans la maison ou il devoit loger ; mais 
M. du Noyers, faisant pour le dire ainsi le marechal de logis, allait 
devant, et avoit soin de faire faire une overture a 1'endroit des fenetres 
de la chambre ou il devoit reposer. On dressoit en meme temps un 
grand echafaud dans la rue, sur lequel on montait par des degres afin 
que Ton put passer, et faire entrer dans la chambre, le lit magnifique 
dans lequel son Eminence etait couchee." Mem. du Sieur de Pontis. 

47 Mem. de Michel de Marolles : Paris, 1656. 

48 " On tendit les chaines a Paris dans toutes les rues ou il devoit 
passer, afin d'empecher la grande confusion du peuple, qui accourait de 
toutes parts pour voir cette espece de triomphe d"un Cardinal, et d'un 
ministre couche dans son lit," &c. 

49 Hist, de la Fronde Sainte Aulaire, p. 72. 

50 Father Joseph de Tremblay died at Ruel in April of the year 1638. 

51 Giulio Mazzarini, born 1592, died 1661. 

52 Henri Joseph de Peyre, Comte de Troisville. 

63 Tallemant Le Cardinal de Richelieu. " La tete vous a tourne, 

M. de Chavigny, la tete vous a tourn6 ! " Chavigny ensuite lui jura 

qu'il avoit dit au Roi, " Sire, il faut que vous le fassiez ! " 

54 Galerie des Personnages Illustres de la Cour de France, t. 4. 

65 Ibid. Hist, du Cardinal de Richelieu. Mem. du Sieur de Pontis. 

M " Le 2 Decembre apres de longues solicitations, Louis alia voir 

Richelieu," &c. 

57 The Cardinal had previously communicated with Mazarin, and had 
promised to recommend him to the King. 

58 Le Roi ne fut voir le Cardinal qu'un peu avant qu'il mourut, et 
1'ayant trouve fort mal, en sortit fort gai. Tallemant des Reaux. 

59 Madame d'Aiguillon renouvelait tous les ans le voeu de Carmelite ; 
elle 1'a renouvele sept fois. Le Cardinal fit consul ter s'il etait obligatoire, 
on lui repondit que non. " Je vous prie " (said Richelieu on his death- 
bed) " d'avoir soin de 1'education des jeunes Pontcourlay, vos neveux, et 
les miens ; retirez vous, ma niece, je vous prie vous etes la personne 
que j'ai le plus aimee." 

* Lettre sur le Trepas de Monseigneur l'Eminentissime Cardinal de 
Richelieu a Monseigneur le Marquis de Fontenoy Mareuil, Ambassadeur 
de sa Majest6 a Rome. A Paris, 1650. 

61 The King remained at the Louvre ; the Queen was at St. Germain. 

62 Lettre sur le Trepas de l'Eminentissime Cardinal de Richelieu. 
Galerie des Personnages Illustres, &c., t. 4. Mem. de Pontis, Tallemant, 
Bassompierre, Motteville ; numbers of detached pamphlets, Le Vassor, 
Leti, Siri, and MSS. authorities, Bibl. Imp. Beth. : Colbert, &c. 

3 Mem. du Sieur de Pontis, who stood in the guard-chamber adjoining 
the King's apartment during the visit of de Noyers. " Apres," relates 

1642] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 537 

de Pontis, " les Marechaux de la Meilleraye et de Breze s'avisa de ge 
jetter aux pieds du Eoi, et lui demander sa protection ; le Roi les 
embrassa et leur dit, qu'il les aimeroit toujours pourvu qu'ils le servissent 

64 Armand de Maille Breze, Due de Fronsac, born 1619, died 1648, son 
of Urbain de Maille, Marquis de Breze, and of Nicole du Plessis, second 
sister of the Cardinal, who died 1635, insane. 

65 Franois de Vignerot, son of Rene de Vignerot, Seigneur de Pont- 
courlay, and of Frangoise du Plessis de Richelieu, eldest sister of the 
Cardinal. Madame d'Aiguillon was the sister of Fra^ois de Vignerot, 
who succeeded, on the death of his uncle, to the dukedom of Richelieu, 

86 Testament du Cardinal de Richelieu. Hist, du Cardinal de Richelieu, 
Leclerc, Richard, and Le Pere Griffet, Hist, du Regne de Louis XIII. 



Louis XIII. survived his minister only five 
months and ten days. The bent figure, the 
emaciated features, and the feeble voice of the 
King when he appeared in public for the first time 
after the decease of Richelieu inspired his loving 
subjects with painful apprehensions. The deceased 
Cardinal and his royal master had mutually worn 
each other out by the bitter irritation of their 
dissensions. Remorse likewise was said to oppress 
the King for the death of Montmorency, and his 
sleep was broken by wailing regrets for his lost 
favourite, Cinq-Mars. Louis confirmed all the 
testamentary bequests of the Cardinal, and the 
court went into mourning for a fortnight. The 
Queen now made her abode entirely at St. Ger- 
main ; there is no record of her sentiments on the 
death of the Cardinal, except that she was much 
moved by the recital of " the pious end " made by 
Richelieu. Madame de Motteville says, " qu'elle 
n'etait pas fort qffligee," but rather absorbed by 
the novelty of her position in the realm, as mother 
of two beautiful sons and the wife of a King whose 
health was evidently on the decline. Mazarin was 
now constant in his homage to Anne of Austria. 
Chavigny declared himself her ardent partisan, 


1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 539 

and ready to defend her against the atrocious 
imputations of M. d'Orleans, who avowed his 
opinion in public at several places in Auvergne 
and the Orleannois, that Monsieur le Dauphin and 
his brother were illegitimate, and stated that it 
was his intention to fight for the succession to the 
crown. Anne experienced no gentler treatment 
from the King her husband, " who knew her too 
well to be deluded by her soft speeches and syren 
charms." l The Queen doubtless found consola- 
tion in the brilliant future unfolding before her ; 
she drew nearer every day to the possession of 
power as Regent of France during a long minority, 
and Mazarin now hoped to win special graces from 
her notice. The King though ill and depressed* 
attended daily to affairs and declared that he 
would not be teased by a prime minister. He 
opened all despatches himself, granted pardons, 
permitted the return of the exiles and did every- 
thing in his power to convince his people that the 
late rigorous and despotic administration had been 
against his will and contrary to his disposition. 
The King had immediately recalled his favourite 
Troisville and reinstated him in his command, 
which he exercised on the occasion of the Car- 
dinal's funeral. He also released the Marshal de 
Bassompierre from the Bastille, where that once 
gay and gallant cavalier had languished ever since 
the arrest of the Queen- mother at Compiegne, 
solely because he was a warm admirer of Marie 
de' Medici, and that he had advised the imprison- 
ment of Richelieu at the secret council summoned 


by the Queen- mother at Lyons when the life 
of the King had been in danger. 2 The Marshal 
de Vitry, the slayer of the Marquis d'Ancre, also 
obtained release from the Bastille. The Cardinal 
had thought that so devoted a servant to his King, 
and a hand so dexterous in the use of a pistol, was 
better under the safe custody of his faithful de 
Tremblay than at large. The Count de Cramail 3 
was likewise released ; also M. Vaultier, the 
physician of the late unfortunate Queen- mother. 
The political exiles, moreover, eagerly sought the 
clemency of the King. The Dues d'Elbceuf, de 
Vendome, de Bellegarde, de Guise, returned home ; 
swarms of minor personages flocked back again to 
France. No one seems to have appealed in vain to 
the mercy of the King excepting the Duchess de 
Chevreuse and Madame de Fargis. Madame de la 
Flotte was also reinstated, but Mesdames de 
Senece, de Hautefort and de Chemerault, holding 
that their recall to court ought to have been a 
spontaneous act of clemency, declined to petition. 
Madame de Chevreuse received a harsh and decided 
refusal, indeed the mind of the King appeared 
so exasperated against her that no one presumed 
to mention her name. 

During the first few days of his independence 
Louis appeared almost childishly elate with his 
achievements in the transaction of affairs. After- 
wards, his Majesty seemed to move like a man in 
a dream, during the discharge of the many royal 
functions which he had suffered to devolve upon 
Richelieu. M. de Noyers appeared at first likely 

1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 541 

to monopolise the royal favour, to the astonish- 
ment and annoyance of Chavigny and Mazarin. 
Previous to the death of Richelieu he had seemed 
to be particularly obnoxious to the King, who 
often was so irritated as to make disobliging 
sallies on his repulsive features and fussy 
manners. The influence of de Noyers during 
these first days of emancipation had a twofold 
source he was a man of strong, patient en- 
durance and equable nerves, and having far less 
self-appreciation than Chavigny or Mazarin, 
suffered the King to vaunt his own powers of 
decision and penetration. When Louis retreated 
into his melancholy retirement when the labour 
of the day was over, de Noyers followed his 
Majesty and helped him to carve and fit together 
the little wooden shrines for the reception of 
relics which it was the King's pastime to fashion. 
Louis also diverted his mind by playing on the 
guitar ; he likewise composed an air, to set to the 
words of the flippant song written by M. Miron, 
in ironical homage of the deceased Cardinal,, and 
beginning with the line 

" Ah ! il a pass6, il a pli6 bagage, M. le Cardinal ! " 

De Noyers also used his brief influence to ruin 
Father Sirmond, confessor to the King. Sirmond 
had insisted on the arrest and execution of M. 
de Cinq-Mars. The King never forgave his 
counsels nor his importunity, and subsequently 
the royal confessions became so meagre and 
Sirmond's opportunities for admonition so brief, 


that he found himself obliged to advise with 
Richelieu on the matter. Louis, therefore, gladly 
sent the reverend father a lettre de cachet, dispen- 
sing with his future services. Le Pere Dinet, 
another Jesuit, succeeded to the vacant office, in 
which however he was scarcely installed when 
the death of the King occurred. 

The King's health meantime continued grad- 
ually to decline, and his failing strength, which 
during the month of March compelled him fre- 
quently to keep his bed, reassured M. de Chavigny, 
who aspired to the post of first minister. Many 
matters had to be discussed which were quite out 
of the political depth of M. de Noyers. Louis, 
feeling that his life could not be much longer pro- 
longed, decided to settle the important question 
of how the government of the country should be 
conducted during the minority of the future King. 
Chavigny having possessed the entire confidence 
of the late Cardinal, the King commanded his 
presence at St. Germain. The nomination of a 
regent occasioned a bitter struggle in Louis' 
mind. If Monsieur had been loyal and on good 
terms with his brother, there can be no doubt that 
the high office would have been assigned to him. 
A Prince however who had three times rendered 
himself amenable to the penalties of treason, and 
who moreover denied the legitimacy of the 
Dauphin, could not be safely trusted with supreme 
power during the minority. Conde, next in 
succession after Monsieur, was a prince of feeble 
health, advanced in years and of a character so 

1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 543 

peculiar as totally to unfit him for the office ; 
besides, Louis knew his wife well enough to feel 
sure that she would form a coalition with Mon- 
sieur for the restoration of their legitimate 
authority, rather than submit to such an arrange- 
ment. Ancient precedent, public opinion and 
the aspirations of the feudal nobles of the realm 
who all had been under the ban of Richelieu and 
for the most part exiles from the splendour of the 
court during the reign of Louis demanded that 
Queen Anne might be declared regent of the realm 
during the minority of her son. The Queen had 
beauty, fascinating manners, the support of Spain, 
the prestige of her position as Queen-mother, and 
last though not least, she had won the devotion of 
Mazarin. By many contemporaries it is believed 
that Richelieu, appreciating the rare gifts of 
Mazarin, had specially commended the Queen to 
his care, and had besought her Majesty to place 
herself unreservedly under his guidance. Anne 
moreover, in the presence of the King, had 
ventured to assert her right to wield the sceptre in 
the name of her son. Louis therefore understood 
the entreaties of Chavigny, who besought him " to 
make so wise and prudent a disposition of the 
royal power, that on his decease the kingdom 
might not be plunged into a bloody war either by 
the insinuations of Monsieur respecting the birth 
of the future king or by the feuds of rival claim- 
ants for power." Mazarin in a few days was 
summoned to St. Germain, and it was at length 
resolved to take some decided step to stifle the 


pretensions of Monsieur. The project of the 
deceased Cardinal was revived, and an edict was 
prepared in which Louis solemnly declared that 
the Duke of Orleans had forfeited all claim to the 
regency in the event of a minority. Mademoiselle, 
the young and spirited daughter of Monsieur, hear- 
ing of the decree, proposed to throw herself at the 
feet of the King as he entered the Chamber to 
implore its abrogation. This intention coming to 
the ears of Louis he sternly forbade such inter- 
cession. In January 1643, the Declaration 
against Monsieur received the sanction of the 
Chambers, on the express and personal demand 
of the King, who repaired to the Palais in person 
to present the edict to his faithful commons. 4 
Monsieur made no public protest against his 
exclusion from the regency, but clamoured to be 
permitted to throw himself at the feet of the King, 
whose devoted servant he should ever remain, 
being now delivered from the thraldom of the 
hated Richelieu. The Abbe de la Riviere arrived 
in Paris to negotiate his master's return ; the 
Duke made no stipulations but submitted entirely 
to the good pleasure of the King. The failing 
condition of the King's health was so well known 
that no one now opposed the royal will ; the 
sceptre was passing from the hand of Louis it 
was for his successor to maintain or to annul any 
edict given during these his last hours. 

The council, meantime, assembled to settle the 
vexed question of the regency a matter which 
admitted of no delay, for the health of the King 

1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 545 

from the beginning of April, 1643, began to fail 
alarmingly, and his Majesty was able only to 
leave his bed-chamber during a few hours of the 
afternoon. At length it was determined to name 
the Queen as Regent, and the Duke of Orleans 
Lieutenant-Governor of the realm, during the 
minority. Mazarin addressed the council at length, 
and his observations appeared greatly to impress 
the King. Louis, however, could not be per- 
suaded to grant to the Queen unlimited authority 
as Regent, and the restrictions with which he 
fettered her authority would have reduced her 
power to a mere cipher. " You do not know the 
Queen ! You deprecate the evils which arose 
during the regency of the late Queen, Marie de' 
Medici, our revered mother ; would you there- 
fore behold this realm reduced to worse straits ? 
The Queen needs the guidance and control of a 
council ! " 5 No remonstrances could divert Louis 
from his resolution or restrain him from exacting 
the most stringent and binding pledges from all 
the great functionaries of the realm to maintain 
his decree intact. The edict commences with a 
long and wordy preamble, setting forth the 
benefits which had accrued to the nation during 
the reign of the King, and stating the love and 
devotion felt by Louis for his people and the 
realm. The Queen is then named in the next 
clause, " as Regent of France," and intrusted with 
the education of her children and with the 
administration of the realm during the minority 
of the young King. " We have good hope and 



trust that the virtue and piety of the Queen, our 
beloved wife and consort, will render her ad- 
ministration prosperous. Nevertheless the office 
of Regent is a trust of great weight, upon the due 
discharge of which depends the welfare and glory 
of the kingdom, and as it is impossible that the 
Queen can have the requisite knowledge to con- 
duct the course of great and important events, 
which is acquired only by long experience, we 
have thought good to name a Council of Regency, 
by the advice of which, and under her Majesty's 
authority, state affairs shall be resolved by a 
plurality of votes. We cannot make a more 
worthy choice of persons therefore, to compose 
this Council, than to nominate our very dear and 
beloved cousins the Prince de Conde, the Cardinal 
de Mazarin, our very dear and trusty the Sieur 
Seguier, Chancellor of France, Lord Keeper, and a 
Knight of our Order, and our very dear and faith- 
ful Bouteillier, secretary of finance, and de 
Chavigny, secretary of state. We will and 
command that our very dear brother the Duke of 
Orleans shall be President of the Council of Re- 
gency, and in his absence the Prince of Conde, 
or in default of the said Conde the Cardinal 
Mazarin. It being our belief that we cannot 
make a more competent choice of ministers, we 
forbid this Council to be changed, diminished, or 
increased for any cause or pretence, excepting by 
the death of, or by the treason of, any of the 
above-mentioned high personages ; in that case 
the place may be filled as the lady Regent shall 

1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 547 

decree by and with the advice of the said Council. 

We declare that it is our will that all affairs 

relating to peace or to war and other matters 

important to the realm, even to the voting and 

disposal of the finances, shall be laid before the 

Council and decided by a majority of votes ; 

also that in the event of the great offices of the 

crown becoming vacant those of superintendent 

of finance, first president, and attorney-general in 

our Court of Parliament, that of secretary of state, 

secretary at war, governors of our frontiers and 

their fortresses they shall be bestowed by the 

said lady Regent, with and by the consent and 

advice of the said Council ; neither shall it be 

considered valid or legal if the said lady Regent 

shall give such charges and offices without the 

sanction of her Council. All other and minor 

offices of the government are to be bestowed after 

such participation and sanction of the Council. 

As for the gift of the archbishoprics, bishoprics, 

abbeys and benefices generally, appertaining to 

the crown, they shall be bestowed only on godly 

and eminent personages who have been at the 

least three years in holy orders ; we desire and 

decree that the said Lady and Regent, mother of 

our children, shall follow 'the example which we 

have set in the bestowal of these dignities, and 

that she shall confer them by the advice only of 

our cousin the Cardinal de Mazarin, to whom we 

have expressed our earnest desire that God may 

be honoured by this our nomination. The said 

Cardinal has given us so many proofs of fidelity 


and intellect, in the management of divers im- 
portant matters within and without our realm, 
that we believe, after ourselves, we cannot con- 
fide the execution of this the most important of 
our functions to any personage who will more 
worthily and conscientiously acquit himself 
thereof." * 

Such was the paragraph of the royal decree con- 
cerning Queen Anne and her functions as Regent 
of France. Power could not have been more 
limited, fettered, or reduced to mere outward 
show. The Queen could not confer the smallest 
office in the realm or in the King's state house- 
hold without the previous consent and approval 
of the Council of Regency. She might decide 
neither on affairs connected with war, nor assent 
to a pacification without the Council. She had no 
power over the revenue, nor could she assign the 
smallest pecuniary gratification independent of 
the Council. She could not compel the registra- 
tion of any edict, nominate the officers of the 
Royal Guard, or visit offenders with loss of pre- 
ferment or degradation without the intervention 
of the Council. In ecclesiastical affairs she was 
made subservient to Mazarin, who was to wield, 
almost independently of the Queen, the vast 
powers and resources of the Gallican Church. The 
Queen might only appoint, without previous 
appeal, the officers of her own household and 
those connected with the nursery establishment of 
the young King and his brother, or, as his 
Majesty advanced in years, those subordinate 

1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 549 

posts in the palace not already attached in the 
special gift of some higher officer of the crown. 

The paragraph of the celebrated edict relating 
to the Duke of Orleans was drawn in the following 
language : " To testify to our very dear brother 
the Duke of Orleans that nothing has been 
capable of alienating our affection, we will and 
decree that he shall be Lieutenant-General of the 
young King in all the provinces of the realm, to 
exercise such authority under the Queen Regent 
and her Council ; and this notwithstanding the 
Declaration registered by our Court of Parliament, 
which declares the said Duke incapable of holding 
chief office in the administration of our realm. 
We trust and rely upon his honour that he will 
pay implicit obedience to our will, and that he 
will from henceforth serve the realm and our 
children with the fidelity and loving kindness 
which his birth and the many bounties and 
graces which we have conferred exact. Never- 
theless, we declare that in case our said dear 
brother objects, or rebels against the ordinances 
contained in this our present Declaration, we will 
that he be held deprived of the office of Lieu- 
tenant-General ; and we expressly forbid all or 
any of our subjects to recognise him or to obey 
him in such capacity." 7 Monsieur, therefore, re- 
ceived a very guarded bequest of power and was 
to be controlled in the exercise of his high military 
powers by the decrees of the Council, which in 
reality meant the united will of Conde and of 
Mazarin as these personages were certain to 


exercise despotic authority over their colleagues 
and to command at will a majority of votes. 

Nor was the humiliation of the Queen yet suffi- 
ciently palpable and her power as Regent neutra- 
lised. A subsequent clause decreed the following 
against Madame la Duchesse de Chevreuse, who 
was supposed by the King, as by the greater 
part of the courtiers, to be her Majesty's bosom 
friend. " It being our royal will and duty to 
prevent troubles, and to f orestal the evil designs of 
such of our subjects who might desire to subvert 
these our arrangements, made for the welfare and 
prosperity of our kingdom, we, having perfect 
knowledge of the bad conduct of the Duchess de 
Chevreuse and of the artifices which she has 
employed to create divisions in the realm, also 
being aware of the factious and treasonable in- 
telligences which she still entertains with our 
enemies, we hereby interdict her return to the 
realm during the continuance of warfare. We 
will moreover, that when peace shall be ratified, 
the said Duchess 8 shall return only by permission 
of the Queen Regent given with the sanction of 
the Council. If such permission be conceded, we 
decree that the royal grace shall be vouchsafed on 
condition only that the said Duchess never 
approaches the court nor the person of the said 
Queen and Regent." The same ban likewise was 
enforced respecting the unfortunate ex-Keeper of 
the Seals, Chateauneuf, who was not to receive 
alleviation of his captivity during the prevalence 
of war, and afterwards if the Queen and Council 

1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 551 

were inclined to exercise clemency in his behalf 
he was never to appear again at Court. 

The edict being decided upon and drawn up 
with suitable explicitness, Mazarin advised that 
its terms should be first privately communicated 
to several leading members of the Parliament of 
Paris, and to the other personages concerned in 
its decrees, offering to be himself the medium of 
such communication. The decree met with a 
favourable reception from the Parliament, and 
it was evident would be immediately passed and 
registered on its formal presentation to the 
Chamber. Monsieur made no objection indeed 
his name appearing at all in the edict of regency 
might be considered an act of signal grace and 
forbearance which he owed only to Mazarin. 
Many uneasy doubts were expressed however 
on the reception likely to be given to the document 
by the Queen the personage most concerned 
and aggrieved by its arbitrary enactments. Car- 
dinal Mazarin however undertook to present the 
act to her Majesty and to explain and persuade 
her into acquiescence. Unless Anne could be in- 
duced to take oath to observe the King's will the 
decree would become null and void. The regency 
descended to her by right and by precedent ; she 
had possession of the person of the young King 
and his brother ; she commanded the allegiance 
of that formidable party in the realm the foes 
and opponents of Richelieu's policy of repression, 
who were all ready to hail the Regent, in the hope 
of speedy restoration to the feudal strongholds 


and provincial commands, which in preceding 
reigns had enabled them to defy the power of the 
crown. Mazarin accordingly sought audience of 
the Queen, and his persuasive tongue secured her 
outward submission to the will of the King. 
There may have been considerations of high 
prudence on the part of Anne, in not provoking 
a contest, of which posterity is not cognizant 
considerations, if a particle of truth is to be sifted 
from the pamphlets, private letters and writings 
of the day, potent enough not only to strip Anne 
of Austria of her most ambitious pretensions but 
which might have precipitated her from the 
elevation of the throne into the everlasting gloom 
and seclusion of a cloister. If the Duke of 
Orleans, the son of Henri Quatre, had been on 
terms with the King his brother, and if he had 
been a man of honour, truth, valour and capacity, 
the last weeks of the unhappy reign of Louis XIII. 
might have transmitted a startling record on the 
page of history. Prudence therefore being the 
better part of valour, Anne agreed to make sub- 
missive acceptance of the terms proposed to her. 
There is little doubt however that Mazarin and 
the Queen then concerted together the design 
which they subsequently brought to so successful 
an issue. 9 Time was precious, and the day 
following therefore Anne entered the council 
chamber to take the required oath of adhesion to 
the articles of the edict concerning her future 
regency, and to affix her signature to the docu- 
ment. The Duke of Orleans had likewise been 

1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 553 

summoned to St. Germain for the same purpose. 
Did the memory of Anne of Austria then trans- 
port her back to her previous summons before 
the council, when guilty and trembling she con- 
fronted the King and his stern minister, and felt 
that the prestige only of her birth had prevented 
her from being banished from France in disgrace 
and ignominy ? She stood now before the same 
monarch in the ripe maturity of her charms, still 
a Queen, the mother of two hopeful sons, the 
future Regent of the realm, proud, unconquered 
by past perils and vicissitudes ; her great enemy 
first vanquished and then removed by death, and 
awaiting the commands of a husband who hated 
but who still tolerated her, and whose sceptre was 
about to pass from his dying hand into her own ! 
Anne felt her triumph. Fate had hitherto been 
adverse, but she seemed to have conquered 
destiny. The Queen took the pen humbly pre- 
sented by Mazarin, affixed her signature and 
took oath for the faithful observance of articles 
which she had deliberately resolved to do her 
utmost in concert with Mazarin to annul so soon 
as life had left the King. M. d'Orleans then went 
through the same formality sincerely on his 
part, as the provisions of the edict gave him an 
authority which for the time satisfied his am- 
bition. When the act had received due authen- 
tication, and the signatures " Louis," " Anne," 
" Gaston," stood below, with the words added, 
written by the King's own hand " Ce que dessus 
est ma ires expresse et derniere volante, que veux 


etre executee " Anne arose, and kneeling at the 
King's footstool, expressed her thanks and devo- 
tion. Louis coldly withdrew his hand, which the 
Queen had clasped, and rising, turned away 
without uttering a syllable in reply. 10 The act 
was then countersigned by the three secretaries 
of state and subsequently presented to the 
Chambers and passed unanimously. 

Louis never more presided at the council-board. 
The greater part of the day he spent reclining in 
his chaise a la Romaine, which was placed at the 
window of the Cabinet de la Reine in the Chateau 
Neuf de St. Germain, and from which an en- 
chanting view was obtained of the surrounding 
landscape with the towers of St. Denis in the dis- 
tance. The King's observations were of the most 
depressing kind and sometimes very embarrassing 
to his attendants. " Ah ! " said his Majesty one 
day to Troisville, pointing towards the abbey, 
" there I shall soon repose a long repose. My 
poor body I fear will be roughly shaken going 
thither the roads are in bad condition." ai An- 
other day the eyes of the King gloomily surveyed 
the train of nobles which followed the Queen one 
afternoon from the old chateau, from which her 
Majesty by the express desire of her consort had 
not removed. ' These people come here to see 
whether I am quickly dying, especially M. de 
Beaufort. 11 Ha ! if only I could recover I would 
make them all pay dearly for their wish to see me 
dead ! '' It is a remarkable circumstance that the 
name of Mazarin occurs only once in the minute 
narrative which we possess of the last lingering 

1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 555 

six weeks of the King's life a time when death to 
the weary, -aching heart and limbs would have been 
a priceless boon. Mazarin even was absent from 
the death- chamber of the King, though de facto 
prime minister of France and Cardinal Nuncio. 
Once and once only he appeared in the halls of 
St. Germain at this crisis, and that was at the 
summons of Anne of Austria, to represent the Pope 
as godfather to the Dauphin. The last day upon 
which Louis was able to resort to any of his 
favourite occupations was on the 1st of April 
1643. His Majesty on that day spent several hours 
in colouring caricatures. From that period to the 
19th day of the same month he was carried from 
his bed to his couch for a few hours daily. On 
Sunday morning, April 20th, the King said on 
waking, to his first valet de chambre, " I do not feel 
very ill but my strength declines. I prayed to 
God during the night to shorten my sufferings. 
I cannot rise. M. Bouvard," continued Louis, 
addressing one of his physicians, whose turn it had 
been to watch during the night, " M. Bouvard, I 
have never had heart concerning my malady. I 
have requested that you will admonish me when 
my end approaches. I am dying, I know well." 
On the same afternoon Louis was lifted from his 
bed for the last time into his easy chair, by the 
direction of Chicot, first physician in ordinary. 
The King fainted, but was wheeled to his favourite 
window, where M. Chicot read to him, as he could 
bear it, passages from " La Vie des Saints," and 
the 17th chapter of the Gospel of St. John. 
The mind of the King seems to have been much 


agitated at intervals by painful reminiscences of 
some of the events of his reign, and he was heard 
to deplore, as a grave dereliction of his duty to his 
people, that he had suffered the royal prerogative 
to be exercised so entirely by the remorseless hand 
of Richelieu. To the Prince de Conde he one day 
expressed bitter regret that he had assented to the 
death of the brave and gallant Montmorency 
whose ancestors had been the loyal upholders of 
the crown. The King acknowledged that he had 
been compelled to journey to Toulouse, but had 
always intended to grant life to M. de Mont- 
morency ; he had however finally suffered him- 
self to be over-persuaded by alleged reasons of 
state. " Remorse has always haunted me, Mon- 
seigneur, for this deed. Ah ! it is the unhappy 
lot of rulers to hear nothing but adverse state- 
ments against their nearest and dearest friends, 
relatives and subjects, and to be compelled to 
act upon political considerations. Happy is the 
sovereign who has strength to resist such in- 
sinuations ! " The death of M. de Cinq-Mars was 
a subject so agitating to the unhappy King that 
any allusion to it was cautiously avoided. 

On the 21st of April, Louis assembled the 
principal personages of the court around his bed 
for the last time. His object was to proclaim the 
Queen as future Regent of France, but bound by 
the limitations imposed by the Patent of Regency 
which had now passed the Chamber, Louis 
neglected no means to impress his will in this 
respect on the nation, and to make solemn declara- 

1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 557 

tion of such in the most public and formal manner 
possible. " The King performed this action with 
an air of composure and satisfaction," relates 
Dubois, a valet de chambre in the royal service, to 
whom posterity is indebted for the most graphic 
and minute details extant of the last days of 
Louis XIII. 13 " The Queen was present, also M. le 
Prince de Conde, M. le Due d'Orleans, and all the 
greatest lords of the court ; MM. the ministers 
were likewise present. The King ordered the cur- 
tains of his bed to be drawn aside, he then spoke 
in a low voice to the Queen, to M. his brother, and 
to M. le Prince. His Majesty then raising his voice 
addressed the assemblage ; he next commanded 
M. de la Vrilliere, secretary of state, to read aloud 
the edict of the Queen's future regency in order 
that everybody should hear and note his royal 
will. M de la Vrilliere, much moved by a command 
which seemed to indicate his Majesty's approach- 
ing dissolution, read the edict, standing at the foot 
of the King's bed, tears falling from his eyes as he 
proceeded. The Queen also sat at the foot of the 
King's bed in an armchair, which I had the honour 
to bring to her Ma j esty . She also melted into tears, 
everybody present then began to weep. The read- 
ing of the edict over, the King spoke to the 
Queen, 14 to M. his brother, to M. le Prince, and 
then to the deputies sent by the Chamber to 
whom he made many moving observations. The 
King looked better, his face was flushed with 
vivid colour, and he appeared calm and in no 
apprehension of death. When the assemblage 


dispersed he conferred for some time with M. de 
Meaux, his almoner, and with his confessor. In 
the evening, some pages of the ' Vie des Saints ' 
were read aloud to his Majesty." 15 Probably it 
was after this formal and affecting recognition of 
herself and her children that Anne sent Chavigny 
to Louis with a message, " assuring the King that 
she had not been the guilty accomplice of M. le 
Prince de Chalais, but had always been his 
Majesty's faithful and devoted consort and now 
very humbly besought his pardon for any mis- 
deed she had unknowingly committed." " M. de 
Chavigny," replied the King, " in the condition 
in which I now am it is my duty to forgive the 
Queen, but I am not bound to believe her state- 
ments. Carry my answer to her Majesty." 1 
Louis, therefore, went down to the tomb firmly 
persuaded that he had received deep and vital 
injury from the Queen his consort. 

On the following day, April 22nd, the public 
ceremony of the baptism of the Dauphin was 
performed in the chapel of the old palace of St. 
Germain by the special command of the dying 
King. The child at his birth had been privately 
baptized in the Queen's chamber, it having been 
resolved to defer the public ceremonial until the 
conclusion of the war. Time was speeding, and it 
was requisite that the child who would ere long 
bear the appellation of Most Christian should be 
publicly received into the bosom of Holy Church. 
At five o'clock on the evening of Wednesday, 
April 22nd, the court assembled in the great saloon 

1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 559 

of the old palace. Mazarin, Chavigny, the Bishops 
of Beauvais and Meaux, and other eminent and 
favoured persons were present. Queen Anne 
entered the presence chamber leading her son by 
the hand, who wore a robe or overcoat of cloth of 
silver. 17 The procession then formed for the chapel 
thus the young Dauphin walked, preceded by 
gentlemen of the chamber and followed by his 
gouvernante Madame de Lansac ; the Queen 
came next, attended by [the Princess de Conde, 
the Countess de Soissons and by the young 
and lovely bride Anne Genevieve de Bourbon, 
Duchess de Longueville. Mazarin followed, 
marching alone, as the representative of his Holi- 
ness Urban VIII., godfather to the Dauphin. 
Most chroniclers however erroneously assert that 
the Cardinal was himself the sponsor, and that 
Louis, to secure his loyal devotion to the future 
child-King by a stroke of policy, had so honoured 
him. On approaching the altar Anne was received 
by Seguier Bishop of Meaux, and by six other 
mitred prelates. The Queen knelt at her prie-dieu 
and the little Dauphin fell on his knees on the 
same cushion. The Bishop of Meaux, at the con- 
clusion of the anthem which was " a motett of 
ravishing harmony ' approached her Majesty. 
Anne rose and presented her son. Madame de 
Lansac then lifted the little Dauphin on to the 
desk of the Queen's prie-dieu, upon which a rich 
cushion had been placed. The Cardinal de Mazarin 
then took his place at the right of the child, and 
Madame de Conde as godmother on the left, the 


Queen holding her Dauphin from behind by his 
robe to prevent him from falling. " M. le Dauphin 
looked as beautiful and as innocent as an angel, 
kneeling with folded hands, holding his eyes wide 
open but showing a bashfulness and modesty sur- 
prising for a child of his tender years." Madame 
de Conde, on being asked by the officiating prelate 
the appellation of Monseigneur, named him Louis. 
At the ceremony of the anointing, the Queen 
opened the vest of the Dauphin, and declined the 
services of Madame de Lansac. When Seguier 
asked, " Ludovici abrenuncias Sathance, pompis 
et operibus suis ? " the child answered without 
being prompted by his mother, " Abrenuncio" 
To the three interrogatories respecting his faith 
in the Divine revelation and mysteries, he replied, 
" Credo." The ceremony concluded by the choir 
intoning " Regina Coeli " ; the procession then 
formed and returned to the palace. 18 Dubois says, 
" M. le Dauphin was christened in the old chapel 
of the palace at St. Germain ; all passed in the 
presence of the Queen without much pomp, on 
account of the illness of the King. I had a great 
desire to see this ceremony, and on my return to 
the King's chamber his Majesty asked me what 
had passed, and I had the honour of relating to 
him all I had seen. The Queen, M. le Cardinal, and 
the court arrived soon afterwards and entertained 
the King with an account of the good behaviour of 
M. le Dauphin." Dubois then adds a note at the 
foot of his page, denying a story current in his 
day, to wit, " that M. le Dauphin being near the 

1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 561 

bed of the King, his Majesty asked him his name. 
6 Louis XIV.,' promptly replied the young Prince, 
to which the King is said to have replied, ' Pas 
encore, mons fils, pas encore! ' " 

On the 24th a great panic convulsed the court : 
the unhappy King was reported to be sinking fast. 
Dubois again chronicles the events of that exciting 
day. " Everybody looked in despair : M. de 
Souvre commanded me to send and tell the 
Queen that she must come immediately, and bring 
her children to receive the dying benediction of 
the King. He afterwards ordered me to be in 
waiting to receive her Majesty, and to ask her to 
enter the King's chamber by the small closet. 
The day was bitterly cold and boisterous. The 
Queen arrived ; I addressed myself to Madame de 
la Flotte and gave her the message from M. de 
Souvre. She was about to repeat my words to the 
Queen, when her Majesty interposed, saying, * I 
heard ! ' The crowd round the portal of the palace 
was prodigious and the confusion great. A lord 
present therefore took M. le Dauphin, and another 
M. d'Anjou, and went through the crowd, leaving 
the Queen alone in her coach with Madame de la 
Flotte. Her Majesty called out, 'Is there no per- 
sonage present to help me ? Am I to be left 
thus ? ' Hearing her Majesty call and not daring 
to offer my own services, I plunged amongst the 
courtiers, and finding M. le Due d'Uzes, one of 
the gentlemen of the Queen's household, brought 
him to the coach, who handed her Majesty into 
the palace. The Queen went straight to the King's 



bed, and throwing herself on her knees by the 
pillow weeping, talked to the King for some time 
in private, every one observing that the manner 
of his Majesty seemed affectionate. Madame la 
Duchesse de Vendome, meantime, had got M. 
d'Anjou in her arms, who was crying desperately 
because his nurse had been left behind. The 
Duchess called me, and asked me to pacify the 
young Prince as well as I could. I carried him 
therefore into the King's closet, and making him 
sit on the table, I told him that the King had a 
little gold horse and that he meant to give it to 
Monseigneur le Dauphin, and another to himself 
if he behaved better than his brother. By this 
stratagem he ceased to cry, and I took him to 
Madame de Folaine, his nurse, who had been lost 
outside in the throng." Louis presently gave his 
benediction to his kneeling wife and children. The 
room was then immediately cleared, as the King 
was exhausted by the tumult and for want of air. 
"Ah, Messieurs, donnez moi la vie" gasped the 
poor King, making signs for the eager crowd to 
retreat from the chamber and pointing to the 
closely shut windows. The end however was not 
yet ; the King rallied again, if such words can be 
applied to the lethargic stupor into which he sank. 
On the 8th of May Queen Anne left the old 
chateau of St. Germain to occupy a room separated 
only by a small octagon chamber from the King's 
apartment. The public conduct of Anne of Austria 
at this crisis of her life had been blameless ; no 
devoted wife could have been more punctual in 

1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 563 

her visits to the sick chamber, and it was known 
that she held herself ready at any hour of the day 
or night to flit between the two chateaux, if her 
presence should be deemed desirable or neces- 
sary. Anne never left the palace but to visit the 
King ; she granted audiences only to Mazarin and 
Chavigny and the Bishop of Beauvais ; she held 
no communication with her exiled friends not 
even with Madame de Hautefort. The latter, 
anxious to be with the Queen on the very day of 
her proclamation as Regent, had without any 
communication with Anne ventured up in dis- 
guise to Paris accompanied by her Majesty's 
devoted servant, La Porte. Madame de Haute- 
fort expected on her arrival in the capital to be 
greeted with the welcome news of the death of the 
King, instead of which she found the Parisians 
speculating on the recovery of their liege, as a 
more favourable bulletin from St. Germain had 
been that morning posted on the gateway of the 
Louvre. The pair had travelled to Paris exulting 
in their future favour when Anne found herself 
omnipotent, for how could her Majesty, they 
argued, testify in too marked a manner her grati- 
tude for and appreciation of past services such as 
their own ? The duo found lodgings with con- 
siderable difficulty in a furnished house near the 
Hotel de Conde, but fearing that their incognito 
might be betrayed they crept out of Paris at early 
dawn on the following morning and retraced their 
steps towards Blois. 19 The self-command of the 
Queen was admirable, not a word betrayed her 


sentiments respecting the future government of 
the realm ; not a murmur her appreciation of the 
severity with which her power as Regent was 
limited. To the Due de Beaufort only she testified 
some confidence by giving him a private command 
never to leave the young Dauphin, but vigilantly 
to watch the deportment of Madame de Lansac, 
whom the Queen never seems to have taken into 

From the time of her removal to the Chateau 
Neuf, Anne shared the vigils of the King's atten- 
dants, sitting for hours in the ruelle of the bed, a 
book of Hours in her hand, watching the change- 
ful expression of the sufferer's features or listen- 
ing with bated breath to his delirious wanderings. 
M. de Souvre, the Bishop of Meaux, and Dubois 
were constantly in the chamber, as was also Dinet, 
the King's confessor. One evening Louis suddenly 
woke with a start, and said to Conde who was 
bending over the pillow, " Ha ! M. le Prince, I 
have been dreaming that your son d'Enghien had 
come to blows with our enemies, and that after a 
very hard-fought and obstinate battle, we gained 
the victory and drove our foes from the battle- 
field." This declaration was afterwards considered 
as a prediction made by the King of the great 
battle of Nordlinghen, so gloriously won at the 
very hour of Louis's waking, by d'Enghien on the 
plain upon which France and her heretic allies 
had been beaten in 1634 by the united armies of 
Spain and the Empire. 

On Ascension Day, May 14th, 1643, Louis XIII. 

1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 565 

expired. He had endured his long and weary 
sufferings with touching resignation, and died at 
length a death of painless exhaustion. His con- 
fessor Dinet soothed his last moments, aided by 
the Bishops of Meaux and de Lisieux. There were 
present in the death chamber the Queen, the Due 
d' Orleans, the secretary of state de Chavigny, the 
Marquis de Souvre, Conde, the Chancellor Seguier, 
Madame de Brassac, the Dues de Liancour and de 
Beaufort, and the Bishops of Meaux and Lisieux, 
the royal almoners, and all the ecclesiastical mem- 
bers of the royal household. In an adjoining 
chamber were many principal courtiers, prin- 
cesses and ladies, and the First President of the 
Parliament of Paris. All persons present wept and 
prayed, while the Bishop of Meaux read the solemn 
prayers of the Church for a soul departing. Sud- 
denly the King opened his eyes and said in a quick 
and anxious voice, " Dinet ! thoughts arise which 
trouble me ! " " Sire, resist them. Fight under 
the glorious banner of the Redeemer ! struggle 
for victory ! You are now in the thickest of the 
conflict, we will all aid you with our prayers ! " 
The King spoke no more : Dubois supported his 
head, while he gently sank and expired at a quarter 
to three o'clock in the afternoon, May 14th, 1643. 

The Duke of Orleans and the Prince de Conde 
then approached to lead the Queen from the 
death-chamber. She arose from her knees weep- 
ing, and sunered the Princes to conduct her back 
to her apartment. 

Anne of Austria was a Widow, 



1 " Le roi fit hier assez mauvaise chere a la reine. II est toujours fort 
anime centre elle, et en parle a tous moments." Archives des Affaires 
fitrangeres, France, t. 102. Cousin, Vie de Madame Chevreuse. 

2 Bassompierre did not long survive his liberation. He died suddenly, 
in the night of October 12th, 1646, at Provins, and was found dead in 
his bed. 

3 The Count de Cramail had been imprisoned for his correspondence 
with Madame du Fargis. 

4 Mem. de Mademoiselle, t. 1. 

5 De Reaux, t. 3, p. 80. 

6 Declaration du Roi verifiee en Parlement, le 21 Avril, 1643. 
Registres du Parlement de Paris. 

7 Declaration du Roi, &c. Registres du Parlement de Paris. 

8 Louis XIII. commonly alluded to Madame de Chevreuse as " Le 

9 Anne, however, showed outward discontent at the " officious pro- 
ceedings of M. de Mazarin," and said, " Que tout son ennemi que fut 
Richelieu, il n'aurait pas pu lui faire plus de mal que M. de Mazarin, 
qu'elle accusait d'avoir determine le roi a ces mesures." Her Majesty 
feigned to applaud the conduct of M. de Noyers, who finding that his 
presence at court would no longer be tolerated by Chavigny and 
Mazarin, retired to his country house, under pretext of displeasure at 
the " Act to restrain the powers of the future Queen -Regent." 

10 Tallemant, t. 3. Griffet, Regne de Louis XIII. 

11 Another day, calling his faithful Du Pontis to the side of his 
chair, Louis raised his sleeve and showed his arm, exclaiming, " Tiens 
Pontis, regarde ce bras. Voila quels sont les bras du roi de France." 
" Je vis en effet," relates Pontis, " mais avec un angoisso, et un serre- 
ment de cceur que je ne puis exprimer, que c'etait comme un squelette, 
qui avait la peau collee sur les os, et qui etait tout couvert de grandes 
taches blanches." Mem. du Sieur du Pontis. 

12 The party of the Queen bore the sobriquet of " Importants." M. de 
Beaufort was recognised as their chief. 

13 Memoire Fidel e des choses qui se sont passees a la mort de Louis XIII., 
Roy de France et de Navarre. Fait par Dubois, 1'un des valets de 
chambre de sa Majeste, le 14 Mai, 1643. Curiosites Historiques, 
Amsterdam, 1759, in 8vo. Also Archives Curieuses, t. 5. 

14 Leti states (Teatro Gallico), without citing any authority, that the 
words of the King were, " In nome del Signore cara moglie, e cara 
fratello, siate ben unite insieme nel governo del Regno e del Delfino 
mio successore, come del mio fanciulletto, il principe Filippo." 

15 Mem. de Dubois des choses qui se sont passees a la mort de Louis XIII. 
Curiosites Historiques. 

1643] ANNE OF AUSTRIA 567 

18 Mem. du Due de la Rochefoucault, Petitot vol. 51. The Duke was 
always a devoted adherent of the Queen. 

17 Queen Anne wore a superb robe of blue velvet, embossed with golden 
fleurs-de-lis. On her head was a diamond tiara, with a long veil of 
silver tissue attached. 

18 Godefroy : Grand Cerem. de France, Bapteme de Monseigneur le 
Dauphin, a present Louis XIV., t. 2. 

19 Mem. de La Porte. Petitot, t. 59, p. 394 et seq. 


AIGUILLON, Duchess d'; tee Com- 

Aligre, Chancellor d', 104, 106-7 

Altamira, Countess of, 4, 6 

Ancre, Marquis d', 3, 4, 8, 21, 27, 29- 

33, 35, 41, 43 
Marquise d', 35, 42 

Angouleme, Due d', 417-8 

Anjou, Philip, Due d', 478, 561-2 

Anne of Austria, her parentage, 1 ; 
birth and early years, 4-5 ; be- 
trothal, 5-6 ; marriage, 1-2, 12- 
20 ; personal appearance, 18 ; first 
meddles in politics, 22-3 ; home- 
sick, 24 ; adopts French fashions, 
25 ; flightiness, 26 ; is deprived of 
her Spanish attendants, 46 ; falls ill, 
47; jealous of; the Duchess de 
Luynes, 50-2 ; has a fausse-couehe, 
55-6 ; early dissensions with Marie 
de' Medici, 59-61 ; coquets with 
the Duke of Orleans, 61-2 ; courted 
by Richelieu, 66-71 ; her relations 
with Buckingham, 69, 72, 74-90, 
145-6, 154-8, 166; in disgrace, 
95-6 ; plots against Richelieu, 
100-4, 111-2; falls into still 
deeper disgrace, 115-6, 121-3; 
arraigned before the Privy Council, 
125-7 ; her punishment, 135-8 ; 
intrigues against France, 152-3, 
159-64, 170-1 ; founds a convent, 
170-3 ; first meeting with Mazarin, 
180-1 ; utters threats against 
Richelieu, 213-5 ; refuses to go to 
the play with Louis, 216 ; restric- 
tions on her liberty, 217 ; Madame 
de Fargis removed from her service, 
217-20 ; stormy interview with 
Richelieu, 220-1 ; imparts State 
secrets to foreign envoys, 223-4, 
288 ; her parting interview with 
Marie de' Medici, 223-7 ; Marie de 
Hautefort appointed her maid of 
honour, 237 ; betrayed by heo 
friends, 251-2 ; rejects overtures 
from Richelieu, 263-i ; frigid rela- 
tions with Louis, 264-5 ; her privy 
purse, 265 ; popularity with the 

Parisians, 265 ; her power of in- 
spiring affection, 267, 275-6; her 
untruthfulness, 276-7 ; her efforts 
to save the life of Montmorency, 
281-4 ; forbidden to correspond 
with Madame de Chevreuse, 300 ; 
her mode of clandestine correspon- 
dence, 300-1 ; hostility towards 
Louise de la Fayette, 313, 315, 
324-5 ; correspondence with her 
brother Ferdinand, 338, 345 ; re- 
joices at Spanish victories over 
France, 344-5 ; foils Richelieu's 
efforts for peace with Spain, 349- 
51, 354-6 ; her secret messenger 
arrested, 357-62 ; contemplates 
flight to Brussels, 363 ; swears her 
innocence on the altar, 364-5 ; con- 
fesses her guilt to Richelieu, 367- 
72 ; signs a written confession, 
373-5 ; fruitless search for her 
private papers, 377-80 ; makes 
further- admissions to Richelieu, 
280-4 ; examined before the Chan- 
cellor, 386-7 ; communicates with 
La Porte in the Bastille, 387-94 ; 
the King's confessor advocates her 
cause, 419 ; obtains a relic to cure 
barrenness, 423-5 ; reconciled with 
Louis, 429-30 ; Madame de Chev- 
reuse requests her to repay a loan, 
431-2 ; public rejoicings on the 
announcement of her pregnancy, 
436-8 ; governess appointed for 
the expected heir, 438-41 ; birth 
of Louis XIV., 444-7; rapid re- 
covery from confinement, 451-2 ; 
rumours as to the paternity of her 
son, 453-6 ; Louis dismisses heu 
chief ladies, 456-9; becomes 
friendly with Richelieu, 459, 479 ; 
coldness towards Madame de Chev- 
reuse, 474-5, 506-8 ; lives in seclu- 
sion, 477 ; birth of her second son, 
478 ; declines to join a conspiracy 
against Richelieu, 493-4, 497; 
informs on the conspirators, 497-9, 
503-8 ; nominated Regent, 542-9, 



Asturias, Philip, Prince of the, 1, 5 
Aubasine, Abbe d', 117, 125 
Audilly, d', a Chamberlain of the 

Duke of Orleans, 118-9 
Auger, of the English Embassy, 352, 

364, 368, 373, 381, 397 

BACHELIER, Jerome, 350-1, 368 
Barbin, Steward of the Queen's 

household, 42-2 
Bassompierre, Marshal de, 28, 31, 48, 

53-4, 56, 154-6, 174, 181, 182, 185- 

6, 188-9, 201, 240, 539-40 
Beaufort, Due de, 564 
Bellegarde, Due de, 10, 52, 61, 125, 

131, 250, 282, 476, 490, 540 
Bellievre, Huguenot leader, 29 
Bentivoglio (Papal Nuncio), 51 
Berulle, Cardinal de, 148 
Binet, Provincial of Jesuits, 422 
Biron, Marshal de, 104, 294, 296, 298 
Boccan, 70 
Bois d'Annemets, de, 98, 108, 117, 

125, 130 
Boispille, Steward to de Chevreuse, 

412, 431, 433, 474 
Boissiere, Madame de la, 86 
Boiszenval, Valet de Chambre to the 

King, 315-6 

Bordeaux, 11-12, 17, 19-21 
Bouillon, Due de, 3, 27-9, 487, 490-2, 

497, 502, 512, 515-7 
Duchess de, 190, 215 
Boutillier, Under-Secretary of State, 

212-3, 546 

Bouvard, Physician to the King, 555 
Brassac, Comtesse de, 458-9 
Breves, de, Governor of Gaston, Duke 

of Orleans, 97 
Breze, Claire de Maille, 277-8, 479-80 

Marshal de, 281-2 
Brienne, Comte de, Memoires, 70-1 
Briseac, Marshal de, 11, 16 
Brulart, the Diplomatist, 333-4 
Buckingham, Duke of, 69, 72, 74-87, 
145, 150, 152, 154-9, 165-6, 

Duchess of, 85 
Burgos, 12-16 

CANDALE, Comte de, 120 

Carlisle, Earl of, 71 

Carre, Pere, 310-1, 314, 319-22 

Casale, Siege of, 167-8, 174, 179, 192, 

197, 334 

Castro, Pedro de, 15 
Catherine de' Medici, 16, 48 

Caussin, Pere, 311-4, 317-8, 322-4 

327-9, 356-7, 416-22 
Chalais, Prince de, 98, 101, 106, 108- 

12, 114-8, 120-1, 124-31, 133, 136-9 
Chanteloube, Pere, 250, 314 
Chapelle, Sieur de la, 9 
Charles I., King of England, 71, 73, 

145-6, 150, 156, 164, 229, 436 
IX., King of France, 16 
Charost, Captain of the Guard, 500-2 
Chateauneuf, Lord Keeper, 162, 200- 

2, 218, 220, 235, 253, 281, 289-300, 

Chaulnes, Due de, 53, 79, 80-1, 85, 215 
Chavigny, 344, 346-8, 398, 419, 441- 

3, 454, 456-7, 496, 499-501, 504-7, 
524-6, 530, 538-9, 541-3, 546, 558 

Chemerault, Mile, de, 315, 360-1, 364, 
460, 462-3, 465-8, 540 

Chevreuse, Duchess de, 43-7, 50-2, 
54-6, 60, 68-74, 76-8, 81, 85, 88, 
90, 100-1, 103, 108, 112, 117, 121- 
2, 124-5, 127-31, 133-7, 144-5, 
148-51, 155, 159-62, 167, 178, 201- 
2, 218-9, 263, 266, 270-2, 289-99, 
301-3, 352-3, 369, 381-7, 405-15, 
430-6, 472-5, 498, 506-7, 540, 550 

Chicot, Physician to the King, 527-8, 

Christina, Queen of Sweden, 307 

Christine, Princess of Piedmont, 42, 
50, 74 

Cinq-Mars, Marquis de, 311, 460-3, 
465-6, 475-8, 481-96, 499-505, 510- 
14, 556 

Coigneux, de, President, 98, 122, 130- 

Combalet, Madame de, Duchess 
d'Aiguillon, 63, 123, 174, 177, 189, 
191-2, 194, 196-8, 215, 217, 222, 
340, 361, 438, 479, 518, 526-8, 

Concini, see Ancre, Marquis d' 

Conde, Prince de, 3, 22, 27-9, 57, 63, 
65, 99, 120, 134, 426, 504, 542- 
3, 546, 549, 556, 564 
Princess de, 55, 57, 276-8, 281, 

Conty, Princess de, 84, 178, 182, 192, 
197, 240 

Cordova, Margarita de, 15 
Don Gonzales de, 179 

Corsini, Papal Nuncio, 63 

Cotton, Pere, 10 

Courtenvault, de, Attendant on Louis 
XIII., 9 

Cousin, Victor, 290, 386, 447, 505 



Cramail, Comte de, 252, 540 
Crequi, Marshal de, 240, 252, 338, 

Croft, Sir Herbert, 223-4, 251, 275, 

408, 415 

DANSE, Michel, 173, 215 
Denbigh, Countess of, 85 

Earl of, 75 

Dinet, Pere, 542, 564-5 
Dorat, Abbe, 433-5 
Duhallier, of the King's Archers, 34 
Duplessis-Mornay, Huguenot leader, 
3-4, 29, 149 

EBOLY, Prince of, 1 
Elbceuf, Duke of, 120, 490 
Elizabeth, Princess of the Asturias, 1, 

6-7, 17-19 

Enghien, Duke of, 277, 479-80, 564 
Epernon, Duke of, 4, 117-8, 137, 240, 

247, 281-2 
Estrees, Marshal d', 233, 235 

FARGIS, Madame de, 146-8, 160-1, 
169, 171, 178, 183^, 202, 204, 
210, 213-4, 216-21, 223, 237, 
251-3, 263, 273, 472, 540 
Monsieur de, 147 
Felton, John, 165-6 
Ferdinand II., King of Spain, 161 
Ferdinand, Infant, 338-9, 343, 345 
Fiacre, Pere, 424-5 
Filandre, Mdlle. de, Queen's Tire- 
woman, 315, 414, 444-5 
Fleurance, Preceptor to the King, 10 
Flotte, Madame de la, 148, 191-2, 
237, 270, 315, 384, 438, 440, 443, 
459-60, 463, 540, 561 
Fontrailles, de, conspirator, 490-1, 

497, 498-500, 506 
Force, Marshal de la, 53, 341-2 

GERBIER, Steward to the Duke of 
Buckingham, 75, 145, 368 

Gesvres, Comte de, 464-5 

Gonzague, Marie de, 154-5, 161, 176, 
477, 484-5, 496, 520 

Grammont, Duke of, 17 

Gregory XV., Pope, 64 

Grotius, Swedish Ambassador, 363, 

Guemene, Madame de, 511 

Guise, Duchess of, 78, 133, 182 

Duke of, 5, 11, 17, 18, 20, 27, 99, 
182, 540 

Guitaut, Captain of the Guard, 429 

Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, 
193, 314, 333-4, 336-7 

HALLIER, du, Captain of the Body- 
guard, 110, 116 

Halluin, Duchess de, 132 

Hamilton, Marchioness of, 85 
Marquis of, 75 

Hautefort, Marie de, 148, 181, 191-2, 
231, 237-9, 267-76, 303-5, 313-28, 
359-61, 363-4, 387-91, 405, 424-6, 
429, 438-43, 446-8, 459-60, 462-8, 
475, 540, 563 

Hauterive, Marquis d', 300 

Henri IV., King of France, 1, 2-3, 

Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I. 
of England, 42, 71-2, 74, 79-81, 
83-5, 87, 145-6, 154, 166, 229, 292, 
298, 354-5, 378, 431, 436, 510 

Herouard, Jean, 8-11, 30 

Holland, Earl of, 294 

Huguenots, 3-4, 11, 21-2, 27, 29, 53, 
65, 72, 94, 109, 149-52, 156, 161, 
167, 174-5, 224, 335, 437, 458 

INFANTADO, Duke of, 16 
Isabel, Queen of Philip IV. of Spain, 

JAMES I., King of England, 69, 72 
Jars, Chevalier du, 88, 278, 294, 299- 

300, 388-92, 394-5 
Joinville, Prince de, 17 
Joseph, Pere ; see Tremblay 

LAFAYETTE, Louise de la, 271, 304-10, 

312-28, 356-7, 417-8, 422-3, 428-9 
Lainez, Marquis de, 108, 113-4 
Lansac, Madame de, 439-iO, 443, 

448, 451, 462, 478, 494, 504, 559, 

La Porte, Equerry to theQueen, 82-3, 

85-9, 161-4, 173, 352, 357-64, 374- 

5, 384-99, 415-6, 563 
Launay, Madame de, 86-7 
Le Gras, Private Secretary to the 

Queen, 365-6, 373, 380, 505 
Lerma, Duke of, 4, 12, 13 
Lescot, Confessor to the Duke de 

Richelieu, 525-6, 528 
Lesdiguieres, Duchess of, 178, 182 

Duke of, 29, 62, 79, 149 
Lindsay, Earl of, 166-7 
Loches, 48-9 

Longueville, Duchess of, 22, 28, 277 
Lorme, Marion de, 477-8 



Lorraine, Duke of, 151-2, 164, 229, 
278-9, 342, 343, 349, 358, 374, 
381, 473-4 

Marguerite of, 178, 278, 280, 293, 
339, 348-9, 444, 521 

Loudun, Treaty of, 2 

Louis XIII., early years, 7-11 ; mar- 
riage, 11-20 ; first conjugal 
dissensions, 22-6 ; seized with 
epilepsy, 29-30 ; instigates the 
assassination of Concini, 31-4 ; 
banishes his mother from 
Paris, 39-42 ; his recreations, 
47-8, 58, 176, 272-3, 541 ; 
becomes reconciled to his 
mother, 49-50 ; first dawnings 
of jealousy, 51-2, 61-2; his 
anger against Luynes, 53-5 ; 
intrigues against Richelieu, 
63-4 ; jealous of Buckingham, 
84, 87-8 ; threatens a divorce, 
89; weak health, 97, 99; 
dissensions with his brother, 
102-7; plot against his life, 
114-30, 133-9; enters La 
Rochelle, 167 ; commands a 
military expedition to Italy, 
168 ; heads a campaign against 
the Huguenots, 174-5 ; heads 
an expedition against the 
Spanish, 179-81 ; dangerous 
illness, 181-2, 184-9; rapid 
recovery, 190 ; his aversion to 
State business, 194-5 ; be- 
comes reconciled to Richelieu, 
195-202 ; censures the Spanish 
Ambassador, 211-2, 242-3 ; 
requests his mother to leave 
Paris, 227; his relations with 
Marie de Hautefort, 237-9, 
267-70, 272-5, 302-4, 424, 426, 
438-9, 441-3, 447, 460-8, 475 ; 
forbearance towards his mother 
241-5 ; anger at her flight, 
249-50 ; his bashfulness, 268- 
9 ; his remorse for the death of 
Montmorency, 285, 290, 400, 
538 ; his relations with Louise 
de la Fayette, 304-29, 356, 
416-7, 422, 428-9; pays his 
brother's debts, 339-40 ; his 
love of solitude, 341 ; hears 
convincing proof of Anne'a 
treason, 373, 375; pardons 
her, 375-6 ; dictates terms to 
her, 413-15 ; dismisses her 
confessor, 416-22 ; declaims 

against his family, 422 ; recon- 
ciliation with Anne, 429-30 ; 
letter to Urban VIII. on the 
birth of the Dauphin, 453; 
dismisses the Queen's chief 
ladies, 456-9 ; relations with 
Cinq-Mars, 460-3, 475-8, 480- 
6, 488-9, 510-12 ; dislikes his 
eldest son, 495 ; has Cinq- 
Mars arrested, 499-502 ; com- 
pelled by Richelieu to dismiss 
Troisville, 522-5 ; failing 
health, 538-9; releases a 
number of prisoners, 539-40 ; 
nominates Anne as Regent, 
542-9 ; last days, 554-8, *561 ; 
death, 564-5 S 

XIV., 446-7, 448-9, 451-5, 494- 

5, 520, 539, 558-62 
Louvigny, Comte de, 98, 106, 108, 

120, 124-6, 128, 139 
Lude, Comte de, 97-8 
Luxembourg, Due de, 53, 79 
Luynes family, see aZso Luxembourg 

and Chaulnes, 8, 31-2 
Due de, 13-5, 21-3, 25, 28-30, 
31-3, 35-6, 38-9, 43-6, 50, 
52-5, 57, 63, 97 

Duchess de, ajterwarfo de Chev- 
reuse ; see Chevreuse 

MADEMOISELLE, La Grande, 272-3, 
277-8, 386, 400-1, 479-80, 544 

Malherbe, Fra^ois, 186-7 

Mantua, 151, 167, 179, 334 

Maqueda, Duke of, 16 

Marcheville, de, Attendant on Gaston 
of Orleans, 98, 117-9 

Marguerite, Infanta, 102 / 

Marie de' Medici becomes Regent, 3 ; 
her injudicious training of Louis, 
7-8 ; her first meeting with Anne, 
19-20 ; signs the Treaty of Loudun, 
21 ; her policy opposed by Anne, 
22-3 ; retires to the Luxembourg, 
24 ; her undue influence oves 
Louis, 25 ; her power begins to 
decline, 26-9 ; tries to exile Luynes, 
33 ; imprisoned in her apartments, 
35, 39 ; banished to Blois, 40-2 ; 
flies to Loches, 48-9 ; reconciled to 
Louis, 50 ; regains power, 57 ; 
dissensions with Anne, 59-60 ; 
promotes the advancement of 
Richelieu, 63-4 ; sanctions the 
marriage of Henrietta to Charles 
I., 72 ; accompanies Henrietta to 



Amiens, 79-80, 83-4; pleads the 
cause of Anne with Louis, 88 ; 
intrigues to overthrow Richelieu, 
100 ; temporarily reconciled to 
Richelieu, 104; present at the 
arraignment of Anne, 126-7 ; ac- 
cused of complicity, 129-30, 135; 
at the marriage of Gaston d' Or- 
leans, 132-3; presents Mile, de 
Hautefort to Louis, 148 ; opposes 
the re-marriage of Gaston, 154-5, 
218-9 ; represents the King in his 
absence, 170, 174 ; at feud with 
Richelieu, 176-8 ; becomes recon- 
ciled to Anne, 178 ; seeks to over- 
throw Richelieu, 181-6, 192-208; 
again attempts to dislodge Riche- 
lieu, 222-3 ; her mandate dis- 
honoured by the Treasury, 224 ; 
supplies funds for seditious risings, 
225 ; her intrigues discovered by 
Louis, 226-7 ; Richelieu proposes 
to arrest her, 228-30 ; her conduct 
reprobated by Charles I., 230-1 ; 
Richelieu begs her forgiveness, 232 ; 
she is arrested, 233-7 ; detained at 
Compiegne, 240-2, 245-8 ; escapes 
to Mons, 248-50 ; rising on her 
behalf, 278-80 ; retires to Spa, 338- 
9 ; corresponds with the King's 
confessor, 417 ; appeals to Louis 
for pardon, 417 ; death, 508-10 

Mayenne, Due de, 2, 5, 6, 27, 29 

Mazarin, Cardinal, 180-1, 498-500, 
516-7, 521-2, 524, 526-7, 538-9, 
541, 543, 545, 551-5, 559-60 

Milly, Luisa de, 171-3, 212, 251, 370- 
1, 377-80, 382, 415 

Mirabel, Marquis de, 90, 100, 119, 
168-70, 183, 203, 212-6, 218, 220, 
223, 242-3, 264, 288, 368, 381, 

Montagu, Walter, 155, 159-64, 217, 
275, 294, 381-2 

Montague, Lord, 145-6 

Montauban, 53-4, 175 

Montbazon, Due de, 43-4, 50, 385, 
432-3, 442 

Monteleone, Marquis of, 16> 24-6, 32, 

Montglat, de, Attendant on Louis 
XIII., 9 

Montmorency, Duchess de, 46-7, 56-7 
Due de, 3, 52, 61, 278-87, 556 

Montpensier, Marie de, aftenvardt 
Duchess of Orleans ; see Orleans 

Moret, Comte de, 247, 250 

Motteville, Madame de, M6moirea t 67, 
76-8, 83-4, 86-7, 171-2, 234-5, 237, 
274-5, 308-9, 386-7, 447, 495, 538 

NAVAS, Spanish charge d'affaires, 288 
Nevers, Duo de, 3, 151, 167, 192 

Duchess de, 11, 17-18 
Nogent, de, Gentleman of the Cham- 
ber to the Queen, 203-4 
Noirmoutier, Marquis de, 468 
Noyers, de, Under-Secretary to the 
King, 176, 312-3, 326, 382-3, 421, 
423, 500-1, 504, 521, 524-5, 530, 

OLIVABEZ, Count of, 16, 152, 349-50, 

Orange, Prince of, 515-6 

Orleans, Gaston, Duke of, 29, 31, 41, 
57-9, 66, 84, 96-109, 111-2, 
115-24, 127-39, 158, 162, 174, 
176, 202-5, 218-20, 222, 224-5. 
243, 246, 250, 278-85, 287, 
337, 339-40, 347-8, 486, 488, 
490-3, 496-7, 502, 506, 520-1, 
539, 544, 545-6, 549-53, 565 
Marie de Montpensier, Duchess 
of, 61-2, 98-9, 101, 103, 119, 
121, 130, 153-4 

Ornano, Marshal d', 97-8, 101-7, 121, 
131, 240 

Osorio, Luisa de, 15 

PASTBANA, Duke of, 1, 6-7 
Patrocle, Valet de Chambre to the 

Queen of Spain, 395, 398 
Perrans, of the King's Archers, 34 
Philip II. of Spain, 1 

III. of Spain, 1, 4-6, 12-3 

IV. of Spain, 115, 150, 152, 276, 
345, 350-1, 490-1, 493, 497 

Piedmont, Prince of, 50 
Polignac, Mile, de, 317, 459 
Putange, de, Equerry in Waiting to 

the Queen, 81-3, 88 
Puylaurens, de, 98, 105, 108, 125, 130 

RE, He de, 150, 152, 157-8 

Retz, Cardinal de, 48, 62 

Ribera, Physician to the Queen, 88 

Ribeyra, Francisco de, 15 

Richlieu, Cardinal Due de, in the 
service of Marie de' Medici, 34, 
40, 42 ; his merits recognised 
by Luynes, 55 ; admitted to the 
Privy Council, 63 ; created Car- 
dinal, 64 ; commencement of his 



rule, 64-6 ; courts Anne, 66-8 ; 
becomes suspicious of Buckingham, 
78 ; his system of espionage, 84, 
170, 191, 214-6, 263, 310-1, 314-6, 
352, 440, 472 ; wrests .concessions 
from the Huguenots, 94 ; Marie de' 
Medici seeks to overthrow him, 
100, 176-8, 181-5; has Marshal 
d'Ornano arrested, 104-6 ; offers to 
resign, 107 ; plot to assassinate 
him, 108, 111 ; his successful 
counterplot, 112-30, 133-9 ; his 
measures against the Huguenots, 
149-50 ; conducts the siege of La 
Rochelle, 164-7 ; at loggerheads 
with the Spanish Ambassador, 168- 
9 ; public prayers for his downfall, 
173 ; presents Mazarin to Anne, 
180-1 ; the King promises to dis- 
miss him, 185-9 ; prepared for 
flight, 190 ; regains the royal 
favour, 190-202 ; prohibits private 
interviews between Anne and the 
Spanish Ambassador, 211-4 ; seizes 
seditious letters addressed to Anne, 
218-9 ; twits her on their contents, 
220-1 ; insulted by Gaston d'Or- 
leans, 224-6 ; avenges himself on 
Bassompierre, 240 ; connives at 
the escape of Marie de' Medici, 246- 
9 ; outlaws the followers of Gaston, 
250-1 ; has Marillac beheaded, 
253-4 ; feigns dismay at Marie's 
escape, 254-6 ; dictates his con- 
ditions to Louis, 256-8 ; his admi- 
ration for Madame de Chevreuse, 
266 ; braved by Marie de Haute- 
fort, 267 ; marries his niece to the 
Due d'Enghien, 277, 479-80 ; has 
the first doll's house ever seen in 
France constructed, 278 ; fooled by 
Madame de Chevreuse, 290-9 ; has 
her arrested and banished, 299, 
302-3 ; takes steps to remove 
Louise de la Fayette from Court, 
309-22; his relations with the 
King's confessors, 327-9 ; promotes 
an alliance with Sweden, 333-7; 
afraid to show himself in public, 
344 ; presents the Palais Royal to 
Louis, 346 ; discovers a plot on his 
life, 348 ; has Madame de Chev- 
reuse watched, 352-4 ; accuses 
Anne of treason before the Council, 
354-6 ; hears Anne confess her 
guilt, 367-72; extracts further 
admisaions from her, 380-4 ; con- 

fers privately with La Porte, 398- 
9 ; sends a bribe to Madame de 
Chevreuse, 406 ; is in danger of 
dismissal, 416-9 ; his anxiety for 
the birth of a Dauphin, 426-7 ; 
offers a conditional pardon to 
Madame de Chevreuse, 432-6 ; 
departs for the seat of war in Pi- 
cardy, 441 ; his letters on the birth 
of Louis XIV., 450-1 ; high in the 
graces of both King and Queen, 459 ; 
introduces Cinq-Mars to Louis, 461- 
2 ; his health languishes, 480 ; 
harassed by disputes between Louis 
and Cinq-Mars, 482 ; Cinq-Mars 
becomes his enemy, 484-6 ; fresh 
conspiracy to overthrow him, 486- 
9, 495-6 ; Anne discloses the plot 
to him, 497-9 ; his vengeance, 510- 
5 ; increasing pretentions, 520, 
522-3 ; Mazarin becomes his con- 
fidential adviser, 521-2 ; falls 
seriously ill, 525-9 ; death, 530 ; 
his will, 531-2 

Riviere, Abbe de la, 98, 502-3, 544 
Rochefort, Comte de, 113-4, 119, 126 
Rochefoucauld, Due de la, 363, 408, 


Rochelle, La, 149-52, 156-62, 164-7 
Rohan, Due de, 29, 150, 152, 174, 250 
Duchess de, 132 

Marie de, afterwards Duchess 
de Luynes, and subsequently 
de Chevreuse, see Chevreuse 
Rubens, Peter Paul, 59 

SABLE, Marquise de, 60-1, 78-9, 287 

St. Georges, Madame de, 145 

St. Gery, 108, 125 

St. Paul, Comtesse de, 146 

St. Simon, Ducde, 186-7, 195, 198-9, 

304, 315, 326 
St. Surin, 158 
Saumur, 120 
Savoy, Duke of, 151-2 
Scarron, Paul, 475 
Schomberg, Marshal de, 156, 158, 181, 

220, 248, 280 
Segueran, Pere, 88-9 
Seguier, Pierre de, 355, 371-2, 375-6, 

385-7, 395-8, 445, 511-3, 546 
Senece, Marquise de, 221, 231, 234- 

7, 264, 305, 318-9, 324, 375, 414, 

440, 446, 456-8, 475, 540 
Sessa, Duke of, 16, 18-9 
Sforza, Cardinal, 453 
Sillery, Chancellor de, 63 



Sirmond, Abbe, 500, 541-2 
Soissons, Comte de, 29, 99, 107-8, 112, 

119, 124, 134, 137, 178, 223, 344, 


Soubise, 155 

Souffran, Pere, 181, 185, 187-9, 228 
Sully, Maximilien de, 3, 4, 29 

TALLEMANT des Reaux, Historiettes, 

286, 298, 302, 303-4, 458-9, 504 
Termes, de, Attendant on Louis 

XIII., 9 

Themines, Marshal de, 27-8 
Thou, de, Frangois, 487, 490, 493, 

498-9, 502, 506, 510-4 
Toiras, de, Jean, 157-8 
Torres, Countess de las, 15, 18, 20, 

24-5, 46 

Tremblay, Joseph de, 63, 113, 122-3, 
125-6, 129-31, 165, 192, 195, 
246-7, 256, 287, 305, 333-4, 
344, 346, 349-50, 352-3, 371, 
436, 458, 521 

Governor of the Bastille, 389, 395 
Tresmes, Captain of the Guard, 494-5 
Troisville, de, Lieutenant of Mous- 

quetaires, 522-5, 529, 554 
Tuscany, Grand Duke of, 4 

URBAN VIII., Pope, 453, 559 

Uzeda, Duke of, 5, 16, 18-9 
Uzes, Due d', 561 

VAIB, Du, Keeper of the Seals, 29-30 
Val de Grace, 171-3, 212-7, 223, 300- 

1, 352, 356, 370-2, 378, 416 
Valencey, de, 109-11 
Valette, Cardinal de la, 215-7, 338, 

341 346 

Due de la, 98, 108, 118, 124, 490 
Valois, Elizabeth de, 16 
Vardes, Marquis de, 247-9 
Vaultier, Physican to the Queen, 173, 

203, 210, 253, 540 
Vendome, Due de, 27, 29-30, 98, 107- 

8, 112, 116, 121, 129, 134, 294, 

490, 540 
Philippe, Chevalier de, Grand 

Prior, 98, 107-8, 112, 116, 121, 


Vernet, Madame du, 81-2, 88 
Verneuil, Mile, de, 56 
Vieuville, Marquis de, 62-3 
Villarceaux, Madame de, 388-90 
Villequieras, Duchess of, 41 
Villeroy, Secretary of State, 4, 29 
Vitry, Marshal de, 32, 33-5, 540 
Voiture, Vincent, 504 
Vrilliere, de la, Secretary of State, 














1 I 

FORM NO. DD 19 BERKELEY, CA 94720 ^ 

YC 7404: